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Eng  " 'by  AH.Ritcfae . 

'  "i    i  ■■■»!  imm*.,  , 











ALBERT  G.  MACKEY,  M.D.,  33° 







EDWARD  L.  HAWKINS,  M.A.,  30° 







1873  AND  1878,  BY  MOSS  &  CO.  AND  A.  G.  MACKBV 

tovMED  EDITION,  WITH  ADD™,  CoPYBIOHT.  1884,  BY  Ii.  H.  EVBBTS  * 





Thb  Taow  Punas 


MACON  457 


M.  (Heb.,  IS,  Mem),  which  signifies  water 
in  motion,  having  for  its  hieroglyph  a  waving 
line,  referring  to  the  surface  of  the  water.  As 
a  numeral,  M  stands  for  1000.  In  Hebrew 
its  numerical  value  is  40.  The  sacred  name 
of  Deity,  applied  to  this  letter,  is  "p3», 
Meborach.  Benedictus. 

Maacha.  In  the  Tenth  Degree  of  the 
Scottish  Rite  we  are  informed  that  certain 
traitors  fled  to  "Maacha  king  of  Cheth,  by 
whom  they  were  delivered  up  to  King  Solomon 
on  his  sending  for  them.  In  1  Kings  ii.  39, 
we  find  it  recorded  that  two  of  the  servants  of 
Shimei  fled  from  Jerusalem  to  "  Achish,  son  of 
Maachah  king  of  Gath."  There  can  be  little 
doubt  that  the  carelessness  of  the  early  copy- 
ists of  the  ritual  led  to  the  double  error  of 
putting  Gheth  tat  Gath  md  of  supposing  that 
Maacha  was  its  king  instead  of  its  kings 
father.  The  manuscripts  of  the  Ancient  and 
Accepted  Scottish  Bite,  too  often  copied  by 
unlearned  persons,  show  many  such  corrup- 
tions of  Hebrew  names,  which  modern  re- 
searches must  eventually,  correct.  Delaunay, 
in  his  Thuileur,  makes  him  King  of  Tyre,  and 
calls  trim  Mahakah. 

Mac.   Masonic  writers  have  generally 
|  given  to  this  word  the  meaning  of  "  is  smitten, ' 
I  deriving  it  probably  from  the  Hebrew  verb 
I  HD J,  macha.  to  smite.   Others,  again,  think  it 
is  the  word  p»,  mak,  rottenness,  and  suppose 
that  it  means  "he  is  rotten."   Both  deriva- 
tions are,  I  think,  incorrect. 

Mac  is  a  constituent  part  of  the  word 
macbenac,  which  is  the  substitute  Master  s 
word  in  the  French  Rite,  and  which  is  in- 
terpreted by  the  French  ritualists  as  meaning 
"he  lives  in  the  son."  But  such  a  derivation 
can  find  no  support  in  any  known  Hebrew 
root.  Another  interpretation  must  be  sought. 
I  think  there  is  evidence,  circumstantial  at 
least,  to  show  that  the  word  was,  if  not  an 
invention  of  the  Ancient  or  Dermott  Masons, 
at  least  adopted  by  them  in  distinction  from 
the  one  used  by  the  Moderns,  which  latter 
is  the  word  now  in  use  in  this  country.  I  am 
disposed  to  attribute  the  introduction  of  the 
word  into  Masonry  to  the  adherents  of  the 
house  of  Stuart,  who  sought  in  every  way  to 
make  the  institution  of  Freemasonry  a  political 
instrument  in  their  schemes  for  the  restora- 
tion of  their  exiled  monarch.  Thus  the  old 
phrase,  "the  widow's  son,"  was  applied 
by  them  to  James  II.,  who  was  the  son 
of  Henrietta  Maria,  the  widow  of  Charles  I. 
So,  instead  of  the  old  Master's  word  which 
had  hitherto  been  used,  they  invented 
macbenac  out  of  the  Gaelic,  which  to  them 
was,  on  account  of  their  Highland  supporters, 
almost  a  sacred  language  in  the  place  of 
Hebrew.  Now,  in  Gaelio,  Mac  is  son,  and 
benach  is  blessed,  from  the  active  verb  bean- 
naich,  to  bless.  The  latest  dictionary  pub- 
lished by  the  Highland  Society  gives  this 
example:  "Benach  De  Righ  Albane,  Alexan- 


der,  Mac  Alexander,"  etc.,  i.  e..  Bless  the 
King  of  Scotland,  Alexander,  son  of  Alexander, 
etc.  Therefore  we  find,  without  any  of  those 
distortions  to  which  etymologists  so ,  often 
recur,  that  macbenat  means  in  Gaelic  "the 
blessed  son."  This  word  the  Stuart  Masons 
applied  to  their  idol,  the  Pretender,  the  son 
of  Charles  I.  .   .  t 

Macbenac.  1.  A  significant  word  in  the 
Third  Degree  according  to  the  French  Rite 
and  some  other  rituals.    (See  Mac.) 

2.  In  the  Order  of  Beneficent  Knighte  of 
the  Holy  City,  the  recipiendary,  or  novice,  is 
called  Macbenac. 

Maccabees.   A  heroic  family,  whose  pa- 
triotism and  valor  form  bright  pictures  in  the 
Jewish  annals.   The  name  is  generally  sup- 
posed to  be  derived  from  the  letters    2.  3. »« 
M.  C.  B.  I.— which  were  inscribed  upon 
their  banners—toeing  the  initials  of  the 
Hebrew  sentence,  "Mi  Camocha,  Baalim,  j 
Iehovah,"    Who  is  like  unto  thee  among  thel 
gods,  0  Jehovah.   The  Hebrew  sentence  has  I 
been  appropriated  in  some  of  the  high  Scot- 1 
tish  degrees  as  a  significant  word.  jf 

MaeertO.  Du  Cange  gives  this  as  one  of 
the  Middle  Age  Latin  words  for  mason,  de- 
riving it  from  maceria,  a  wall.  The  word  is 
now  never  employed.  ..  . 

Maclo.  Du  Cange  (Gloss.)  defines  Macio, 
Mattio,  or  Machio,  on  the  authority  of  Isi- 
dore, as  Macon,  latomus,  a  mason,  a  con- 
structor of  walls,  from  machina,  the  machines 
on  which  they  stood  to  work  on  account  of 
the  height  of  the  walls.   He  gives  Mqso  also. 

Mackenzie,  Kenneth  E.  H.  ("Cryptony- 
mua.")  Editor  of  The  Royal  Masonic  Cyclo- 
pedia of  History,  Rites,  Symbolism,  and 
Biography,  published  in  London  in  1877,  by 
Bro.  John  Hogg,  Paternoster  Row.  He  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  the  present  Rosicrucian 
Society  in  England. 

Macon.  The  following  is  extracted  from 
Kenning' a  Cyclopcedia  of  Freemasonry:  '  The 
Norman-French  word  for  'mason  — as  the 
operative  mason  in  early  days  was  called  'le 
macon,'  and  this  was  corrupted  into  maccon, 
maccouyn,  masoun,  masouyn,  messouyn,  and 
even  mageon.  The  word  seems  to  come  from 
'maconner,'  which  had  both  its  operative 
meaning  and  derivative  meaning  of  conspir- 
ing, in  1238,  and  which  again  comes  from 
*  mansio,'  a  word  of  classic  use.  Some  writers 
have  derived  the  word  'macon'  from  maison; 
but  though  'maisonner '  and  maconner  appear 
eventually  to  be  equivalent  to  'mansionem 
facere,'  in  its  first  meaning,  'maison  seenw  to 
be  simply  a  wooden  house,  as  'maisonage  is 
defined  by  Roquefort  to  be  'Bois  de  oharpente 
propre  a  batir  les  maisons,'  and  then  he  adds, 
'C'est  aiissi  l'action  de  batir.'  Roquefort 
seems  to  prefer  to  derive  'maisonner  '  from  tha 
Low  Latin  verb  'mansionare.'  Be  this  as  it 
may,  we  have  in  the  word  macon,  as  it  appears 
to  us,  a  clear  evidence  of  the  development  of 

458  MACON 


the  operative  guilds  through  the  Norman- 
French  artificers  of  the  Conquest,  who  carried 
the  operative  guilds,  as  it  were,  back  to  Latin 
terminology,  and  to  a  Roman  origin."  (See 

Macon  dans  la  Vole  Qroite.  {The  Mason 
in  the  Right  Way.)  The  second  grade  of  the 
Hermetic  system  of  Montpellier.  (Thory, 
Acta  Lot.,  i.,  321.) 

Macon  du  Secret.  {The  Mason  of  the 
Secret)  The  sixth  grade  of  the  reformed 
rite  of  Baron  Tschoudy,  arid  the  seventh  in 
the  reformed  rite  of  St.  Martin.  (Thory, 
Acta  Lot.,  i.,  321.) 

Macon,  Ecossals,  Mattre.  See  Mason, 
Scottish  Master. 

Maconetus.  Low  Latin,  signifying  a 
Mason,  and  found  in  documents  of  the  four- 
teenth century. 

Maconne.:  A  French  word  signifying  a 
female  Mason,  that  is  to  say,  the  degrees  of 
the  Rite  of  Adoption.  It  is  a  very  convenient 
word.  The  formation  of  the  English  language 
,would  permit  the  use  of  the  equivalent  word 
■Masoness,  if  custom  would  sanction  it. 

Maconne  Egyptlenne.  The  Third  De- 
gree in  Caglipstro/s  Rite  of  Adoption. 

Maconne  Maltre^se.  Third  grade  of  the 

Maconner.  Du  ,  Cange  gives  citations 
from,  documents ,  of<<  the  .fourteenth  cen  tury, 
where  this  word  is  used  asisifinifying  to  build. 

'  Ma'cojmeHe?  Rouge.  ^{Ued  Freemasonry.) 
•The  designation  of.jtae.~f qui;:'  high  grades  of 
•the?  French  gjte:  /Baaofifea-ys  that  the  name 
comes  i from  the  color,  worn  in  the  forth 
-grade,  •  ■  ■  ■■;  ■•  -  iv,  *  '  . 
,  Maconnleke-  vSocIetelten.  Dutch  Ma- 
sonic Clubs,  somewhat  like  unto  the  English 
Lodges  of,  Instruction,,  with  more,  perhaps, 
of  the  character  of  a  club.  Kerminq's  Cy- 
clopaedia «ays..  ?'there  were  about  nineteen 
of  these".  Associations  in  the  principal  towns 

"  Macon's? Cyclopedia."  "A  General 
History;  iCly'cfopedia,  and  Dictionary  of  Free- 
masonry," containing  some  300  engravings, 
by  BobertMacoy.  33°,  published  in  New  York,, 
which  has  pa^ed  , through  a  number  of  edi-" 
tions...  It  was- originally  founded  on  A  Dic- 
tionary of  Symbolical  Masonry,  by  George 
Oliver,  ,D.D.  ■ -Bro.  Macoy  has  occupied  the 
prominent  position  of  Deputy  G.  Master  of 
the  G.  Lodge;  of-  New  York,  and  that  of  G. 
Recorder  of  the  State  G.  Commandery  of  the 
Order  of ; the  Temple,  K.  T. 

Macrocosm,  (jldxpot  tcio-fios,  the  great 
world,)  .The  .visible  system  of  worlds;  the 
outer,  world  or  universe. .  It  is  opposed  to 
Microcosm,-  the  little  world,  as  in  man.  It 
has  been  used  as  the  Macric  soul  in  opposition 
to  the,  Micrio  animal. life,  and  as  the  soul  of 
the  universe  as  opposed  to  the  soul  of  a  single 
world  or  being.  A  subject  of  much  note  to 
the  Roeierjicians  in  the  study  of  the  Myste- 

Macjso.  Latin  of  the  Middle  Ages  for  a 
mason.  vDu  Cange  quotes  a  Computum  of 
the  year  1324,  in  which  it  is  said  that  the  work 

was  done  "per'  manum  Petri,  maczonis  de 

Made.   A  technical  word  signifying  initi- 
ated into  Masonry.    (See  Make.) 

Madman.  Madmen  are  specially  des- 
ignated in  the  oral  law  as  disqualified  for 
initiation.  (See  Qualifications.) 
_  Magazine.  The  earliest  Masonic  maga- 
zine was  published  at  Leipsic  in  1738  and 
named  Der  Freymaurer.  In  1783  the  Frev- 
maurerzeitung  appeared  at  Berlin,  having 
only  a  short  existence  of  six  numbers.  The 
Journal  fur  Freimaurer,  which  appeared  in 
1784  at  Vienna,  had  a  longer  life  of  some  three 
years.  In  England,  the  first  work  of  this  kind 
was  The  Freemasons'  Magazine  or  General  and 
CompJetebibrary,  begun  in  1793,  and  continued 
until  1798.  In  Ireland,  in  1792,  the  Sentimental 
and  Masonic  Magazine  appeared  and  ran  to 
seven  volumes  (1792-5).  In  France  the  Miroir 
de  la  v&riti  seems  to  have  been  issued  from 
1800  to  1802,  followed  by  Hermes  in  1808. 

In  England  the  Freemasons'  Quarterly  Re- 
view commenced  in  1834  and  was  continued 
until  1849,  followed  by  the  Freemasons' 
Quarterly  Magazine  in  1853,  which  lived  until 
1858.  In  1873  a  new  Masonic  Magazine  was 
issued,  but  it  had  not  a  very  long  existence; 
and  the  nearest  approach  to  a  Masonic  maga- 
zine now  existing  is  the  Ars  Quatuor  Corona- 
torum,  published  by  the  Quatuor  Coronati 
Lodge.  _  Of  American  Masonic  magazines  the 
earliest  is  the  Freemasons'  Magazine  and  Gen- 
eral Miscellany,  published  at  Philadelphia  in 
1811.  The  oldest  periodical,  devoted  to  Ma- 
sonry is  the  Freemasons'  Monthly  Magazine, 
published  by  Charles  W.  Moore,  at  Boston. 
It  was  established  in  the  year.  1842.  . 

The  American  Freemason  appears  monthly,' 
published  at  Storm  Lake,  Iowa,  and  has  now 
reached  a  third  volujne;  Tjie  American  Tyler- 
Keystone,  published*  at* Ann?;Arbor,  Michigan, 
twice  a  month,  is  in  its 26th  volume. . . 

In  Switzerland  the  "Intentional  Bureau 
for  Masonic  Affairs"  issues  a  .quarterly  maga- 
zine, called  the  Bulletin,  wbichjisjiiow  in  its 
9th  volume.  >'  :'• ....  [E.  L.  HJ 

Magi.  The  ancient  Greek  historians  so 
term  the  hereditary  priests  aniong  the-Persians 
and  Medians.  The  word,  is  dejiy'ed.from  mog 
or  mag,  signifying  ^riest.'inJtne'Pehtevi.  lan- 
guage. The  punOTati.firj|fc;i4trt>d«C0d  the 
word  into  Masoniyj.'in  'the 
nomenclature  of  their  ctegrees  to.  signify  men 
of  superior  wisdon?."     '  •  : 

Magi,  The  Three.  Th,e  "Wise  Men  of  the 
East"  who  came  to  Jerusalem,  bringing  gifts 
to  the  infaa.t  .Jesus.'  The  traditional  names 
of  theithree'are  Melchior,  an  old  man,  with  a 
long  beard,'  offering  gold;  Jasper^a  beardless 
youth,  who  offers  frankincense;  Balthazar,  a 
alack  or  Moor,  with  a  large  spreading  beard, 
who  tenders  myrrh.  The  patron  saints  of 
travelers.  "Tradition  fixed  their  number  at 
three,  probably  in  allusion  to  the  three  races 
springing  from  the  sons  of  Noah.  The  Em- 
press Helena  caused  their  corpses  to  be  trans- 
ported to  Milan  from  Constantinople.  Fred- 
erick Barbarossa  carried  them  to  Cologne,  the 


olace  of  their  special  glory  as  the  Three  Kings 
of  Cologne." — Yonge.  The  three  principal 
officers  ruling  the  society  of  the  Rosicrucians 
are  styled  Magi. 

Magic.  The  idea  that  any  connection 
exists  between  Freemasonry  and  magic  is  to 
be  attributed  to  the  French  writers,  especially 
to  Ragon,  who  gives  many  pages  of  his  Ma- 
sonic  Orthodoxy  to  the  subject  of  Masonic 
magic;  and  still  more  to  Louis  Constance, 
who  has  written  three  large  volumes  on  the 
History  of  Magic,  on  the  Ritual  and  Dogma  of 
the-  Higher  Magic,  and  on  the  Key  of  the  Grand 
Mysteries,  in  all  of  which  he  seeks  to  trace 
an  intimate  connection  between  the  Masonic 
mysteries  and  the  science  of  magic.  Ragon 
designates  this  sort  of  Masonry  by  the  name 
of  'Occult  Masonry."  But  he  loosely  con- 
founds magic  with  the  magism  of  the  an- 
cient Persians,  the  Medieval  philosophy  and 
modern  magnetism,  all  of  which,  as  identical 
sciences,  were  engaged  in  the  investigation  of 
the  nature  of  man,  the  mechanism  of  his 
thoughts,  the  faculties  of  his  soul,  his  power 
over  nature,  and  the  essence  of  the  occult 
virtues  of  all  things.  Magism,  he  says,  is  to 
be  found  in  the  sentences  of  Zoroaster,  in  the 
hymns  of  Orpheus,  in  the  invocations  of  the 
Hierophants,  and  in  the  symbols  of  Pythago- 
ras; it  'is  reproduced- in  the  philosophy  of 
Agrippa  and  of  Cardan,  and  is  recognized 
under  the  name  oi  Magic  in  the  marvelous 
results  of  magnetism:  Cagliostro,  it  is  well 
knctwn,  mingled  with  his  Spurious  Freema- 
sonry the  Superstitions  of  Magic  and  the 
Operations  of  Animal  Magnetism.  But  the 
writers  who  have  sought  to  establish  a  scheme 
of  Magical  Masonry  refer  almost  altogether 
to  "the  supposed  power  of  mystical  names  or 
words,  which  they  say  is  common  to  both 
Misonry  and  magic.  It  is  certain  that  ono- 
matology,-  or  the  science  of  names,  forms  a 
very  interesting  part  of  the  investigations  of 
the  higher  Masonry,  and  it  is  only  in  this  way 
that  any  connection  can  be  created  between 
the  two  sciences.  Much  light,  it  must  be 
(pnf essed,  is  thrown  on  many  of  the  mystical 
names  in  the  higher  degrees  by  the  dogmas  of 
magic;  and  hence  magic  furnishes  a  curious 
•ana  interesting  study  for  the  Freemason. 

Magicians,  Society  of  the.  A  society 
founded  at  Florence^which  became  a  division 
of  the  Brothers  of  Rose  Croix.,  JXhey  wore 
in  their  Chapters  the  habit  Of  members  of  the 

Magic  Squares.  A  magic  square  is  a 
series  of  numbers  arranged  in  an  equal  number 
of  cells  constituting  a  square  figure,  the 
enumeration  of  all  of  whose  columns,  ver- 
tically, horizontally,  and  diagonally,  will  give 
the  same  sum.  The  Oriental  philosophers, 
and  especially  the  Jewish  Talmudists,  have 
indulged  in  many  fanciful  speculations  in 
reference  to  these  magic  squares,  many  of 
which  were  considered  as  talismans.  The 
following  figure  of  nine  squares,  containing 
the  nine  digits  so  arranged  as  to  make  fifteen 
when  counted  in  every  way,  was  of  peculiar 

MAGIC  459 







-;8  . 



There  was  no  talisman  more  sacred  than 
this  among  the  Orientalists,  when  arranged 
in  the  following  figure: 

8L  81 

Thus  arranged,  they  called  it  by  the,  name 
of  .the  planet  Saturn, ;  ZaHaL,  because?  the 
sum;  of  the;9  tfigite'in  the  square  was  equal  to 
45  -(l*2'43+.#;tfj'+5+7+8-|-9),  .which  is 
the  numerical  value  of  the  letters  in  the'  word 
ZaII&Ii,  ;in4he.%abjc.«a2phabet. The.  Tal- 
mudists. also  esteemed  at  as  a  sacred -talisman, 
because '  15  .is  -  the  i  numerical  value ,  of-  the 
letters  of  the  word/fr",  JaH,  which  is  one  of 
the  forms  of  the  TetJragrammaton.  , 

The  Hermetic. "philosophers  called  these 
magic  squares  "tawee  of  the  planets,"  and 
attributed  to  them  many,  occult  virtues. 
The  table  of  Saturn  consisted  of  9  squares, 
and  .has  just  been  given.  •  The  table  of  Jupiter 
consisted  of  16 ,  squares  of  numbers,  whose 
total  value  is  136,  and  the  sum  of  them  added, 
horizontally,  perpendicularly,  and  diagonally, 
is  always  34;  thus:  « 



















So  the  table  of  Mars  consists  of  26  squares, 
of  the  Sun  of  36,  of  Venus  of  49,  of  Mercury 
of  64,  and  of  the  Moon  of  81.  These  magic 
squares  and  their  values  have  been  used  in 
the  symbolism  of  numbers  in  some  of  the  high 
degrees  of  Masonry. 

Maglster  Ccementarlorum.  A  title  ap- 
plied in  the  Middle  Ages  to  one  who  presided 
over  the  building  of  edifices = Master  of  the 

Maglster  Hospltalis.  See  Master  of  the 

Maglster  Lapidum.  Du  Cange  defines 
this  as  Master  Mason;  and  he  cites  the  statutes 
of  Marseilles  as  saying:  "Tres  Magistros 
Lapidis  bonos  et  legates,"  i.  e.,  three  good 
and  lawful  Master  Masons  "shall  be  selected 
to  decide  on  all  questions  about  wa^er  in  the 
city."  ■ 

Maglster  MUltlse  Chrlstl.  See  Master  of 
the  Chivalry  of  Christ. 

Maglster  Perrerlus.  A  name  given  in 
the  Middle  Ages  to  a  Mason;  literally,  a  Mas- 
ter of  Stones,  from  the  French  pierre,  a  stone. 

Maglster  Templl.  See  Master  of  the 

Maglstrl  Comaelnl.  See  Comadne  Mas- 
ters; also  Como. 

Magna  est  Veritas  et  prsevaleblt.  {The 
truth  is  great,  and  will  prevail.)  The  motto 
of  the  Red  Cross  Degree,  or  Knights  of  the 
Red  Cross. 

Magnan,  B.  P.  A  marshal  of  France, 
nominated  by  Napoleon  III.,  emperor,  as 
Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Orient  of  France, 
in  1862,  and,  though  not  a  member  of  the 
great  Fraternity  at  the  time,  was  initiated 
and  installed  Grand  Master,  February  8, 
1862,  and  so  remained  until  May  29, 1865. 

Magnanimous.  The  title  applied  in 
modern  usage  to  the  Order  of  Knights 
Templar.  , 

Magnetic  Masonry.  This  is  a  form  of 
Freemasonry  which,  although  long  ago  prac- 
tised by  Cagliostro  as  a  species  of  charlatanism, 
was  first  introduced  to  notice  as  a  philosophic 
system  by  Ragon  in  his  treatise  on  Magonnerie 
Occulte.  "The  occult  sciences,"  says  this 
writer,  "reveal  to  man  the  mysteries  of  his 
nature,  the  secrets  of  his  organization,  the 
means  of  attaining  perfection  and  happiness; 
and,  in  short,  the  decree  of  his  destiny.  Their 
study  was  that  of  the  high  initiations  of  the 
Egyptians;  it  is  time  that  they  should  be- 
come the  study  of  modern  Masons."  And 
again  he  says:  "A  Masonic  society  which 
should  establish  in  its  bosom  a  magnetic 
academy  would  soon  find  the  reward  of  its 
labors  in  the  good  that  it  would  do,  and  the 
happiness  which  it  would  create."  There  can 
be  no  doubt  that  the  Masonic  investigator 
has  a  right  to  search  everywhere  for  the  means 
of  moral,  intellectual,  and  religious  perfection; 
and  if  he  can  find  anything  in  magnetism 
which  would  aid  him  in  the  search,  it  is  his 
duty  and  wisest  policy  to  avail  himself  of  it. 
But,  nevertheless.  Magnetic  Masonry,  as  a 
special  regime,  will  hardly  ever  be  adopted 
by  the  Fraternity. 

Magus.  1.  The  Fourteenth  Degree,  and 
the  first  of  the  Greater  Mysteries  of  the  sys- 
tem of  llluminism.  2.  The  Ninth  and  last 
degree  of  the  German  Rosicrucians.  It  is 
the  singular  of  Magi,  which  see. 

Man.  The  Hebrew  interrogative  pronoun 
iXfi,  signifying  whatt  It  is  a  component 
part  of  a  significant  word  in  Masonry.  The 
combination  mahhah,  literally  "what!  the," 
is  equivalent,  according  to  the  Hebrew  method 
of  ellipsis,  to  the  question,  "What!  is  this 
the  V' 

Manabharata.  A  Sanskrit  poem,  re- 
counting the  rivalries  of  the  descendants  of 
King  Bharata,  and  occupying  a  place  among 
the  Shasters  of  the  Hindus.  It  contains  many 
thousand  verses,  written  at  various  unknown 
periods  since  the  completion  of  the  Ramayana. 

Mahadeva.  ("The  great  god.")  One  of 
the  common  names  by  w,hich  the  Hindu  god 
Siva  is  called.  His  consort,  Durga,  is  simi- 
larly styled  Mahadevi  (the  great  goddess). 
In  Buddhistic  history,  Mahadeva,  who  lived 
two  hundred  years  after  the  death  of  the 
Buddha  Sakyamuni,  or  343,  is  a  renowned 
teacher  who  caused  a  schism  in  the  Buddhistic 
Church.  ' 

Mahakasyapa.  The  renowned  disciple 
of  Buddha  Sakyamuni,  who  arranged  the 
metaphysical  portion  of  the  sacred  writings 
called  Abhidharma. 

Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz.  Hebrew.  O 
tt?n  77V  in».  Four  Hebrew  words  which 
the  prophet  Isaiah  was  ordered  to  write 
upon  a  tablet,  and  which  were  afterward  to 
be  the  name  of  his  son.  They  signify,  "make 
haste  to  the  prey,  fall  upon  the  spoil,"  and 
were  prognostic  of  the  sudden  attack  of  the 
Assyrians.  They  may  be  said,  in  their  Ma- 
sonic use,  to  be  symbolic  of  the  readiness  for 
action  which  should  distinguish  a  warrior,  and 
are  therefore  of  significant  use  in  the  system 
of  Masonic  Templarism. 

Mater,  Michael.  A  celebrated  Rosi- 
crucian  and  interpreter  and  defender  of  Rosi- 
crucianism.  He  was  born  at  Reainsburg, 
in  Holstein,  in  1568,  and  died  at  Magdeburg 
in  1620.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to 
introduce  Rosicrucianism  into  England.  He 
wrote  many  works  on  the  system,  among 
which  the  most  noted  are  Atlanta  .Fugiens, 
1618;  Septimana  Phiiosophica,  1620;  De  Fra- 
ternitate  Bosee  Crucis,  1618;  andittsw*  Serins, 
1617.  Some  of  his  contemporaries  having 
denied  the  existence  of  the  Rosicrucian  Order, 
Maier  in  his  writings  has  refuted  the  calumny 
and  warmly  defended  the  society,  of  which, 
in  one  of  his  works,  he  speaks  thus:  "lake  the 
Pythagoreans  and  Egyptians,  the  Rosicru- 
cians exact  vows  oi  silence  and  secrecy. 
Ignorant  men  have  treated  the  whole  as  a 
fiction;  but  this  has  arisen  from  the  five  years' 
probation  to  which  they  subject  even  well- 
qualified  novices  before  they  are  admitted^  to 
the  higher  mysteries,  and  within  this  period 
they  are  to  learn  how  to  govern  their  own 

Maine.  Until  the  year  1820,  the  District 
of  Maine  composed  a  part  of  the  political 




territory  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts,  and  its 
Lodges  were  under  the  obedience  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Massachusetts.  In  that  year,  a 
political  division  having  taken  place,  and 
Maine  having  been  erected  into  an  inde- 
pendent State,  the  Masons  of  Maine  took  the 
preliminary  steps  toward  an  independent 
Masonic  organization,  in  obedience  to  the 
universally  recognized  law  that  political 
territory  makes  Masonic  territory,  and  that 
changes  of  political  jurisdiction  are  followed 
by  corresponding  changes  of  Masonic  jurisdic- 
tion. A  memorial  was  addressed  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts  praying  for 
its  consent  to  the  organization  of  an  inde- 
pendent Grand  Lodge  and  a  just  division  of 
the  charity  and  other  funds.  A  favorable 
response  having  been  received,  a  convention 
was  held  at  Portland  on  June  1, 1820,  consist- 
ing of  delegates  from  twenty-four  Lodges, 
when  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Maine  was  organ- 
ized, and  William  King  elected  Grand  Master. 

The  Grand  Royal  Arch  Chapter  was  organ- 
ized in  1821,  the  Grand  Council  of  Royal  Arch 
Masons  in  1855,  and  the  Grand  Commandery 
in  1852.  t  ,    ml .  , 

Mattre  Macon.  The  name  of  the  Third 
Degree  in  French. 

Mattresse  Aglssante.  Acting  Mistress. 
The  title  of  the  presiding  officer  of  a  female 
Lodge  in  the  Egyptian  Rite  of  Cagliostro. 

Maltresse  Maeon.  The  Third  Degree  of 
the  French  Rite  of  Adoption.  We  have  no 
equivalent  word  in  English.  It  signifies  a 
Mistress  in  Masonry. 

Mattrise.  This  expressive  word  wants  an 
equivalent  in  English.  The  French  use  la 
Mattrise  to  designate  the  Third  or.  Master  s 
Degree.  „  ,  „ 

Major.  The  Sixth  Degree  of  the  German 
Rose  Croix.  . 

Major  Illuminate.  {Illuminatm  Major.) 
The  Eighth  Degree  of  the  Illuminati  of  Ba- 

Majority.  Elections  in  Masonic  bodies 
are  as  a  general  rule  decided  by  a  majority  of 
the  votes  cast.  A  plurality  vote  is  ^not  ad- 
missible unless  it 'has  been  provided  tor  by  a 
special  by-law.  . 

Make.  "To  make  Masons"  is  a  very 
ancient  term;  used  in  the  oldest  charges 
extant  as  synonymous  with  the  verb  to  in- 
itiate or  receive  into  the  Fraternity.  It  is 
found  in  the  Lansdowne  MS.,  whose  date 
is  the  latter  half  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
"These  be  all  the  charges  .  .  .  read  at  the 
making  of  a  Mason." 

<Q  Malach.  "JtWtt.  An  angel.  A  significant 
word  in  the  high  degrees.  Lenning  gives  it 
as  Melek  or  Meiech. 

Malaeal  or  Malacnlas.  The  last  of  the 
prophets.  A  significant  word  in  the  Thirty- 
second  Degree  of  the  Scottish  Rite.  _ 

f     Malcolm  ID.   (King  of  Scotland.)  Re- 

I   ported  to  have  chartered  the  Lodge  'St. 

|  John  of  Glasgow  "  in  the  year  1051. 

\     Malcolm  Canmore  Charter.  S&sManu- 

\  scripts,  Apactypbal. 

Mallet.  One  of  the  working-tools  of  a 
Mark  Master,  having  the  same  emblematic 
meaning  as  the  common  gavel  in  the  Entered 
Apprentice's  Degree.  It  teaches  us  to  correct 
the  irregularities  of  temper,  and,  like  enlight- 
ened reason,  to  curb  the  aspirations  of  un- 
bridled ambition,  to  depress  the  malignity 
of  envy1,  and  to  moderate  the  ebullition  of 
anger.  It  removes  from  the  mind  all  the  ex- 
crescences of  vice,  and  fits  it,  as  a  well-wrought 
stone,  for  that  exalted  station  in  the  great 
temple  of  nature  to  which,  as  an  emanation 
of  the  Deity,  it  is  entitled. 

The  mallet  or  setting  maul  is  also  an  emblem 
of  the  Third  Degree,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
the  implement  by  which  the  stones  were  set 
up  at  the  Temple.  It  is  often  improperly 
confounded  with  the  common  gavel. 

The  French  Masons,  to  whom  the  word 
gavel  is  unknown,  uniformly  use  maiUet,  or 
mallet,  in  its  stead,  and  confound  its  sym- 
bolic use,  as  the  implement  of  the  presiding 
officer,  with  the  mallet  of  the  English  and 
American  Mark  Master. 

Malta.   Anciently,  Melita.   A  small  island 
in  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  which,  although 
occupying  only  about  170  sq.  miles,  possessed 
for  several  centuries  a  greater  degree  of 
celebrity  than  was  attached  to  any  other 
territory  of  so  little  extent.   It  is  now  a  pos- 
session of  the  British  Government,  but  was 
occupied  from  1530  to  1798  by  the  Knights 
Hospitalers,  then  called  Knights  of  Malta, 
upon  whom  it  was  conferred  in  the  former 
year  by  Charles  V. 
Malta,  Cross  of.   See  Cross,  Maltese. 
Malta,  Knight  of.   See  Kmght  of  Malta. 
Maltese  Cross.   See  Cross,  Maltese. 
Man.   1.  Man  has  been  called  the  micro- 
cosm, or  little  world,  in  contradistinction  to 
the  macrocosm,  or  great  world,  by  some 
fanciful  writers  on  metaphysics,  by  reason 
of  a  supposed  correspondence  between  the 
different  parts  and  qualities  of  his  nature  and 
those  of  the  universe.   But  in  Masonic  sym- 
bolism the  idea  is  borrowed  from  Christ  and 
the  Apostles,  who  repeatedly  refer  to  man  as 
a  symbol  of  the  Temple. 

2.  A  man  was  inscribed  on  the  standard  oi 
the  tribe  of  Reuben,  and  is  borne  on  the  Royal 
Arch  banners  as  appropriate  to  the  .Grand 
Master  of  the  second  veil.  It  was  also  the 
charge  in  the  third  quarter  of  the  arms  of  the 
Atholl  Grand  Lodge.  . 

3.  Der  Mann,  or  the  man,  is  the  Second 
Degree  of  the  German  Union.  . 

£  To  be  "a  man,  not  a  woman,"  is  one  of 
the  qualifications  for  Masonic  initiation.  It 
is  the  first,  and  therefore  the  most  important, 
qualification  mentioned  in  the  ritual.^, 

Man  or  Perfected  Creation.  The  sym- 
bol representing  perfected  creation,  which  is 
"very  common  on  ancient  Hindu  monuments 
in  China,"  embraces  so  many  of  the  Masonic 
emblems,  and  so  directly  refers  to  several  of 
the  elementary  principles  taught  in  philo- 
sophic Masonry,  that  it  is  here  Introduced 
wrth  its  explanations.  Forlong,  in  his  Fauns 
of  Man.  eives  this  arrangement: 



A— 4a  the  Earth,  or  foundation  on  which  all 

Wa — Water,  as  in  an  egg,  or  as  condensed 
fire  and  ether. 

Ra— Fire,  or  the  elements  in  motion. 

Ka — Air,  or  wind — Juno,  or  lo  ni;  a  con- 
densed element. 

Cha — Ether,  or  Heaven,  the  cosmical 

This  figure  is  frequently  found  in  India: 

Ether,  or  Heaven, 




As  these  symbols  are  readily  interpretable 
by  those  conversant  with  Masonic  hiero- 
glyphs, it  may  be  seen  that  the  elements,  in 
their  ascending  scale,  show  the  perfected 
creation.  Forlong  remarks  that  "as  it  was 
difficult  to  show  the  All-pervading  Ether, 
Egypt;  for  this  purpose,  surrounded  her 
figures  with  a  powder  of  stars  instead  of 
flame,  which  on  Indra's  garments  were  Yonis. 
This  figure  gradually  developed,  becoming 
in  time  a  very  concrete  man,  standing  on  two 
legs  instead  of  a  square  base — the  horns  of  the 
crescent  (Air),  being  outstretched,  formed  the 
arms,  and  the  refulgent  Flame  the  head,  which, 
with  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  represented  the 
Sun,  or  Fire,  and  gives  Light  to  all.  To  this 
being,  it  was  claimed,  there  were  given  seven 
senses;  and  thus,  perfect  and  erect,  stood 
Man,  rising  above  the  animal  state." 

The  seven  senses  were  seeing,  hearing, 
tasting,  feeling,  smelling,  understanding,  and 
speech.   See  Ecclesiasticus  rvii.  5: 

"The  Lord  created  man,  and  they  received 
the  use  of  the  five  operations  of  the  Lord; 
and  in  the  sixth  place  he  imparted  (to)  them 
understanding,  and  in  the  seventh  speech,  an 
interpreter  of  the  cogitations  thereof?' 

The  words  "seven  senses  "  also  occur  in  the 
poem  of  Taliesin,  called  "  Y  Bid  Mawr,  or  the 
Macrocosm'?  (grit.  Mag.,  vol.  21,  p.  30).  See 
further  the  "Mysterium  Magnum"  of  Jacob 
Boehmen,  which  teaches  "bow  the  soul  of 
man,  or  his  inward  holy  bodf,?!  was  com- 

Sounded  of  the  seven  properties  under  the  in- 
uence  of  the  seven  planets: 

"I  will  adore  my  Father, 
My  God,:  my  Supporter, 
who  placed;  -throughout  my  head, 
The  soul  of  my  reason, 
And  made  fOBmy  perception 
My  seven  faculties 

Of  Fire,  and  Earth,  and  Water,  and  Air, 


And  mist,  and  flowers, 
And  the  southerly  Wind, 
As  it  were  seven  senses  of  reason 
For  my  Father  to  impel  me: 
With  the  first  I  shall  be  animated. 
With  the  second  I  shall  touch. 
With  the  third  I  shall  cry  out. 
With  the  fourth  I  shall  taste, 
With  the  fifth  I  shall  see, 
With  the  sixth  I  shall  hear, 
With  the  seventh  I  shall  smell." 

[C.  T.  McClenaohanJ 
Mandate.  That  which  is  commanded. 
The  Benedictine  editors  of  Du  Cange  define 
mandatum  as  "breve  aut  edictum  regium," 
i.  e.,  a  royal  brief  or  edict,  and  mandamentum 
as  "literse  quibus  magistratus  aHquid  man- 
dat,"  i.  e.j  letters  in  which  a  magistrate  com- 
mands anything.  Hence  the  orders  and 
decrees  of  a  Grand  Master  or  a  Grand  Lodge 
are  called  mandates,  and  implicit  obedience 
to  them  is  of  Masonic  obligation.   There  is 

peal,  yet  not  a  suspensive  one,  from  the 

 ate  of  a  Grand  Master  to  the  Grand 

Lodge,  but  there  is  none  from  ipe  latter. 

Mango.  The  branches  of-  this  tree  are  a 
prominent  feature  in  all  Eastern  religious 
ceremonies.  The  mango  is  the  apple-tree  of 
India,  with  which  man,  in  Indian  tale, 
tempted  Eve. 

Mangourlt,  Michel  Ante  Bernard  de. 
A  distinguished  member  of  the  Grand 
Orient  of  France.  He  founded  in  1776,  at 
Rennes,  the  Rite  of  Sublimes  Elusde  la  Virili, 
or  Sublime  Elects  of  Truth,  and  at  Paris  the 
androgynous  society  of  Dames  of  Mount 
Thabor.  He  also  created  the  Masonic  Liter- 
ary Society  of  Free  Thinkers,  which  existed 
for  three  years.  He  delivered  lectures  which 
were  subsequently  published  under  the  title 
of  Court  de  PhUosophie  Maconnique,  in  500 
pp.,  4to-  He  also  delivered  a  great  many 
lectures  and  discourses  before  different  Lodges, 
severalofwhichwerepublished.  Hedied.after 
a  long  and  severe  illness,  February  17, 1829. 

Manlebieans.  (Also  termed  Gnostics.) 
A  sect  taking  its  rise  in  the  middle  of  the 
third  century,  whose  belief  was  in  two  eternal 
principles  of  good  and  evil.  They  derived  then- 
name  from  Manes,  a  phildsopher  of  Persian 
birth,  sometimes  called  Maruchaeus.  Of  the 
two  principles,  Ormudz  was  the  author  of  the 
good,  while  Ahriman  was  the  master  spirit  of 
evil.  The  two  classes  of  neophytes  were,  the 
true,  eiddi  kun;  the  listeners,  samma  un. 

Manlcheens,  Les  Freres.  Asecret  Italian 
society,  founded,  according  to  Thory  (Acta 
Lai.,  i.,  325)  and  Clavel  (Hist.  Pitt., p. 407),  in 
the  eighteenth  century,  at  which  the  doctrines 
of  Manes  were  set  forth  in  several  grades. 

Manitoba.  In  1864  a  dispensation  was 
issued  over  the  signature  of  M.  W.  Bro.  A.  T. 
Pierson,  then  Grand  Master  of  Masons  in 
Minnesota,  and  "Northern  Light"  Lodge  was 
organized  at  Fort  Garry  (Winnipeg),  with 
Bro.  Dr.  John  Schultz,  Worshipful  Master, 
A.  G.  B.  Bannatyne,  S.  W.,  and  Wm.  Inkster. 
J.  W.  ' 

In  1867  Bro.  Bannatyne  was  elected  W.  M. 
and  the  Lodge  went  out  of  existence  shortly 


before  the  Red  River  insurrection.  At  this 
time,  the  country  was  claimed  by  the  "Hon. 
Hudson  Bay  Co." j  but  when  the  transfer  was 
made  to  Canada  in  1870  and  the  Red  River 
Settlement,  as  it  was  then  known,  became  the 
Province  of  Manitoba,  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Canada  assumed  Jurisdiction  and  shortly 
afterward  issued  Charters  to  "Prince  Ru- 
pert's" Lodge,  Winnipeg,  December,  1870, 
and  Lisgar  Lodge,  Selkirk. 

On  May  12.  1875,  the  three  Lodges  then 
existing,  viz.,  "Prince Rupert,"  "Lisgar,"  and 
"Ancient  Landmark,''  held  a  convention  and 
formed  the  "Grand  Lodge  of  Manitoba/' 
electing  M.  W.  Bro.  the  Rev.  Dr.  W.  C. 
Clarke  as  Grand  Master.   [Will  H.  Whyte.] 

Mann,  Der.  The  Man,  the  second  grade 
of  the  "Deutsche  Union." 

Manna,  Pot  of.  Among  the  articles  laid 
up  in  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant  by  Aaron  was  a 
Pot  of  Manna.  In  the  substitute  ark,  com- 
memorated in  the  Royal  Arch  Degree,  there 
was,  of  course,  a  representation  of  it.  Manna 
has  been  considered  as  a  symbol  of  life;  not 
the  transitory,  but  the  enduring  one  of  a  future 
world.  Hence  the  Pot  of  Manna,  Aaron's 
rod  that  budded  anew,  and  the  Book  of  the 
Law,  which  teaches  Divine  Truth,  all  found 
together,  are  appropriately  considered  as  the 
symbols  of  that  eternal  life  which  it  is  the 
design  of  the  Royal  Arch  Degree  to  teach. 

Manningham,  Thomas.  Dr.  Thomas 
Manningham  was  a  physician,  of  London,  of 
much  repute  in  the  last  century.  He  took  an 
active  interest  in  the  concerns  of  Freemasonry, 
being  Deputy  Grand  Master  of  England, 
1752-6.  According  to  Oliver  (Revelations  of 
a  Square,  p.  86),  he  was  the  author  of  the 
prayer  now  so  well  known  to  the  Fraternity, 
which  was  presented  by  him  to  the  Grand 
Lodge,  and  adopted  as  a  form  of  prayer  to  be 
used  at  the  initiation  of  a  candidate.  Before 
that  period,  no  prayer  was  used  on  such  oc- 
casions, and  the  one  composed  by  Manning- 
ham  (Oliver  says  with  the  assistance  of  Ander- 
son, which  is  doubtful,  as  Anderson  died  in 
1739)  is  here  given  as  a  document  of  the 
time.  It  will  be  seen  that  in  our  day  it  has 
been  somewhat  modified,  Preston  making  the 
first  change;  and  that,  originally  used  as  one 
prayer,  it  nas  since  been  divided,  in  this  coun- 
try at  least,  into  two,  the  first  part  being  used 
as  a  prayer  at  the  opening  of  a  Lodge,  and  the 
latter  at  the  initiation  of  a  candidate. 

"Most  Holy  and  Glorious  Lord  God,  thou 
Architect  of  heaven  and  earth,  who  art  the 
giver  of  all  good  gifts  and  graces;  and  hath 
promised  that  Where  two  or  three  are  gathered 
together  in  thy  Name,  thou  wilt  be  in  the  midst 
of  them;  in  thy  Name  we  assemble  and  meet 
together,  most  humbly  beseeching  thee  to 
bless  us  in  all  our  undertakings:  to  give  us 
thy  Holy  Spirit,  to  enlighten  our  minds  with 
wisdom  and  understanding;  that  we  may 
know  and  serve  thee  aright,  that  all  our 
doings  may  tend  to  thy  glory  and  the  salva- 
tion of  our  souls.  And  we  beseech  thee,  O 
Lord  God,  to  bless  this  our  present  under- 
taking, and  to  grant  that  this  our  Brother 

MANUAL  463 

may  dedicate  his  life  to  thy  service,  and  be  a 
true  and  faithful  Brother  amongst  us.  Endue 
him  with  Divine  wisdom,  that  he  may.  with 
the  secrets  of  Masonry,  be  able  to  unfold  the 
mysteries  of  godliness  and  Christianity.  This 
we  humbly  beg,  in  the  name  and  for  the  sake 
of  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  and  Saviour,  Amen." 

Dr.  Manningham  rendered  other  important 
services  to  Masonry  by  his  advocacy  of 
healthy  reforms  and  his  determined  opposi- 
tion to  the  schismatic  efforts  of  the  "Ancient 
Masons."  He  died  February  3,  1794.  The 
third  edition  of  the  Book  of  Constitutions 
(1756)  speaks  of  him  in  exalted  terms  as  "a 
diligent  and  active  officer  "  (p.  258.)  Two 
interesting  letters  written  by  Dr.  Manning- 
ham are  given  at  length  in  Gould's  Concise 
History  of  Freemasonry  (pp.  328-334);  one 
dated  December  3,  1756,  and  addressed  to 
what  was  then  the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  of 
Holland,  refusing  leave  for  the  holding  of 
Scotch  Lodges  and  pointing  out  that  Free- 
masonry is  the  same  in  all  parts  of  the 
world;  and  another  dated  July  12, 1757,  also 
dealing  with  the  so-called  Scotch  Masonry, 
and  explaining  that  its  orders  of  Knighthood 
were  unknown  in  England,  where  the  only 
Orders  known  are  those  of  Masters,  Fellow- 
Crafts,  and  Apprentices.  [E.  L.  H.] 

Mantle.  A  dress  placed  over  all  the 
others.  It  is  of  very  ancient  date,  being  a 
part  of  the  costume  of  the  Hebrews,  Greeks, 
and  Romans.  Among  the  Anglo-Saxons  it 
was  the  decisive  mark  of  military  rank,  being 
confined  to  the  cavalry.  In  the  Medieval 
ages,  and  on  the  institution  of  chivalry,  the 
long,  trailing  mantle  was  especially  reserved 
as  one  of  the  insignia  of  knighthood,  and  was 
worn  by  the  knight  as  the  most  august  and 
noble  decoration  that  he  could  have,  when  he 
was  not  dressed  in  his  armor.  The  general 
color  of  the  mantle,  in  imitation  of  that  of  the 
Roman  soldiers,  was  scarlet,  which  was  lined 
with  ermine  or  other  precious  furs.  But  some 
of  the  Orders  wore  mantles  of  other  colors. 
Thus  the  Knights  Templar  were  clothed  with 
a  white  mantle  having  a  red  cross  on  the 
.breast,  and  the  Knights  Hospitalers  a  black 
mantle  with  a  white  cross.  The  mantle  is 
still  Worn  in  England  and  other  countries  of 
Europe  as  a  mark  of  rank  on  state  occasions 
by  peers,  and  by  some  magistrates  as  a 
token  of  official  rank. 

Mantle  of  Honor.  The  mantle  worn  by 
a  knight  was  called  the  Mantle  of  Honor. 
This  mantle  was  presented  to  a  knight  when- 
ever he  was  made  by  the  king. 

Manu.  By  reference  to  the  Book  of  the 
Dead,  it  will  be  found  that  this  word  covers 
an  ideal  space  corresponding  to  the  word 
west,  in  whose  bosom  is  received  the  setting 
sun.     (See  Truth.) 

Manual.  Relating  to  the  hand,  from  the 
Latin  manus,  a  hand.  See  the  Masonic  use 
of  the  word  in  the  next  two  articles. 

Manual  Point  of  Entrance.  Masons  are, 
in  a  peculiar  manner,  reminded,  by  the  hand, 
of  the  necessity  of  a  prudent  and  careful 
observance  of  all  their  pledges  and  duties,  and 




hence  this  organ  suggests  certain  symbolic  in- 
structions in  relation  to  the  virtue  of  prudence. 

Manual  Sign.  In  the  early  English 
lectures  this  term  is  applied  to  what  is  now 
called  the  Manual  Point  of  Entrance. 

Manuscripts.  Anderson  tells  us,  in  the 
second  edition  of  his  Constitutions,  that  in 
the  year  1717  Grand  Master  Payne  "desired 
any  brethren  to  bring  to  the  Grand  Lodge  any 
old  writings  and  records  concerning  Masons 
and  Masonry,  in  order  to  show  the  usages  of 
ancient  times,  and  several  old  copies  of  the 
Gothic  Constitutions  were  produced  and 
collated"  (Constitutions,  1738,  p.  110);  but 
in  consequence  of  a  jealous  supposition  that 
it  would  be  wrong  to  commit  anything  to 
print  which  related  to  Masonry,  an  act  of 
Masonic  vandalism  was  perpetrated.  For 
Anderson  further  informs  us  that  in  173),  "  at 
some  private  Lodges,  several  very  valuable 
manuscripts  (for  they  had  nothing  yet  in 
print),  concerning  the  Fraternity, their  Lodges, 
Regulations,  Charges,  Secrets,  and  Usages, 
(particularly^  one  written  by  Mr.  Nicholas 
Stone,  the  Warden  of  Inigo  Jones,)  were  too 
hastily  burnt  by  some  scrupulous  Brothers, 
that  those  papers  might  not  fall  into  strange 
hands."  (Ibid,  p.,  111.)  .     ,  ,  . 

The  recent  labors  of  Masome  scholars  in 
England,  among  whom  the  late  William  James 
Hugh  an  deserves  especial  notice,  have  suc- 
ceeded m  rescuing  many  of  the  old  Masonic 
manuscripts  from  oblivion,  and  we  are  now 
actually  in  possession  of  more  of  these  hereto- 
fore unpublished  treasures  of  the  Craft  than 
were  probably  accessible  to  Anderson  and  his 
contemporaries.     (See  Records,  Old.) 

Manuscripts,  Apocryphal.  There  are 
certain  documents  that  at  varioustimes  have 
been  accepted  as  genuine,  but  which  are  now 
rejected,  and  considered  to  be  fabrications,  by 
most,  if  not  by  all,  critical  Masonic  writers. 

The  question  of  their  authenticity  has  been 
thoroughly  gone  into  by  R.F.  Gould  in  Ch. 
XI.  of  his  History  of  Freemasonry,  and  he 
places  them  all  "within  the  category  of  Apoc 

The  first  is  the  "Inland-Locke  MS."  (See 
Leland  MS.)  The  second  is  the  "Steinmetz 
Catechism,"  given  by  Krause  as  one  of  the 
three  oldest  documents  belonging  to  the  Craft, 
but  of  which  Gould  says,  "  there  appears  to  me 
nothing  in  the  preceding  'examination'  (or 
catechism)  that  is  capable  of  sustaining  the 
claims  to  antiquity  which  have  been  ad- 
vanced on  its  behalf."  The  third  is  the 
Malcolm  Canmore  Charter,  which  came  to  light 
in  1806,  consequent  upon  the  "claim  of  the 
'Glasgow  Freemen.  Operative  St.  John's 

Lodge' to  take  precedence  of  the  other-Lodges 
in  the  Masonic  procession,  at  the  laying  of  the 
fouttdation-stone  of  Nelson's  monument  on 
'Glasgow  Green,'  although  at  that  time  it 
was  an  independent  organisation."  Accord- 
ing to  the  Charter,  the  Glasgow  St.  John's 
Lodge  was  given  priority  over  all  the  other 
Lodges  in  Scotland  by  Malcolm  III.,  King  of 
Scots,  in  1051.  The  controversy  as  to  the 
document  was  lively,  but  finally  it  was  pro- 
nounced to  be  a  manufactured  parchment, 
and  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland  declined  to 
recognise  it  of  value.  The  fourth  MS.  is  that 
of  Krause,  known  as  Prince  Edwin's  Constitu- 
tion of  9m.  Upon  this  unquestioned  reliance 
had  for  decades  been  placed,  then  it  came 
to  be  doubted,  and  is  now  little  credited  by 
inquiring  Masons.  Bro.  Gould  closes  his  re- 
cital of  criticisms  with  the  remark:  "The 
original  document,  as  commonly  happens  in 
forgeries  of  this  description,  is  missing;  and 
how,  under  all  the  circumstances  of  the  case 
Krause  could  have  constituted  himself  the 
champion  of  its  authenticity,  it  is  difficult  to 
conjecture.  Possibly,  however,  the  explana- 
tion may  be,  that  in  impostures  of  this  char- 
acter, credulity,  on  the  one  part,  is  a  strong 
temptation  to  deceit  oh  the  other,  especially 
to  deceit  of  which  no  personal  injury  is  the 
consequence,  and  which  flatters  the  student  of 
old  documents  with  bis  own  ingenuity."  These 
remarks  are  specially  quoted  as  relating  to 
almost  all  apocryphal  documents.  The  fifth  is 
the  Charter  of  Cologne,  a  document  in  cipher, 
bearing  the  date  June  24.  1535,  as  to  which 
see  Cologne,  Charter  of.  The  sixth  is  the  Lar- 
menius  Charter,  or  The  Charter  of  Transmission, 
upon  which  rest  the  claims  of  the  French 
Order  of  the  Temple  to  being  the  lineal  suc- 
cessors of  the  historic  Knights  Templary  for 
which  see  Temple,  Order  of  the.    IE.  L.  H.J 

Manuscripts,  Old.  The  following  is  a 
list,  arranged  as  far  as  possible  in  sequence 
of  age,  of  the  old  Masonic  MSS.,  now  usually 
known  as  the  Old  Charges.  They  generally 
consist  of  three  parts— first,  an  opening 
prayer  or  invocation:  second,  the \  legendary 
nistory  of  the  Craft ;  third,  the  peculiar  statutes 
and  duties,  the  regulations  and  observances, 
incumbent  on  Masons.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  they  were  read  to  candidates  on  their 
initiation,  and  probably  each  Lodge  had  a 
copy  which  was  used  for  this  purpose.  The 
late  Bro.  W.  J.  Hughan  made  a  special  study 
of  these  old  MSS.,  and  was  instrumental  in  dis- 
covering a  great  many  of  them;  and  his  book 
The  Old  Charges  of  British  Freemasons,  pub- 
lished in  1895,  is  the  standard  work  on  the 


Regius  (also  Halliwell) 

..area  1390.. 

Cooke  circa  1450.. 

Grand  Lodge,  No.  1. . . .  1883 

Owner.  When  and  Where  Published. 

.British  Museum  By  Mr.  Halliwell  in  1840  and  1844; 

by  Mr.  Whymper  in  1889s  by,  the 
Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1889. 

.British  Museum  By  Mr.  Cooke  in  1861;  by  the  Quatuor 

Coronati  Lodge  in  1890. 

.Grand  Lodge  of  England. ..  .By  W.  J.  Hughan,  in  Old  Charges, 
1872;  by  H.  Sadler,  in  isotonic  Facte 
and  Fictions,  1887;  in  Hiet.  of 
Freemasonry  and  Concordant  Order*. 
1891;  by  the  Quatuor  Coronati 
Lodge  in  1892. 




Ua             Name.  Date. 
4.   Lansdowne  . . . .  .area  1600. . 

8.  York,  No.  1  efroo  1600. . 

6.  Wood  *   1610  .. 

7.  John  T.  Thorp........     1629  .. 

«.   Sloane,  3848   1646    . . 

9.  Sloans,  3323   1690  .. 

10.  Grand  Lodge,  No.  2. . .  .circa  1850. . 

11.  Harleian,  1942  oirca  1650.. 

12.  G.  W.  Bain  circa  1660. . 

13.  Harleian,  2054  circa  1660. . 

14.  Phillipps,  No.  1  .circa  1677. . 

15.  Phillipps,  No.  2  .circa  1677.. 

-16.   Lochmore  1660-1700 . . 

17.  Buchanan   1650-1700 . . 

18.  Kilwinning  circa  1665. . 

19.  Ancient  Stirling.  1650-1700.. 

20.  Taylor  circa  1650 . , 

2L   Atcheoon  Haven   1666  .. 

22.  Aberdeen   1670  .. 

23.  Melrose,  No.  2.   1674    . . 

24.  Henery  Heads   1675  . 

25.  Stanley   1677  . 

26.  Carson   1677  . 

27.  Antiquity   1686  . 

28.  Col.  Clerke   1686  . 

29.  William  Watson   1687  . 

80.   T.  W.  Tew.  circa  1680. 

31.  Inigo  Jones  ..circa  1680. 

32.  Dumfries,  No.  1  1675-1700. 

33.  Dumfries,  No.  2. ......  1675-1700, 

34.  Beaumont,  1675-1700 

35.  Dumfries,  No/<8  1875-1700, 


Owner.  When  and  Where  Published. 

British  Museum.  In    Freemasons'    Quarterly  Review, 

1848;  in  Freemasons'  Maoatme, 
1858;  in  Hughan's  Old  Charges, 
1872;  by  the  Quatuor  Coronati 
Lodge  in  1890. 

York  Lodge,  No.  236  In  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1872;  in 

Masonic  Magazine,  1873;  in  Ancient 
York  Masonic  Rolls,  1894. 
Prov.  G.  Lodge  of  Worcester.  In  Masonic  Magaeine,  1881;  by  the 

Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1895. 
J,  T.  Thorp,  Esq.  (Leicester)  .la  Are  Quatuor  Cmonatarum,  vol.  ix., 
1898;  in  Lodge  of  Research  Trans- 
action; 1898-99. 

British  Museum  In  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1872;  in  Ma- 
sonic Magazine,  1873;  by  the  Quat- 
uor Coronati  Lodge  in  1891, 
.British  Museum  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 
prints, 1871 ;  by  the  Quatuor  Coro- 
.  nati  Lodge  in  1891. 
.Grand  Lodge  of  England....  By  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in 

•British  Museum  In  Freemasons'  Quarterly  Renew,  1836; 

in  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1872;  by 
the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1890. 
.  R.  Wilson,  Esq.  (Leeds). ...  -In  Ars  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  xx., 

.  British  Museum  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 
prints, 1871;  in  Masonic  Magaeine, 
1873;  by  the  Quatuor  Coronati 
Lodge  in  1891. 

.Rev.  J.  E.  A.  Fenwiok  (Chel-  . 
tenham)  By  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in 

"  In    Masonic    Magaeine,    1876;  in 

Archmological  Library,  1878;  by  the 
Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1894. 
Prov.  G.  Lodge  of  Worcester.  In  Masonic  Magaeine,  1882. 
.Grand  Lodge  of  England.... In  Gould's  Hit,  of.Frcemaeomjf,  by 

Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1892. 
.Mother    EBwinning    Lodge  . 

(Scotland)  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 

prints,  1871;  in  Lyon's  ll\sl.  of  the 
Lodge  of  Edinburgh,  1873. 

.  .Ancient  Stirling  Lodge  (Soot- 

land)  77?  By  Hughan  in  1893. 

.Prov.   G.   Lodge  of  West   ■  ,      _       ,  ,  . 

Yorkshire.  In  Are  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  xxi., 


,  .G.  Lodge  of  Scotland  In  Lyon's  Hist,  of  the  Lodge  of  Edin- 
burgh, 1873. 

,  .Aberdeen  Lodge,  No.  1  trie.  .In  Voice  of  Masonry,  Chicago,  TJ.  S.  A., 

1874;  in  Freemason,  1895. 
.  .Melrose  St.  John  Lodge,  No.  .  , 

l  bis  (Scotland)  In  Masonic  Magazine,  1880;  in  Ver- 
non's Hist,  of  F.  M.  m  Roxburgh, 
etc.,  1893. 

.  .Inner  Temple  Library  (Lon- 

Jon!  .In  Ate  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  xn., 

.    '  '  1908. 
.  .West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Li-  ,  . 

brary   In  West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reproduc- 
tions, 1893. 

..E.  T.  Carson,  Esq,  (Cincin- 

nati,  U.  S.  A.)  In  Masonic  Review  (Cincinnati),  1890; 

in  Freemasons'  Chronicle,  1890. 
..Lodge  of  Antiquity,  No.  2  „t  ,QTO 

(London)  .   In  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1872. 

Grand  Lodge  of  England  In  Freemason,  1888;  in  Conders  Hole 

Crafte,  etc.,  1894. 
..West  Yorkshire  Masonie  Li-  .   _  ,  „ 

hrarv   .In  Freemason,  1891;  in  West  Yorkshire 

Masonic  Reprints,  1891;  by  the 
Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1891. 

.  .West  Yorkshire  Masonio  Li-       ...         _  ,„„„  . 

hrarv   In   Christmas  Freemason,    1888;  in 

  West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 

1889  and  1892. 

..Worcestershire  Masonio  Li-  ,„,    .  . 

hrarv  In  Afascroe  Magazine,  1881;  by  the 

Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in  1895. 
..Dumfries  Kflwmning  Lodge,  . 

No.  53  (Sootland)  In  Smith's  Hist,  of  the  Old  Lodge  o! 

Dumfries,  1892.  . 
In  Christmas  Freemason,  1892;  by 
Hughan,  in  1892. 

..Prov.   G.   Lodge  of  West 

Yorkshire  In  Freemason,  1894. 

"  In  Smith's  Hist,  of  the  Old  Lodge  of 

Dumfries,  1892. 




No.  Name.  Date. 

86.  Hope  1675-1700. 

87.  T.  W.  Embletoa  1675-1700 . 

88.  York,  No.  5  circa  1670. 

89.  York,  No.  6 . ,   1675-1700 . 

40.  Colne,  No.  1  ......  1675-1700. 

41.  Clapham   .circa  1700. 

42.  Hughan .  .  1675-1700 . 

43.  Daunteaey  circa  1690. 

44.  Harris,  No.  1   "  . 

45.  David  Ramsey   " 

46.  Langdale   " 

47.  H.  F.  Beaumont   1690  . 

48.  Waistell   1693  . 

49.  York,  No.  4   1693  . 

60.  Thomas  Foxcroft   1699  . 

£1.  Newcastle  College  Roll.. circa  1700. 

62.  John  Strachan   " 

53.  Alnwiok   1701  . 

54.  York,  No.  2   1704  . 

55.  Scarborough   1705  . 

66.  Colne,  No.  2  1700-1725. 

57.  Papworth  circa  1720. 

53.  Macnab   1722  . 

59.  Haddon   1723  . 

60.  Phillipps,  No.  3  1700-1725. 

61.  Dumfries,  No.  4  ...1700-1725. 

62.  Cama  1700-1725. 

63.  Songhurst.  circa  1725. 

64.  Spencer.   1726  . 

65.  Tho.  Carmiok.   1727  . 

66.  Woodford   1728  . 

87.  Supreme  Council.   1728  . 

68.  Gateshead  circa  1730. 

69.  Rawinuon  1725-1750 . 

TO.  Probity  eirea  1736. 

Owner.  When  and  Where  Published. 

..Lodge   of  Hope,   No.  302 

,   (Bradford,  Yorkshire)  In  Hughan's  Old  Charge*,  1872;  in 

West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 

..West  Yorkshire  Masonio  Li- 
brary In  Christmas  Freemason,   1889;  in 

West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 

.  .York  Lodge,  No.  236  In  Masonic  Magazine,  1881;  in  Ancient 

York  Masonic  Constitutions,  1894. 
"  In  Masonic  Magazine,  1880;  in  Ancient 

York  Masonic  Constitutions,  1894. 

. .  Royal  Lancashire  Lodge,  No. 

116  (Colne,  Lancashire). .  .In  Christmas  Freemason,  1887. 
..West  Yorkshire  Masonio  Li- 
brary In  Freemason,  1890;  in  West  Yorkshire 

Masonic  Reprints,  1892. 
"  In  West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 

1892;  in  Freemason,  1892  and  1911. 

.  .R.  Dauntesey,  Esq.  (Man- 
chester)  In  Keystone,  Philadelphia,  1886. 

.  .Bedford  Lodge,  No.  157  (Lon- 
don) In  Freemasons*  Chronicle,  1882. 

.  .The  Library,  Hamburg  In  Freemason,  19Q6. 

..G.  W.  Bain,  Esq.  (Sunder- 
land).. In  Freemason,  1895. 

.  .West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Li- 
brary .In  Freemason,  1894;  in  West  York- 
shire Masonic  Reprints,  1901. 
"  In  West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 

.  .York  Lodge,  No.  236  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 
prints, 1871;  in  Ancient  York  Ma- 
sonic Rolls,  1894. 

.  .Grand  Lodge  of  England. . .  .In  Freemason,  1900. 

..Newcastle  College  of  Rosi- 

cruoians  By'F.  F.  Schnitger  in  1894. 

.  .Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge,  No. 

2076  (London)  In  the  Transactions  of  the  Lodge  of  Re- 
search, 1899-1900. 

.  .Mr.  Turnbull  (Alnwick)  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 
prints, 1871,  and  Old  Charges,  1872; 
by  the  Newcastle  College  of  Rosi- 
cruoians  in  1895. 

.  .York  Lodge,  No.  236  In  Hughan's  Masonic  Sketches  and  Re- 
prints, 1871;  in  Ancient  York  Ma- 
sonic Rolls,  1894. 

.  .G.  Lodge  of  Canada  .In  Philadelphia  Mirror  and  Keystone, 

1860;  in  Canadian  Masonic  Record, 
1874;  in  Masonic  Magazine,  1879; 
by  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in 
1894;  in  Ancient  York  Masonic  Rolls, 

..Royal  Lancashire  Lodge, 
No.  116  (Colne,  Lanca- 
shire) Has  not  been  reproduced. 

.  .W.  Papworth,  Esq.  (London)  .In  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1872. 

..West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Li- 
brary In  West  Yorkshire  Masonic  Reprints, 


..J.  S.  Haddon,  Esq.  (Well- 
ington)  In  Hughan's  Old  Charges,  1895. 

.  .Rev.  J.  E.  A.  Fenwick  (Chel- 
tenham) By  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in 


..Dumfries  Kilwinning  Lodge, 

No.  53  (Sootland)  In  Ars  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  v., 


.  .Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge,  No. 

2076  (London)  By  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  in 


■  •  _  _  _       "  _  Has  not  been  reproduced. 

.  .E.  T.  Carson,  Esq.  (Cincin- 

nati,  U.  S.  A.)  In  Spencer's  Old  Constitutions,  1871. 

..P.  F.  Smith,  Esq.  (Pennsyl- 
vania)  In  Are  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  xxii., 


.  .Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge,  No. 

2076  (London)  A  copy  of  the  Cooke  MS. 

..Supreme  Council,  33°  (Lon- 
don)  "  " 

..Lodge  of  Industry,  No.  48 

(Gateshead,  Durham)  In  Masonic  Magazine,  1875. 

.  .Bodleian  Library  (Oxford):.  .In  Freemasons'  Monthly  Magazine, 
1855;  in  Masonic  Magazine,  1876;  in 
Ars  Quatuor  Coronatorum,  vol.  xi., 

..Probity  Lodge,  No- 61  (Hali- 
fax, Yorkshire)  In  Freemason,  1886;  in  West  Yorkshire 

Masonic  Reprints,  1894 




When  and  Where  Published. 

No.  Name.  Date.  Owner. 

71.  Levandei'-York  circa  1740.  ..P.  W.  Levander,  Esq.  (Lon- 

don) . . .  -.  In   Are   Quatuor   Coronatorum,  vol. 

xviii.,  1005. 

72.  Thistle  Lodge   1756     ..  .Thistle  Lodge,  No.  62  (Dum- 

fries, Scotland)  Has  not  been  reproduced. 

73.  Melrose,  No.  3   1762    ...Melrose  St.  John,  No.  1  bis 

(Scotland)     " 

74.  Crane,  No.  1.   1781     ...Cestrian    Lodge,    No.  425 

(Chester)  In  Freemason,  1884. 

75.  Crane,  No.  2.  .1775-1800... 

76.  Eterris,  No.  2  circa  1781. .  .British  Museum  By  the  Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge  la 


77.  Tnnnah. . . ,  circa  1828. .  .Quatuor  Coronati  Lodge,  No. 

2076  (London)  Has  not  been  reproduced. 

78.  Wren   1852    ...  Unknown  In  Masonic  Magazine,  1879. 

[E.  L.  HJ 

Marcheshran.  ]1WT1>2.  The  second 
montH  of  the  Jewish  civil  year.  It  begins 
with  the  new  moon  in  November,  and  corre- 
sponds, therefore,  to  a  part  of  that  month 
and  of  December. 

Marconis,  Gabriel  Mathieu,  more  fre- 
quently known  as  De  Negre,  from  his  dark 
complexion,  was  the  founder  and  first  G.  Mas- 
ter and  G.  Hierophant  of  the  Kite  of  Mem- 
phis, brought  by  Sam'l  Honis,  a  native  of 
Cairo,  from  Egypt,  in  1814,  who  with  Baron 
Dumas  and  the  Marquis  de  la  Rogne,  founded 
a  Lodge  of  the  Rite  at  Montauban,  France,  on 
April  30,  1815,  which  was  closed  March  7, 
1816.  In  a  work  entitled  The  Sanctuary  of 
Memphis,  by  Jacques  Etienne  Marconis,  the 
author — presumptively  the  son  of  G.  M.  Mar- 
conis^-who  styles  himself  the  founder  of  the 
Rite  o£  Memphis,  thus  briefly  gives  an  account 
of  its  origin :  ' '  The  Rite  of  Memphis,  or  Orien- 
tal Rite,  was  introduced  into  Europe  by 
Ormusi,  a  seraphic  priest  of  Alexandria  and 
Egyptian  sage,  who  had  been  converted  by 
St.  Mark,  and  reformed  the  doctrines  of  the 
Egyptians  in  accordance  with  the  principles 
of  Christianity.  The  disciples  of  Ormus  con- 
tinued until  1118  to  be  the  sole  guardians  of 
ancient  Egyptian  wisdom,  as  purified  by 
Christianity  and  Solomonian  science.  This 
science  they  communicated  to  the  Templars. 
They  ^ere  then  known  by  the  title  of  Knights 
of  Palestine,  or  Brethren  Rose  Croix  of  the 
East.  In  them  the  Rite  of  Memphis  recog- 
nizes its  immediate  founders." 

The  above,  coming  from  the  G.  Hierophant 
and  founder,  should  satisfy  the  most  scru- 
pulous as  to  the  conversion  of  Ormus  by  St. 
Mark,  and  his  then  introducing  the  Memphis 
Rite.  But  Marconis  continues  as  to  the  ob- 
ject and  intention  of  his  Rite:  "The  Masonic 
Rite  of  Memphis  is  a  combination  of  the  an- 
cient mysteries;  it  taught  the  first  men  to 
render  homage  to  the  Deity.  Its  dogmas  are 
based  on  the  principles  of  humanity;  its  mis- 
sion is  the  study  of  that  wisdom  which  serves  to 
discern  truth;  it  is  the  beneficent  dawn  of  the 
developmentof  reasonand  intelligence;  itisthe 
worship  of  the  qualities  of  the  human  heart 
and  the  impression  of  its  vices;  in  fine,  it  is  the 
echo  of  religious  toleration,  the  union  of  all  be- 
lief, the  bond  between  all  men;  the  symbol  of 
sweet  illusions  of  hope,  preaching  the  faith  in 
God  that  saves,  and  the  charity  that  blesses." 

We  are  further  told  by  the  Hierophant 

founder  that  "The  Rite  of  Memphis  is  the 
sole  depository  of  High  Masonry,  the  true 

grimitive  Rite,  the  Rite  par  excellence,  which 
as  come  down  to  us  without  any  alteration, 
and  is  consequently  the  only  Rite  that  can 
justify  its  origin  and  the  combined  exercise  of 
its  rights  by  constitutions,  the  authenticity  of 
which  cannot  be  questioned.  The  Rite  of 
Memphis,  or  Oriental  Rite,  is  the  veritable 
Masonic  tree,  and  all  systems,  whatsoever 
they  be,  are  but  detached  branches  of  this  in- 
stitution, venerable  for  its  great  antiquity,  and 
born  in  Egypt.  The  real  deposit  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  Masonry,  written  in  the  Chaldee  lan- 
guage, is  preserved  in  the  sacred  ark  of  the 
Rite  of  Memphis,  and  in  part  in  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Scotland,  at  Edinburgh,  and  in  the 
Maronite  Convent  on  Mount  Lebanon." 
"Brother  Marconis  de  Negre,  the  Grand  Hier- 
ophant, is  the  sole  consecrated  depositary  of 
the  traditions  of  this  Sublime  Order." 

The  above  is  enough  to  reveal  the  character 
of  the  father  and  reputed  son  for  truth,  as  also 
of  the  institution  founded  by  them,  which, 
like  the  firefly,  is  seen  now  here,  now  there, 
but  with  no  steady  beneficial  light.  (See 
Memphis,  Rite  of.) 

Marconis,  Jacques  Etienne.  Born  at 
Montauban,  January  3,  1795;  died  at  Paris, 
November  21,  1868.    (See  Memphis,  Rite  of.) 

Marduk.  A  victorious  warrior-god,  de- 
scribed on  one  of  the  Assyrian  clay  tablets  of 
the  British  Museum,  who  was  said  to  have  en- 
gaged the  monster  Tiamat  in  a  cosmogonic 
struggle.  He  was  armed  with  a  namzar  (grap- 
pling-hook),  ariktu  (lance),  shihbu  (lasso), 
qashtu  (bow),  zizpau  (club),  and  kabab 
(shield),  together  with  a  dirk  in  each  hand. 

Maria  Theresa.  Empress  of  Austria,  who 
showed  great  hostility  to  Freemasonry,  pre- 
sumably from  religious  leanings  and  advisers. 
Her  husband  was  Francis  I.,  elected  Emperor 
of  Germany  in  1745.  He  was  a  zealous  Mason, 
and  had  been  initiated  at  The  Hague  in  1731, 
at  a  Special  Lodge,  at  which  Lord  Chesterfield 
and  Dr.  Desaguliers  were  present.  He  was 
raised  at  Houghton  Hall,  the  same  year,  while 
on  a  visit  to  England.  He  assisted  to  found 
the  Lodge  "Drei  Kanonen,"  at  Vienna,  consti- 
tuted in  1742.  During  the  forty  years'  reign 
of  Maria  Theresa,  Freemasonry  was  tolerated 
in  Vienna  doubtless  through  the  intercession 
of  the  Emperor.  It  is  stated  in  the  Pocket 
Companion  of  1754,  one  hundred  grenadiers 


468  MARK 

were  sent  to  break  up  the  Lodge,  taking  twelve 
prisoners,  the  Emperor  escaping  by  a  back 
staircase.  He  answered  for  and  freed  the 
twelve  prisoners.  His  son,  Emperor  Joseph, 
inherited  good-will  to,  Masonry.  He  was  G. 
Master  of  the  Viennese  Masons  at  the  time  of 
r  his  death. 

[  I  Mark.  The  appropriate  jewel  of  a  Mark 
Master.  It  is  made  of  gold  or  silver,  usually 
of  the  former  metal,  and  must  be  in  the  form 
of  a  keystone.  On  the  obverse  or  front  sur- 
face, the  device  or  "mark"  selected  by  the 
owner  must  be  engraved  within  a  circle  com- 
posed of  the  following  letters:  H.  T.  W.  S. 
S.  T.  K.  S.  On  the  reverse  or  posterior  sur- 
face, the  name  of  the  owner,  the  name  of  his 
Chapter,  and  the  date  of  his  advancement, 
may  be  inscribed,  although  this  is  not  abso- 
lutely necessary.  The  "mark  "  consists  of  the 
device  and  surrounding  inscription  on  the  ob- 
verse. The  Mark  jewel,  as  prescribed  by  the 
Supreme  Grand  Chapter  of  Scotland,  is  of 
•  mother-of-pearl.  The  circle  on  one  side  is 
inscribed  with  the  Hebrew  letters  ©7iN©N2Xn, 
and  the  circle  on  the  other  side  with  letters 
containing  the  same  meaning  in  the  vernac- 
ular tongue  of  the  country  in  which  the  Chap- 
ter is  situated,  and  the  wearer's  mark  in  the 
center.  The  Hebrew  letters  are  the  initials, 
of  a  Hebrew  sentence  equivalent  to  the  Eng- 
lish one  familiar  to  Mark  Masons.  It  is  but  a 
translation  into  Hebrew  of  the  English  mys- 
tical sentence. 

It  is  not  requisite  that  the  device  or  mark 
should  be  of  a  strictly  Masonic  character,  al- 
though Masonic  emblems  are  frequently  se- 
lected in  preference  to  other  subjects.  As 
soon  as  adopted  it  should  be  drawn  or  de- 
scribed in  a  book  kept  by  the  Chapter  for  that 
purpose,  and  it  is  men  said  to  be  "recorded 
m  the  Book  of  Marks,"  after  which  time  it 
can  never  be  changed  by  the  possessor  for  any 
other;  or  altered  in  the  slightest  degree,  but 
remains  as  his  "mark  "  to  the  day  of  his  death. 

This  mark  is  not  a  mere  ornamental  appen- 
dage of  the  degree,  but  is  a  sacred  token  of  the 
rites  of  friendship  and  brotherly  love,  and  its 
presentation  at  any  time  by  the  owner  to  an- 
other Mark  Master,  would  claim,  from  the 
latter,  certain  acts  of  friendship  which  are  of 
solemn  obligation  among  the  Fraternity.  A 
mark  thus  presented,  for  the  purpose  of  ob- 
taining a  favor,  is  said  to  be  pledged;  though 
remaining  in  the  possession  of  the  owner,  it 
ceases,  for  any  actual  purposes  of  advantage, 
to  be  his  property;  nor  can  it  be  again  used  by 
him  until,  either  by  the  return  of  the  favor,  or 
with  the  consent  of  the  benefactor,  it  has  been 
redeemed;  for  it  is  a  positive  law  of  the  Order, 
that  no  Mark  Master  shall  "pledge  his  mark  a 
second  time  until  he  has  redeemed  it  from  its 
previous  pledge."  By  this  wise  provision,  the 
unworthy  are  prevented  from  making  an  im- 
proper use  of  this  valuable  token,  or  from  levy- 
ing contributions  on  their  hospitable  brethren. 
Marks  or  pledges  of  this  kind  were  of  frequent 
use  among  the  ancients,  under  the  name  of 
tessera  hospitalis  and  "arrhabo."  The  nature 
of  the  tessera  hospitalis,  or,  as  the  Greeks 


called  it,  ein$o\ov,  cannot  be  better  described 
than  in  the  words  of  the  Scholiast  on  the 
Medea  of  Euripides,  v.  613,  where  Jason  prom- 
ises Medea,  on  her  parting  from  him,-  to  send 
her  the  symbols  of  hospitality  which  should 
procure  her  a  kind  reception  in  foreign  coun- 
tries. It  was  the  custom,  says  the  Scholiast, 
when  a  guest  had  been  entertained,  to  break  a 
die  in  two  parts,  one  of  which  parts  was  re- 
tained by  the  guest,  so  that  if,  at  any  future 
period  he  required  assistance,  on  exhibiting 
the  broken  pieces  of  the  die  to  each  other,  the 
friendship  was  renewed.  Plautus,  in  one  of  his 
comedies,  gives  us  an  exemplification  of  the 
manner  m  which  these  tesserm  or  pledges  of 
friendship  were  used  at  Rome,  whence  it  ap- 
pears that  the  privileges  of  this  friendship 
were  extended  to  the  descendants  of  the  con- 
tracting parties.  Pcenulus  is  introduced, 
inquiring  for  Agorastocles,  with  whose  family 
he  had  formerly  exchanged  the  tessera. 

Ag.  Siquidem  Antidimarchi  quceria  adopta- 

Ego  sum  ipsus  quem  tu  quseris. 

Pan.   Hem!  quid  ego  audio? 

Ag.   Antidamae  me  gnatum  esse. 

Pcen.    Si  ita  est,  tesseram 
Conferre  si  vis  hospitalem,  eccam,  attuli. 

Ag.  Agedum  hue  ostende;  est  par  probe;  nam 
habeo  domum. 

Pcen.  O  mi  hospes,  salve  multum;  nam  mini 
tuus  pater, 

Pater  tuus  ergo  hOspes,  Antidamas  fuit: 
Haeo  mini  hospitalis  tessera  cum  illo  fuit. 

Pamul. ,  act.  v.,  s.  e.  2,  ver.  85, 

Ag.    Antidimarchua'  adopted  son, 
If  you  do  seek,  I  am  the  very  man. 

Pom.   How!  do  I  hear  aright? 

Ag.    I  am  the  son 
Of  old  Antidamus. 

Pan.   If  so,  I  pray  you  > 
Compare  with  me  the  hospitable  die 
I've  brought  this  with  me. 

Ag.    Prithee,  let  me  see  it. 
It  is,  indeed,  the  very  counterpart 
Of  mine  at  home. 

Pan.   All  hail,  my  welcome  guest, 
Your  father  was  my  guest,  Antidamus. 
Your  father  was  my  honored  guest,  and  then 
This  hospitable  die  with  me  he  parted. 

These  tesserm,  thus  used,  like  the  Mark 
Master's  mark,  for  the  purposes  of  perpetuat- 
ing friendship  and  rendering  its  union  more 
sacred,  were  constructed  in  the  following  man- 
ner: they  took  a  small  piece  of  bone,  ivory, 
or  stone;  generally  of  a  square  or  cubical  ,form, 
and  dividing  it  into  equal  parts,  each  wrote 
his  own  name,  or  some  other  inscription,  upon 
one  of  the  pieces;  they  then  made  a  mutual 
exchange,  and,  lest  falling  into  other  hands  it 
should  give  occasion  to  imposture,  the  pledge 
was  preserved  with  the  greatest  secrecy,  and 
no  one  knew  the  name  inscribed  upon  it  ex- 
cept the  possessor. 

The  primitive  Christians  seem  to  have 
adopted  a  similar  practise,  and  the  tessera  was 
earned  by  them  in  their  travels,  as  a  means  of 
introduction  to  their  fellow  Christians.  A 
favorite  inscription  with  them  were  the  letters 
n.  T.  A.  n.,  being  the  initials  of  nanp,  riot, 
A71W  xivtupa,  or  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost 




The  use  of  these  tesserae,  in  the  place  of  written 
certificates,  continued,  says  Dr.  Harris  (Diss. 
on  the  Tess.  Hosp.),  until  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury, at  which  time  they  are  mentioned  by 
Burcfyardus,  Archbishop  of  Worms,  in  a  visi- 
tation charge. 

The  "arrhaho"  was  a  similar  keepsake, 
formed  by  breaking  a  piece  of  money  in  two. 
The  etymology  of  this  word  shows  distinctly 
that  the  Romans  borrowed  the  custom  of 
these  pledges  from  the  ancient  Israelites,  for 
it  is  derived  from  the  Hebrew arabon,  a  pledge. 

With  this  detail  of  "the  customs  of  the 
ancients  before  us,  we  can  easily  explain  the 
well-known  passage  in  Revelation  ii.  17: 
"  To  him  that  overcometh  will  I  give  a  white 
stone,  and  in  it  a  new  name  written,_ which  no 
man  knoweth  saving  he  that  receiveth  it." 
That  is,  to  borrow  the  interpretation  of  Har- 
ris, '<To  him  that  overcometh  will  I  give  a 

E ledge  of  my  affection,  which  shall  constitute 
im  my  friend,  and  entitle  him  to  privileges 
and  honors  of  which  none  else  can  know  the 
value  or  the  extent." 

Mark  Man.  According  to  Masonic  tradi- 
tion, the  Mark  Men  were  the  Wardens,  as  the 
Marlj  Masters  were  the  Masters  of  the  Fellow- 
Craft  Lodge?,  at  the  building  of  the  Temple. 
They  distributed  the  marks  to  the  workmen, 
and  pi&de  the  first  inspection  of  the  work, 
whic%  was  afterward  to  be  approved  by  the 
overaeers.  As  a  degree,  the  Mark  Man  is  not 
recognized  in  the  United  States. .  In  England 
it  is  sometimes,  but  not  generally,  worked  as 
preparatory  to  the  degree  of  Mark  Master. 
In  Scotland,  in  1778,  it  was  given  to  Fellow- 
Crafts,  while  the  Mark  Master  was  restricted 
to  Master  Masons.  It  is  not  recognized  in 
the  present  regulations  of  the  Supreme  Grand 
Chapter  of  Scotland.  Much  of  the  esoteric 
ritual  of  the  Mark  Man  has  been  incorporated 
into  the  Mark  Master  of  the  American  Sys- 

f)  M»rk  Master.  The  Fourth  Degree  of  the 
American  Rite.  The  traditions  of  the  degree 
mak^  it  of  great  historical  importance,  since 
by  them  we  are  informed  that  by  its  influence 
each  Operative  Mason  at  the  building  of  the 
Temple  was  known  and  distinguished,  and  the 
disorder  and  confusion  which  might  otherwise 
have!  attended  so  immense  an  undertaking 
was  completely  prevented.  Not  less  useful 
is  it  in  its  symbolic  signification.  As  illustra- 
tive of  the  Fellow-Craft,  the  Fourth  Degree  is 
particularly  directed  to  the  inculcation  of 
order,  regularity,  and  discipline.  It  teaches 
us  that  we  should  discharge  all  the  duties  of 
our  several  stations  with  precision  and  punc- 
tuality; that  the  work  of  our  hands  .and  the 
thoughts  of  our  hearts  should  be  good  and 
true^-not  unfinished  and  imperfect,  not  sin- 
ful and  defective — but  such  as  the  Great 
Overseer  and  Judge  of  heaven  and  earth  will 
see  fit  to  approve  as  a  worthy  oblation  from 
his  creatures.  If  the  Fellow-Craft's  Degree  is 
devoted  to  the  inculcation  of  learning,  that  of 
the  Mark  Master  is  intended  to  instruct  us 
howlthat  learning  can  most  usefully  and  ju- 
diciously be  employed  for  pur  own  honor  and 

the  profit  of  others.  And  it  holds  forth  to  the 
desponding  the  encouraging  thought  that  al- 
though our  motives  may  sometimes  be  misin- 
terpreted by  our  erring  fellow  mortals,  our  at- 
tainments be  underrated,  and  our  reputations 
be  traduced  by  the  envious  and  malicious, 
there  is  one,  at  least,  who  sees  not  with  the 
eyes  of  man,  but  may  yet  make  that  stone 
which  the  builders  rejected,  the  head  of  the 
comer.  The  intimate  connection  then,  be- 
tween the  Second  and  Fourth  degrees  of  Ma- 
sonry, is  this,  that  while  one  inculcates  the  nec- 
essary exercise  of  all  the  duties  of  life,  the 
other  teaches  the  importance  of  performing 
them  with  systematic  regularity.  The  true 
Mark  Master  is  a  type  of  that  man  mentioned 
in  the  sacred  parable,  who  received  from  his 
master  this  approving  language — "  Well  done, 
good  and  faithful  servant;  thou  hast  been 
faithful  over  a  few  things,  I  will  make  thee 
ruler  over  many  things:  enter  thou  into  the 
joys  of  thy  Lord." 

In  America,  the  Mark  Master's  is  the  first 
degree  given  in  a  Royal  Arch  Chapter.  Its 
officers  are  a  Right  Worshipful  Master,  Sen- 
ior and  Junior  wardens,  Secretary,  Treas- 
urer, Senior  and  Junior  Deacons,  Master, 
Senior  and  Junior  Overseers.  The  degree 
cannot  be  conferred  when  less  than  six  are 
present,  who,  in  that  case,  must  be  the  first 
and  last  three  officers  above  named.  The 
working  tools  are  the  MaUet  and  Indenting 
Chisel  (which  see).  The  symbolic  color  is 
purple.  The  Mark  Master's  Degree  is  now 
given  in  England  under  the  authority  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Mark  Masters,  which  was 
established  in  June,  1856,  and  is  a  jurisdiction 
independent  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The  officers 
are  the  same  as  in  America,  with  the  addition 
of  a  Chaplain,  Director  of  Ceremonies,  As- 
sistant Director,  Registrar  of  Marks,  Inner 
Guard  or  Time  Keeper,  and  two  Stewards. 
Master  J^asons  are  eligible  for  initiation.  Bro. 
Hughan  says  that  the  degree  is  virtually  the 
same  in  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  It 
differs,  however,  in  some  respects  from  the 
American  degree. 

Mark  of  tbe  Graft,  Regular.  In  the 
Mark  Degree  there  is  a  certain  atone  which  is 
said,  in  the  ritual,  not  to  have  upon  it  the  reg- 
ular mark  of  the  Craft,  This  expression  is  de- 
rived from  the  following  tradition  of  the  de- 
gree. At  the  building  of  the  Temple,  each 
workman  placed  his  own  mark  upon  his  own 
materials,  so  that  the  workmanship  of  every 
Mason  might  be  readily  distinguished,  and 
praise  or  blame  be  justly  awarded.  These 
marks,  according  to  the  lectures,  consisted  of 
mathematical  figures,  squares,  angles,  lines, 
and  perpendiculars,  and  hence  any  figure  of  a 
different  kind,  such  as  a  circle,  would  not  be 
deemed  "the  regular  mark  of  the  Craft." 
Of  the  three  stones  used  in  the  Mark  Degree, 
one  is  inscribed  with  a  square  and  another 
with  a  plumb  or  perpendicular,  because  these 
were  marks  familiar  to  the  Craft ;_  but  the 
thirdj  which  is  inscribed  with  a  circle  and 
certain  hieroglyphics,  was  not  known,  ftad  was, 
not,  therefore,  called  "regular," 

470  MARKS 

Marks  of  the  Craft.  In  former  times. 
Operative  Masons,  the  "Steinmetzen"  of 
Germany,  _  were  accustomed  to  place  some 
mark  or  sign  of  their  own  invention,  which, 
like  the  monogram  of  the  painters,  would 
seem  to  identify  the  work  of  each.  They  are 
to  be  found  upon  the  cathedrals,  churches, 
castles,  and  other  stately  buildings  erected 
since  the  twelfth  century,  or  a  little  earlier, 
in  Germany,  France,  England,  and  Scotland. 
As  Mr.  Godwin  has  observed  in  his  History  in 
Ruins,  it  is  curious  to  see  that  these  marks 
are  of  the  same  character,  in  form,  in  all  these 
different  countries.  They  were  principally 
crosses,  triangles,  and  other  mathematical 
figures,  and  many  of  them  were  religious  sym- 
bols. Specimens  taken  from  different  build- 
ings supply  such  forms  as  follow. 

V  A  X  + 

+  EB  A  ^ 
H  ^xo 

The  last  of  these  is  the  well-known  vesica 
piscis,  the  symbol  of  Christ  among  the  prim- 
itive Christians,  and  the  last  but  one  is  the 
Pythagorean  pentalpha.  A  writer  m-  the 
London  Times  (August  13, 1835)  is  incorrect  in 
stating  that  these  marks  are  confined  to  Ger- 
many, and  are  to  be  found  only  since  the 
twelfth  or  thirteenth  centuries.  More  recent 
researches  have  shown  that  they  existed  in 
many  other  countries,  especially  in  Scotland, 
and  that  they  were  practised  by  the  builders 
of  ancient  times.  Thus  Ainsworth,  in  his 
Travels  (ii.,  167),  tells  us,  in  his  description  of 
the  ruins  of  Al-Hadhv  in  Mesopotamia,  that 
"every  stone,  not  only  in  the  chief  building, 
but  in  the  walls  and  bastions  and  other  public 
monuments,  when  not  defaced  by  time,  is 
marked  with  a  character  which  is  for  the  most 

Salt  either,  a  Chaldean  letter  or  numeral." 
I.  Didron,  who  reported  a  series  of  observa- 
tions on  the  subject  of  these  Masons'  marks  to 
the  Comite"  Historique  des  Arts  et  Monumens  of 
Paris,  believes  that  he  can  discover  in  them 
references  to  distinct  schools  or  Lodges  of 
Masons.  He  divides  them  into  two  classes: 
those  of  the  overseers,  and  those  of  the 
men  who  worked  the  stones.  The  marks  of  the 
first  class  consist  of  monogrammatic  charac- 
ters; those  of  the  second,  are  of  the  nature  of 
symbols,  such  as  shoes,  trowels,  mallets,  etc. 

A  correspondent  of  the  Freemasons'  Quar- 
terly Review  states  that  similar  marks  are  to  be 
found  on  the  stones  which  compose  the  walls 
of  the  fortress  of  Allahabad,  which  was  erected 
in  1642,  in  the  East  Indies.  "  The  walls,"  says 
this  writer,  "are  composed  of  large  oblong 


blocks  of  red  granite,  and  are  almost  every- 
where covered  by  Masonic  emblems,  which 
evince  something  more  than  mere  ornament. 
They  are  not  confined  to  one  particular  spot, 
but  are  scattered  over  the  walls  of  the  fortress, 
in  many  places  as  high  as  thirty  or  forty  feet 
from  the  ground.  It  is  quite  certain  that 
thousands  of  stones  on  the  walls,  -  bearing 
these  Masonic  symbols,  were  carved,  marked, 
and  numbered  in  the  quarry  previous  to  the 
erection  of  the  building." 

In  the  ancient  buildings  of  England  and 
France,  these  marks  are  to  be  found  in  great 
abundance.  In  a  communication,  on  this 
subject,  to  the  London  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
Mr.  Godwin  _  states  that,  "in  my  opinion, 
these  marks,  if  collected  and  compared  might 
assist  in  connecting  the  various  bands  of  op- 
eratives, who,  under  the  protection  of  the 
Church — mystically  united — spread  them- 
selves over  Europe  during  the  Middle  Ages, 
and  are  known  as  Freemasons."  Mr.  Godwin 
describes  these  marks  as  varying  in  length 
from  two  to  seven  inches,  and  as  formed  by  a 
single  line,  slightly  indented,  consisting  chiefly 
of  crosses,  known  Masonic  symbols,  em- 
blems of  the  Trinity  and  of  eternity,  the 
double  triangle,  trowel,  square,  etc. 

The  same  writer  observes  that,  in  a  conver- 
sation, in  September,  1844,  with  a  Mason  at 
work  on  the  Canterbury  Cathedral,  he  "found 
that  many  Masons  (all  who  were  Freemasons) 
had  their  mystic  marks  handed  down  from 
generation  to  generation:  this  man  had  his 
mark  from  his  father,  and  he  received  it  from 
his  grandfather." 

Marrow  In  the  Bone.  An  absurd  corrup- 
tion of  a  Jewish  word,  and  still  more  absurdly 
said  to  be  its  translation.  It  has  no  appro- 
priate signification  in  the  place  to  which  it  is 
applied,  but  was  once  religiously  believed  in 
by  many  Masons,  who,  being  ignorant  of  the 
Hebrew  language,  accepted  it  as  a  true  inter- 
pretation. It  is  now  universally  rejected  by 
the  intelligent  portion  of  the  Craft. 

Marseilles,  Mother  Lodge  of.  A  Lodge 
was  established  in  1748,  at  Marseilles,  in 
France,  Thory  says,  by  a  traveling  Mason, 
under  the  name  of  St.  Jean  d'Ecosse.  It 
afterward  assumed  the  name  of  Mother 
Lodge  of  Marseilles,  and  still  later  the  name 
of  Scottish  Mother  Lodge  of  France.  It 
granted  Warrants  of  its  own  authority  for 
Lodges  in  France  and  in  the  colonies;  among 
others  for  one  at  New  Orleans,  in  Louisiana. 

Marshal.  An  officer  common  to  several 
Masonic  bodies,  whose  duty  is  to  regulate  pro- 
cessions and  other  public  solemnities.  In 
Grand  bodies  he  is  called  a  Grand  Marshal. 
In  the  American  Royal  Arch  System,  the  Cap- 
tain of  the  Host  acts  on  public  occasions  as , 
the'Marshal.  The  Marshal's  ensign  of  office  is 
a  baton  or  short  rod.  The  office  of  Marshal 
in  State  affairs  is  very  ancient.  It  was  found 
in  the  court  of  the  Byzantine  emperors,  and  was 
introduced  into  England  from  France  at  the 
period  of  the  conquest.  His  badge  of  office 
was  at  first  a  rod  or  verge,  which  was  afterward 
abbreviated  to  the  baton,  for,  as  an  q1<J  writer 


has  observed  (Thinne),  "the  verge  or  rod  was 
the  ensign  of  him  who  had  authority  to  reform 
evil  in  warre  and  in  peace,  and  to  see  quiet 
and  order  observed  among  the  people." 

M artel.  Charles  Martel,  who  died  in  741, 
although  not  actually  king,  reigned  over 
France  under  the  title  of  Mayor  of  the  Palace. 
Rebdld  (Hist.  Gen.,  p.  69)  says  that  "at  the 
request  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  kings,  he  sent 
workmen  and  Masters  into  England."  The 
Operative  Masons  of  the  Middle  Ages  consid- 
ered him  as  one  of  their  patrons,  and  give  the 
following  account  of  him  in  their  Legend  of 
the  Craft.  "  There  was  one  of  the  Royal  line 
of  France  called  Charles  Marshall,  and  he  was 
a  man  that  loved  well  the  said  Craft  and  took 
upon  him  the  Rules  and  Manners,  and  after 
that  By  the  Grace  of  God  he  was  elect  to  be 
the  King  of  France,  and  when  he  was  in  his 
Estate,  he  helped  to  make  those  Masons  that 
were  now,  and  sett  them  on  Work  and  gave 
them  Charges  and  Manners  and  good  pay  as 
he  had  learned  of  other  Masons,  and  con- 
firmed them  a  Charter  from  yeare  to  yeare  to 
hold  their  Assembly  When  they  would,  and 
Cherished  them  right  well,  and  thus  came  this 
Noble  Craft  into  France,"  (Lansdowne  MS.) 

Martha.  The  Fourth  Degree  of  the 
Eastern  Star;  a  Rite  of  American  Adoptive 

Martlnlsm.  The  Rite  of  Martinism, 
called  also  the  Rectified  Rite,  was  instituted 
at  Lyons,  by  the  Marquis  de  St.  Martin,  a 
disciple  of  Martinez  Paschalis,  of  whose  Rite 
it  was  pretended  to  be  a  reform.  Martinism 
was  divided  into  two  classes,  called  Temples, 
in  which  were  the  following  degrees: 

I.  Temple.  1.  Apprentice.  2.  Fellow- 
Craft.  3.  Master  Mason.  4.  Past  Master. 
5.  Elect.  6.  Grand  Architect.  7.  Mason  of 
the  Secret. 

if.  Temple.  8.  Prince  of  Jerusalem.  9. 
Knight  of  Palestine.    10.  Kadosh. 

The  degrees  of  Martinism  abounded  in  the 
reveries  of  the  Mystics.    (See  Saint  Martin.) 

Martin,  Louis  Claude  de  St.  See  Saint 

Martyr.   A  title  bestowed  by  the  Tem- 

Slars  on  their  last  Grand  Master,  James  de 
lolay.  If,  as  Du  Cange  says,  the  Church 
sometimes  gives  the  title  of  martyr  to  men  of 
illustrious  sanctity,  who  have  suffered  death 
not  for  the  confession  of  the  name  of  Christ, 
but  for  some  other  cause,  being  slain  by  im- 
pious men,  then  De  Molay,  as  the  innocent 
victim  of  the  malignant  schemes  of  an  atro- 
cious pope  and  king,  was  clearly  entitled  to 
the  appellation. 

Martyrs,  Four  Crowned.  See  Four 
Crowned  Martyrs.  '  , 
Maryland.  Freemasonry  was  introduced 
into  Maryland,  in  1750,  by  the  Provincial 
Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts,  which  issued  a 
Charter  for  the  establishment  of  a  Lodge  at 
Annapolis.  Five  other  Lodges  were  subse- 
quently chartered  by  the  Provincial  Grand 
Lodge  of  Pennsylvania,  and  one  in  1765,  at 
Joppa,  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England.  On 
the  31st  of  July,  1783,  these  five  Lodges  held  a 

MASON  471 

convention  at  Talbot  Court-House,  and  in- 
formally organized  a  Grand  Lodge.  But  as 
the  Lodge  at  Annapolis  had  taken  no  part 
in  this  movement,  another  convention  of  all 
the  Lodges  was  held  at  Baltimore  on  the  17th 
of  April,  1787,  and  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Mary- 
land was  duly  organized,  John  Coates  being 
elected  the  Grand  Master.  The  Grand  Chap- 
ter was  established  in  1812. 

Mason  Crowned.  (Macon  Couronne.)  A 
degree  in  the  nomenclature  of  Fustier. 

Mason,  Derivation  of  the  Word.  The 
search  for  the  etymology  or  derivation  of  the 
word  Mason  has  given  rise  to  numerous  the- 
ories, some  of  them  ingenious,  but  many  of 
them  very  absurd.  Thus,  a  writer  in  the  Bur- 
ropean  Magazine  for  February,  1792,  who 
signs  his  name  as  "George  Drake,"  lieutenant 
of  marines,  attempts  to  trace  the  Masons  to 
the  Druids,  and  derives  Mason  from  May's  on, 
May's  being  in  reference  to  May-day,  the  great 
festival  of  tne  Druids,  and  on  meaning  men,  as 
in  the  French  on  dit,  for  homme  dit.  According 
to  this,  May's  on  therefore  means  the  Men  of 
May.  This  idea  is  not  original  with  Drake, 
since  the  same  derivation  was  urged  in  1766  by 
Cleland,  in  his  essays  on  The  Way  to  Things  in 
Words,  and  on  The  Real  Secret  of  Freemasons. 

Hutchinson,  in  his  search  for  a  derivation, 
seems  to  have  been  perplexed  with  the  variety 
of  roots  that  presented  themselves,  and,  being 
inclined  to  believe  that  the  name  of  Mason 
"  has  its  derivation  from  a  language  in  which  it 
implies  some  strong  indication  or  distinction 
of  the  nature  of  the  society,  and  that  it  has  no 
relation  to  architects,"  looks  for  the  root  in  the 
Greek  tongue.  Thus  he  thinks  that  Mason 
may  come  from  Meuo  Soar,  Mao  Soon,  "I  seek 
salvation,"  or  from  Mwri)*,  Mystes,  "an  in- 
itiate " ;  and  that  Masonry  is  only  a  corruption 
of  Mevovpayta,  Mesouraneo,  "1  am  in  the 
midst  of  heaven  "  \  or  from  Mafopoufl,  Mazovr 
rovth,  a  constellation  mentioned  by  Job,  or 
from  Ui»fTHfim),  Mysterion,  "a  mystery." 

Leasing  says,  in  his  Ernst  una  Folk,  that 
Masa  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  signifies  a  table,  and 
that  Masonry,  consequently,  is  o  society  of  the 

Nicolai  thinks  he  finds  the  root  m  the  Low 
Latin  word  of  the  Middle  Ages  Massonya,  or 
Masonia,  which  signifies  an  exclusive  society 
or  club,  such  as  that  of  the  round  table. 

Coming  down  to  later  times,  we  find  Bro. 
C.  W.  Moore,  in  his  Boston  Magazine,  of  May, 
1844,  deriving  Mason  from  AiSoi-o^os,  Lith- 
otomos,  "a  Stone-cutter."  But  although  fully 
aware  of  the  elasticity  of  etymological  rules,  it 
surpasses  our  ingenuity  to  get  Mason  ety- 
mologically  out  oiLithotomos. 

Bro.  Giles  F.  Yates  sought  for  the  deriva- 
tion of  Mason  in  the  Greek  word  MaCores, 
Mazones,  a  festival  of  Dionysus,  and  he 
thought  that  this  was  another  proof  of  the 
linear  descent  of  the  Masonic  order  from  the 
Dionysiac  Artificers. 

The  late  William  S.  Rockwell,  who  was 
accustomed  to  find  all  his  Masonry  in  the 
Egyptian  mysteries,  and  who  was  a  thorough 
student  of  the  Egyptian  hieroglyphic  system, 


derives  the  word  Mason  from  a  combination 
of  two  phonetic  signs,  the  one  being  MAI, 
and  signifying  "to  love,"  and  the  other  being 
SON,  which  means  "a  brother."  Hence,  he 
says,  "this  combination,  MAISON,  expresses 
exactly  in  sound  our  word  MASON(  and  sig- 
nifies literally  loving  brother,  that  js.  pMa- 
delphus,  brother  of  an  association,  and  thus  cor- 
responds also  in  sense." 

But  all  of  these  fanciful  etymologies,  which 
would  have  terrified  Bopp,  Grimm,  or  Muller, 
or  any  other  student  of  linguistic  relations, 
forcibly  remind  us  of  the  French  epigram- 
matist, who  admitted  that  alphina  came  from 
epms,  but  that,  in  so  coming,  it  had  very  con- 
siderably changed  its  route.  . 

What,  then,  Sb  the  true  derivation  of  the 
word  Masonf  Let  us  see  what  the  orthoepists, 
who  had  no  Masonic  theories,  have  said  upon 
the  subject. 

Webster,  seeing  that  in  Spanish  mam  means 
mortar,  is  inclined  to  derive  Mason,  as  denot- 
ing one  that  works  in  mortar,  from  the  root  of 
mass,  which  of  course  gave  birth  to  the  Span- 
ish word. 

In  Low  or  Medieval  Latin,  Mason  was 
machio  or  macio,  and  this  Du  Cange  derives 
from  the  Latin  maceria,  "a  long  wall."  Others 
find  a  derivation  in  machines,  because  the 
builders  stood  upon  machines  to  raise  their 
walls.  But  Richardson  takes  a  common-sense 
view  of  the  subject.  He  says,  "It  appears  to 
be  obviously  the  same  word  as  maison,  a  house 
or  mansion,  applied  to  the  person  who  builds, 
instead  of  the  thing  built.  The  French  Mais- 
soner  is  to  build  houses;  Masonner,  to  build  of 
stone.  The  word  Mason  is  applied  by  usage 
to  a  builder  in  stone,  and  Masonry  to  work  in 

Carpenter  gives  Massom,  used  in  1225,  for 
a  building  of  stone,  and  Massonus,  used  in 
1304,  for  a  Mason;  and  the  Benedictine  edi- 
tors of  Du  Cange  define  Massoneria  "  a  build- 
ing, the  French  Maconnerie,  and  Massoner- 
ius,"  as  Latomus  or  a  Mason,  -both  words  in 
manuscripts  of  1385. 

[Dr.  Murray,  in  the  New  English  Dictionary, 
says  of  the  word  Mason:  "the  ulterior  ety- 
mology is  obscure,  possibly  the  word  is  from 
the  root  of  Latin  'maceria'  (a  wall)."] 

As  a  practical  question,  we  are  compelled 
to  reject  all  those  fanciful  derivations  which 
connect  the  Masons  etymologically  and  his- 
torically with  the  Greeks,  the  Egyptians,  or 
the  Druids,  and  to  take  the  word  Mason  in  its 
ordinary  signification  of  a  worker  in  stone, 
and  thus  indicate  the  origin  of  the  Order  from 
a  society  or  association  of  practical  and  oper- 
ative builders.  We  need  no  better  root  than 
the  Medieval  Latin  Masonner,  to  build,  or 
Maconetus,  a  builder. 

Masoney.  Used  in  the  Strassburg  Consti- 
tutions, and  other  German  works  of  the 
Middle  Ages,  as  equivalent  to  the  modern 
Masonry.  Kloss  translates  it  by  Masonhood. 
Lessing  derives  it  from  masa,  Anglo-Saxon,  a 
table,  and  says  it  means  a  Society  of  the  Table. 
Nicolai  deduces  it  from  the  Low  Latin  mas- 
sonya,  which  means  both  a  club  and  a  key,  and 


says  it  means  an  exclusive  society  or  club,  and 
so,  he  thinks,  we  get  our  word  Masonry. 
Krause  traces  it  to  mas,  mate,  food  or  a  ban- 
quet. It  is  a  pity  to  attack  these  speculations, 
but  we  are  inclined  to  look  at  Masonry  us 
simply  a  corruption  of  the  English  Masonrie. 

Mason  Hermetic.  (Macon  Hermetique.) 
A  degree  in  the  Archives  of  the  Mother  Lodge 
of  the  Eclectic  Philosophic  Rite. 

Masonic  Colon.  The  colors  appropriated 
by  the  Fraternity  are  many,  and  even  shades 
of  the  same  color.  The  principal  ones  are 
blue,  to  the  Craft  degrees;  purpfe,  to  the  Royal 
Arch;  white  and  black,  to  the  Order  of  the 
Temple;  while  all  colors  are  used  in  the 
respective  degrees  of  the  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite: 
notably,  the  nine-colored  girdle,  intertwined 
with  a  tenth,  worn  in  the  Fourteenth  Degree 
of  the  last-named  system. 

Masonic  Hall.  See  HaU,  Masonic. 

Masonic  literature.  See  Literature  of 

Mason,  Illustrious  and  Sublime  Grand 
Master.  (Macon  JUustre  et  Sublime  Grand 
Mattre.)  A  degree  in  the  manuscript  collec- 
tion of  Peuvret. 

Mason  of  the  Secret.   (Macon  du  Secret.) 

1.  The  Sixth  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Tschoudy. 

2.  The  Seventh  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Saint 

Mason,  Operative.  See  Operative  Masons. 

Mason,  Perfect.  (Macon  Parfait.)  The 
Twenty-seventh  Degree  of  the  collection  of  the 
Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France. 

Mason  Philosopher.  (Macon  Philosophe.) 
A  degree  in  the  manuscript  collection  of  Peu- 

Mason,  Practical.  The  French  so  call  an 
Operative  Mason,  Macon  de  Pratique. 

Masonry.  Although  Masonry  is  of  two 
kinds,  Operative  and  Speculative,  yet  Masonic 
writers  frequently  employ  the  word  Masonry 
as  synonymous  with  Freemasonry. 

Masonry,  Operative.  See  Operative  Ma- 
sonry. ' 

Masonry,  Origin  of.  See  Origin  of  Free- 

Masonry,  Speculative.  See  Speculative 

Masons,  Company  of.  One  of  the 

ninety-one  livery  companies  of  London,  but 
not  one  of  the  twelve  greater  Ones.  Theh> 
arms  are  azure,  on  a  chevron,  between  three 
castles  argent,  a  pair  of  compasses  somewhat 
extended  of  the  1st;  crest,  a  castle  of  the  2d; 
and  motto,  "In  the  Lord  is  all  our  trust." 
These  were  grantecjfcy  Clarencieux,  King  of 
arms,  in  1472,  but  they  were  not  incorporated 
until  Charles  II.  gave  them  a  charter  in  1677. 
They  are  not  to  be  confounded  with  the 
Fraternity  of  Freemasons,  but  originally 
there  was  some  connection  between  the  two. 
At  their  hall  in  Basinghall  Street,  Ashmole 
says  that  in  1682  he  attended  a  meeting  at 
which  several  persons  were  "admitted  into 
the  Fellowship  of  Freemasons."  (See  Ash- 
mole, Elias,  and  Accepted). 

Mason,  Scottish  Master.  (Macon  Ecos- 
sais  MaUre.)   Also  called  Perfect  Elect,  Elu 


MASTER  473 

parfait.  A  degree  in  the  Archives  of  the 
Mother  Lodge  of  the  Philosophic  Scottish 

Masons,  Emperor  of  all  the.  (Masons, 
Empereur  de  tons  les.)  A  degree  cited  in  the 
nomenclature  of  Fustier. 

Mason,  Speculative.  See  Speculative 

Mason,  Stone.  See  Stone  Masons. 

Mason  Sublime.  (Macon  sublime.)  A 
degree  in  the  manuscript  collection  of  Peuvret. 

Mason,  Sublime  Operative.  (Macon 
Sublime  Pratique.)  A  degree  in  the  manu- 
script collection  of  Peuvret. 

Mason's  Wife  and  Daughter.  A  degree 
frequently  eonf erred  in  the  United  States  on 
the  wives,  daughters,  sisters,  and  mothers  of 
Masons,  to  secure  to  them,  by  investing  them 
with  a  peculiar  mode  of  recognition,  the  aid 
and  assistance  of  the  Fraternity.  It  may  be 
conferred  by  any  Master  Mason,  and  the  re- 
quirement is  that  the  recipient  shall  be  the 
wife,  unmarried  daughter,  unmarried  sister, 
or  widowed  mother  of  a  Master  Mason.  It  is 
sometimes  called  the  Holy  Virgin,  and  has 
been  by  some  deemed  of  so  much  importance 
that  a  Manual  of  it,  with  the  title  of  The 
Ladies'  Masonry,  or  Hieroglyphic  Monitor, 
was  published  at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  in 
1851,  by  Past  Grand  Master  William  Leigh, 
of  Alabama. 

Mason,  True.  (Macon  Vrai.)  A  degree 
composed  by  Pernetty.  It  is  the  only  one  of 
the  high  Hermetic  degrees  of  the  Rite  of 
Avignon,  and  it  became  the  first  degree  of 
the  same  system  after  it  was  transplanted  to 
MontpelMer.    (See  Academy  of  True  Masons.) 

Masora.  A  Hebrew  work  on  the  Bible, 
intended  to  secure  it  from  any  alterations 
or  innovations.  Those  who  composed  it 
were  termed  Masorites,  who  taught  from 
tradition,  and  who  invented  the  Hebrew 
points.   They  were  also  known  as  Melchites. 

Masoretlc  Points.  The  Hebrew  alphabet 
is  without  vowels,  which  were  traditionally 
supplied  by  the  reader  from  oral  instruction, 
hence  the  true  ancient  sounds  of  the  words 
have  been  lost.  But  about  the  eighth 
or  ninth  century  a  school  of  Rabbis,  called 
Masorites,  invented  vowel  points,  to  be 
placed  above  or  below  the  consonants,  so 
as  to  give  them  a  determined  pronunciation. 
These  Masoretic  Points  are  never  used  by 
the  Jews  in  their  rolls  of  the  law,  and  in  all 
investigations  into  the  derivation  and  mean- 
ing of  Hebrew  names,  Masonic  scholars  and 
other  etymologists  always  reject  them. 

Massachusetts.  Freemasonry  was  intro- 
duced into  Massachusetts,  in  1733,  by  a 
Deputation  granted  to  Henry  Price  as  Grand 
Master  of  North  America,  dated  April  30, 
1733.  Price,  on  July  30th  of  the  same  year, 
organized  the  "St.  John's  Grand  Lodge." 
which  immediately  granted  a  Warrant  to  St. 
John's  Lodge  "  in  Boston,  which  is  now  the 
oldest  Lodge  existing  in  America.  In  1752 
some  brethren  in  Boston  formed  a  Lodge, 
which  was  afterward  known  as  "St.  Andrew's 
.  Lodge,"  and  received  a  Warrant  from  the 

Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland;  the  rivalry  between 
the  two  Lodges  continued  for  forty  years.  On 
December  27,  1769,  St.  Andrew's  Lodge,  with 
the  assistance  of  three  traveling  Lodges  in  the 
British  army,  organized  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Massachusetts,  and  elected  Joseph  Warren 
Grand  Master.  In  1792,  the  two  Grand 
Lodges  united  and  formed  the  "Grand  Lodge 
of  the  Most  Ancient  and  Honorable  Society 
of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  for  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Massachusetts,"  and  elected 
John  Cutler  Grand  Master. 

The  Grand  Chapter  of  Massachusetts  was 
organized  June  12,  1798,  and  the  Grand 
Council  of  Royal  and  Select  Masters  in  1826. 
The  Grand  Commandery,  which  exercises 
jurisdiction  over  both  Massachusetts  and 
Rhode  Island,  was  established  May  6,  1805. 
In  1807  it  extended  its  jurisdiction,  and  called 
itself  "The  United  States  Grand  Encamp- 
ment." In  1816,  it  united  with  other  Encamp- 
ments at  a  convention  in  Philadelphia,  where  a 
General  Grand  Encampment  of  the  United 
States  was  formed;  and  in  1819,  at  the  meet- 
ing of  that  body,  the  representatives  of  the 
"Grand  Encampment  of  Massachusetts  and 
Rhode  Island  "  are  recorded  as  being  present. 
And  from  that  time  it  has  retained  that  title, 
only  changing  it,  in  1859,  to  "  Grand  Com- 
mandery, in  compliance  with  the  new  Con- 
stitution of  the  Grand  Encampment  of  the 
United  States. 

Massena,  Andre.  Duke  of  Rivoli,  Prince 
of  Essling,  and  a  Marshal  of  France,  born  at 
Nice  in  1758.  Early  in  the  French  Revolu- 
tion he  joined  a  battalion  of  volunteers,  and 
soon  rose  to  high  military  rank.  He  was  a 
prominent  Grand  Officer  of  the  French  Grand 
Orient.  He  was  designated  by  Napoleon,  his 
master,  as  the  Robber,  in  consequence  of  his 
being  so  extortionate. 

Massonus.  Used  in  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries,  according  to  Carpenter 
(Gloss.),  for  Mason. 

Master,  Absolute  Sovereign  Grand. 
(Souveraiin  Grand  Mattre  absolu.)  The  Nine- 
tieth and  last  degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Master  ad  Vltam.  In  the  French  Masonry 
of  the  earlier  part  of  the  last  century,  the 
Masters  of  Lodges  were  not  elected  annually, 
but  held  their  office  for  life.  Hence  they 
were  called  Masters  ad  Vitam,  or  Masters  for 

Master,  Ancient.  (Mattre  Ancien.)  The 
Fourth  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Martinism. 
This  would  more  properly  be  translated  Past 
Master,  for  it  has  the  same  position  in  the 
rfybne  of  St.  Martin  that  the  Past  Master  has 
in  the  English  system. 

Master  Architect,  Grand.  See  Grand 
Master  Architect. 

Master  Architect,  Perfect.  {Mattre  Arch- 
itecte  Parfait.)  A  degree  in  the  Archives  of 
the  Mother  Lodge  of  the  Philosophic  Scottish 
Rite,  and  in  some  other  collections. 

Master  Architect,  Prussian.  (Mattre 
Architecte  Prussien.)  A  degree  in  the  Ar- 
chives of  the  Mother  Lodge  of  the  Philo- 
sophic Scottish  Rite, 

474  MASTER 

Master,  Blue.  A  name  sometimes  given, 
in  the  Scottish  Rite,  to  Master  Masons  of  the 
Third  Degree,  in  contradistinction  to  some  of 
the  higher  degrees,  and  in  reference  to  the 
color  of  their  collar. 

Master  Builder.  Taking  the  word  master 
in  the  sense  of  one  possessed  of  the  highest 
degree  of  skill  and  knowledge,  the  epithet 
"Master  Builder"  is  sometimes  used  by 
Masons  as  an  epithet  of  the  Great  Architect 
of  the  Universe.  Urquhart  (Pillars  of  Her- 
cules, ii.,  67)  derives  it  from  the  ancient 
Hebrews,  who,  he  saySj  "used  algabil,  the 
Master  Builder,  as  an  epithet  of  God." 

Master,  Cohen.  (Mattre  Coen.)  A  de- 
gree in  the  collection  of  the  Mother  Lodge  of 
the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite. 

Blaster,  Crowned.  (Mattre  Couronne.) 
A  degree  in  the  collection  of  the  Lodge  of  Saint 
Louis  des  Amis-Reunis  at  Calais. 

Master,  Egyptian.  (Mattre  Egyptien.) 
A  degree  in  the  Archives  of  the  Mother  Lodge 
of  the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite. 

Master,  Elect.   See  Elect  Master. 

Master,  English.  (Mattre  Anglais.)  The 
Eighth  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Master,  English  Perfect.  (Mattre  Par- 
fait  Anglais.)  A  degree  in  the  collection  of 
Le  Rouge. 

Master,  Four  Times  Venerable.  (Mattre 
auatre  fois  Venerable.)  A  degree  introduced 
into  Berlin  by  the  Marquis  de  Bemez. 

Master,  Grand.   See  Grand  Master. 

Master  Hermetic.  (Mattre  HermStique.) 
A  degree  in  the  collection  of  Lemanceau. 

Master,  Illustrious.  (Mattre  Illustre.) 
A  degree  in  the  collection  of  Lemanceau. 

Master,  Illustrious  Symbolic.  (Mattre 
Symbolique  Illustre.)  A  degree  in  the  nomen- 
clature of  Fustier. 

Master  In  Israel.  See  Intendant  of  the 

Master  In  Perfect  Architecture.  (Mattre 
en  la  Parfaite  Architecture.)  A  degree  in  the 
nomenclature  of  Fustier. 

Master  In  the  Chair.  (Meister  im  Stuhl.) 
The  name  given  in  Germany  to  the  presiding 
officer  of  a  Lodge.  It  is  the  same  as  the 
Worshipful  Master  in  English. 

Master,  Irish.  (Mattre  Irlandais.)  The 
Seventh  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 
Ramsay  gave  this  name  at  first  to  the  degree 
which  he  subsequently  called  Mattre  Ecossais 
or  Scottish  Master.  It  is  still  the  Seventh 
Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Master,  Kabballstic.  (Mattre  Cabaiis- 
tique.)  A  degree  in  the  collection  of  the 
Mother  Lodge  of  the  Philosophic  Scottish 

Master,  Little  Elect.  (Petit  Mattre  Uu.) 
A  degree  in  the  Archives  of  the  Mother  Lodge 
of  the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite. 

Master  Mason.  In  all  the  Rites  of  Ma- 
sonry, no  matter  how  variant  may  be  their 
organization  in  the  high  degrees,  the  Master 
Mason  constitutes  the  Third  Degree.  In 
form  this  degree  is  also  everywhere  substan- 
tially the  same,  because  its  legend  is  an  essen- 
tial part  of  it;  and,  as  on  that  legend  the 


degree  must  be  founded,  there  can  nowhere 
be  any  important  variation,  because  the  tra- 
dition has  at  all  times  been  the  same. 

The  Master  Mason's  Degree  was  originally 
called  the  summit  of  Ancient  Craft  Masonry; 
and  so  it  must  have  been  before  the  dissever- 
ance from  it  of  the  Royal  Arch,  by  which  is 
meant  not  the  ritual,  but  the  symbolism  of 
Arch  Masonry.   But  under  its  present  or- 

fanization  the  degree  is  actually  incomplete, 
ecause  it  needs  a  complement  that  is  only 
to  be  supplied  in  a  higher  one.  Hence  its 
symbolism  is  necessarily  restricted,  in  its 
mutilated  form,  to  the  first  Temple  and  the 
present  life,  although  it  gives  the  assurance 
of  a  future  one. 

As  the  whole  system  of  Craft  Masonry  is 
intended  to  present  the  symbolic  idea  of  man 
passing  through  the  pilgrimage  of  life,  each 
degree  is  appropriated  to  a  certain  portion 
of  that  pilgrimage.  If,  then,  the  First  Degree 
is  a  representation  of  youth,  the  time  to  learn, 
and  the  Second  of  manhood  or  the  time  to 
work,  the  Third  is  symbolic  of  old  age,  with 
its  trials,  its  sufferings,  and  its  final  termina- 
tion in  death.  The  time  for  toiling  is  now 
over — the  opportunity  tos  learn  has  passed 
away — the  spiritual  temple  that  we  all  have 
been  striving  to  erect  in  our  hearts,  is  now 
nearly  completed,  and  the  wearied  workman 
awaits  only  the  word  of  the  Grand  Master  of 
the  Universe,  to  call  him  from  the  labors  of 
earth  to  the  eternal  refreshments  of  heaven. 
Hence,  this  is,  by  far,  the  most  solemn  and 
sacred  of  the  degrees  of  Masonry;  and  it  has, 
in  consequence  of  the  profound  truths  which 
it  inculcates,  been  distinguished  by  the  Craft 
as  the  sublime  degree.  As  an  Entered  Ap- 
prentice, the  Mason  was  taught  those  ele- 
mentary instructions  which  were  to  fit  him 
for  further  advancement  in  his  profession, 
just  as  the  youth  is  supplied  with  that  rudi- 
mentary education  which  is  to  prepare  him  for 
entering  on  the  active  duties  of  life;  as  a 
Fellow-Craft,  he  is  directed  to  continue  his 
investigations  in  the  science  of  the  Insti- 
tution and  to  labor  diligently  in  the  tasks  it 
prescribes,  just  as  the  man  is  required  to 
enlarge  his  mind  by  the  acquisition  of  new 
ideas,  and  to  extend  his  usefulness  to  his 
fellow-creatures;  but,  as  a  Master  Mason,  he 
is  taught  the  last,  the  most  important,  and  the 
most  necessary  of  truths,  that  having  been 
faithful  to  all  his  trusts,  he  is  at  last  to  die,  and 
to  receive  the  reward  of  his  fidelity. 
_  It  was  the  single  object  of  all  the  ancient 
rites  and  mysteries  practised  in  the  very 
bosom  of  Pagan  darkness,  shining  as  a  soli- 
tary beacon  in  all  that  surrounding  gloom, 
and  cheering  the  philosopher  in  his  weary 
pilgrimage  of  life,  to  teach  the  immortality  of 
the  soul.  This  is  still  the  great  design  of  the 
Third  Degree  of  Masonry.  This  is  the  scope 
and  aim  of  its  ritual.  The  Master  Mason 
represents  man;  when  youth,  manhood,  old 
age,  and  life  itself,  have  passed  away  as 
fleeting  shadows,  yet  raised  from  the  grave 
of  iniquity,  and  quickened  into  another  and 
a  better  existence.   By  its  legend  and  all  its 





ritual,  it  is  implied  that  we  have  been  re- 
deemed from  the  death  of  sin  and  the  sepul- 
cher  of  pollution.  "The  ceremonies  and  the 
lecture,"  says  Dr.  Crucefix,  "beautifully 
illustrate  this  all-engrossing  subject;  and  the 
conclusion  we  arrive  at  is,  that  youth,  properly 
directed,  leads  us  to  honorable  and  virtuous 
maturity,  and  that  the  life  of  man,  regulated 
by  morality,  faith,  and  justice,  will  be  re- 
warded at  its  closing  hour,  by  the  prospect  of 
eternal  bliss." 

.  Masonic  historians  have  found  much  diffi- 
culty in  settling  the  question  as  to  the  time 
of  the  invention  and  composition  of  the  degree. 
The  theory  that  at  the  building  of  the  Temple 
of  Jerusalem  the  Craft  were  divided  into  three 
or  even  more  degrees,  being  only  a  symbolic 
myth,  must  be  discarded  in  any  historical 
discussion  of  the  subject.  The  real  question 
at  issue  is  whether  the  Master  Mason's  Degree, 
as  a  degree,  was  in  existence  among  the  Opera- 
tive Freemasons  before  the  eighteenth  century 
or  whether  we  owe  it  to  the  Revivalists  oi 
1717.  Bro.  Wm.  J.  Hughan,  in  a  very  able 
article  on  this  subject,  published  in  1873,  in 
the  Voice  of  Masonry,  says  that  "so  far  the 
evidence  respecting  its  history  goes  no  farther 
back  than  the  early  part  of  the  last  century." 
The  evidence,  however,  is  all  of  a  negative 
character.  There  is  none  that  the  degree 
existed  in  the  seventeenth  century  or  earner, 
and  there  is  none  that  it  did  not.  All  the  old 
manuscripts  speak  of  Masters  and  Fellows, 
but  these  might  have  been  and  probably  were 
only  titles  of  rank.  The  Sloane  MS.,  No. 
3329,  speaks,  it  is  true,  of  modes  of  recognition 
peculiar  to  Masters  and  Fellows,  and  also  of 
a  Lodge  consisting  of  Masters,  Fellows,  and 
Apprentices.  But  even  if  we  give  to  this  MS. 
its  earliest  date,  that  which  is  assigned  to  it 
by  Findel,  near  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  it  will  not  necessarily  follow  that 
these  Masters,  Fellowjs,  and  Apprentices  had 
each  a  separate  and  distinct  degree.  Indeed, 
it  refers  only  to  one  Lodge{  which  was,  how- 
ever, constituted  by  three  different  ranks;  and 
it  records  but  one  oath,  so  that  it  is  possible 
that  there  was  only  one  common  form  of 

The  first  positive  historical  evidence  that 
we  have  of  the  existence  of  a  Master's  Degree 
is  to  be  found  in  the  General  Regulations 
compiled  by  Payne  in  1720.  It  is  there  de- 
clared that  Apprentices  must  be  admitted 
Masters  and  Fellow-Crafts  only  in  the  Grand 
Lodge.  The  degree  was  then  in  existence. 
But  this  record  would  not  militate  against  the 
theory  advanced  by  some  that  Desaguliers 
was  its  author  in  1717.  Dermott  asserts 
that  the  degree,  as  we  now  have  it,  was  the 
work  of  Desaguliers  and  seven  others,  who, 
being  Fellow-Crafts,  but  not  knowing  the 
Master's  part,  boldly  invented  it,  that  they 
might  organize  a  Grand  Lodge.  He  intimates 
that  the  true  Master's  Degree  existed  before 
that  time,  and  was  in  possession  of  the 
Ancients.  But  Dermott's  testimony  is  abso- 
lutely worth  nothing,  because  he  was  a  violent 

partisan,  and  because  his  statements  are  |  The  Sixty-first  Degree  of  the  Rite  oj MizrJLiio, 

irreconcilable  with  other  facts.  If  the  An- 
cients were  in  possession  of  the  degree  which 
had  existed  before  1717,  and  the  Moderns 
were  not,  where  did  the  former  get  it? 

Documentary  evidence  is  yet  wanting  to 
settle  the  precise  time  of  the  composition  of 
the  Third  Degree  as  we  now  have  it.  But  it 
would  not  be  prudent  to  oppose  too  positively 
the  theory  that  it  must  be  traced  to  the 
second  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century. 
The  proofs,  as  they  arise  day  by  day,  from 
the  resurrection  of  old  manuscripts,  seem  to 
incline  that  way. 

But  the  legend,  perhaps,  is  of  much  older 
date.  It  _  may  have  made  a  part  of  the 
general  initiation;  but  there  is  no  doubt  that, 
Eke  the  similar  one  of  the  Compagnons  de 
la  Tour  in  France,  it  existed  among  the 
Operative  Gilds  of  the  Middle  Ages  as  an 
esoteric  narrative.  Such  a  legend  all  the 
histories  of  the  Ancient  Mysteries  prove  to 
us  belongs  to  the  spirit  of  initiation.  There 
would  have  been  no  initiation  worth  preserva- 
tion without  it. 

Master,  Most  High  and  Puissant. 
(Maitre  trbs  haut  et  trds  puissant.)  The 
Sixty-second  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Master,  Most  Wise.  The  title  of  a  pre- 
siding officer  of  a  Chapter  of  Rose  Croix, 
usually  abbreviated  as  Most  Wise. 

Master,,  Mystic.  (Maitre  Mystique.)  A 
degree  in  the  collection  of  Pyron. 

Master  of  all  Symbolic  Lodges,  Grand. 
See  Grand  Master  of  all  Symbolic  Lodges.  N 
Master  of  a  Lodge.  See  Worshipful. 
Master  Of  Cavalry.  An  officer  in  a  Council 
of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross,  whose  duties 
are,  in  some  respects,  similar  to  those  of  a 
Junior  Deacon  in  a  symbolic  Lodge.  The 
two  offices  of  Master  of  Cavalry  and  Master 
of  Infantry  were  first  appointed  by  Con- 
Stantine  the  Great. 

Master  of  Ceremonies.  An  officer  found 
in  many  American  Lodges  and  at  one  time  in 
the  Lodges  of  England  and  the  Continent. 
In  English  Lodges  the  office  is  almost  a 
nominal  one,  without  any  duties,  but  in  the 
continental  Lodges  he  acts  as  the  conductor 
of  the  candidate.*  Oliver  says  that  the  title 
should  he,  properly.  Director  of  Ceremonies, 
and  he  objects  to  Master  of  Ceremonies  as 
"unmasonic."  In  the  Constitutions  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England,  issued  in  1884,  the 
title  is  changed  to  "Director  of  Ceremonies." 

Master  of  Dispatches.  The  Secretary  of 
a  Council  of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross. 
The  MagisterEpistolarum  was  the  officer  under 
the  Empire  who  conducted  the  correspondence 
of  the  Emperor. 

Master  of  Finances.  The  Treasurer  of 
a  Council  of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross. 

Master  of  Hamburg,  Perfect.  (Maitre 
parfait  de  Hamburg.)  A  degree  in  the  nomen- 
clature of  Fustier. 

Master  of  Infantry.   The  Treasurer  of 
a  Council  of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross. 
(See  Master  of  Cavalry.) 
Master  of  Lodges.   (Maitre  des  Loges.) 




Master  of  Masters,  Grand.  (Grand 
Mattre  des  Mattres.)  The  Fifty-ninth  Degree, 
of  the  Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France. 

Master  of  Paracelsus.   (Mattre  de  Para- 
celse.)   A  degree  in  the  collection  of  Pyron. 

Master  of  Secrets,  Perfect.  (MaUre 
par/ait  des  Secrets.)  A  degree  in  the  manu- 
script collection  of  Peuvret.  _ 

Master  of  St.  Andrew.  The  Fifth  Degree 
of  the  Swedish  Kite;  the  same  as  the  Grand 
Elu  Ecossais  of  the  Clermont  system. 

Master  of  the  Chivalry  of  Christ.  So 
St.  Bernard  addresses  Hugh  de  Payens/Grand 
Master  of  the  Templars.  "Hugom  Mtfiti 
Christi  et  Magistro  Militia  Christi,  Bernardus 
Clercevallus  ,,vetc.  ,    _  . 

Master  of  the  Hermetic  Secrets,  Grand. 
(Mattre  des  Secrets  Hemdtique,  Grand.)  A  de- 
gree in  the  manuscript  collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master  of  the  Hospital.  "  Sacri  Domua 
Hospitalis  Sancto  Joannis  Hierosolvmitani 
Magister,"  or  Master  of  the  Sacred  House 
of  the  Hospital  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  was 
the  official  title  of  the  chief  of  the  Order  of 
Knights  of  Malta;  more  briefly,  "Magister 
Hospitalis,"  or  Master  of  the  Hospital.  _  Late 
in  their  history,  the  more  toposing  title  of 
"Magnus  Magister,"  or  Grand  Master,  was 
sometimes  assumed;  but  the  humbler  designa- 
tion was  still  maintained.  On  the  tomb  of 
Zacosta,  who  died  in  1467,  we  find  "Magnus 
Magister";  but  twenty-three  years  after, 
D'Aubusson  signs  himself  "Magister  Hospi- 
talis Hierosolymitam." 

Master  of  the  Key  to  Masonry,  Grand. 
(Grand  MaUre  de  la  Clef  de  la  Maconnerie.) 
The  Twenty-first  Degree  of  the  Chapter  of 
the  Emperors  of  the  East  and  West. 

Master  of  the  Legitimate  Lodges, 
Grand.  (Mattre  des  Loges  legitimes.)  A 
degree  in  the  Archives  of  the  Mother  Lodge 
of  the  Eclectic  Philosophic  Rite. 

Master  of  the  Palace.  An  officer  in  a 
Council  of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross, 
whose  duties  are  peculiar  to  the  degree. 

Master  of  the  Sages.  The  Fourth  Degree 
of  the  Initiated  Knights  and  Brothers  of  Asia. 

Master  of  the  Seven  Kabballstlc  Se- 
crets, Illustrious.  (Mattre  IUustre  des  sept 
Secrets  Cahalistiques.)  A  degree  in  the  manu- 
script collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master  of  the  Temple.  Originally  the 
official  title  of  the  Grand  Master  of  the 
Templars.  After  the  dissolution  of  the  Order 
in  England,  the  same  title  was  incorrectly 
given  to  the  custos  or  guardian  of  the  Tempfe 
Church  at  London,  and  the  error  is  continued 
to  the  present  day.  . 

Master  of  the  Work.  The  chief  builder 
or  architect  of  a  cathedral  or  other  important 
edifice  in  the  Middle  Ages  was  called  the 
Master  of  the  work;  thus,  Jost  Dotzinger  was, 
in  the  fifteenth  century,  called  the  Master 
of  the  work  at  the  cathedral  of  Strasburg. 
In  the  Middle  Ages  the  "Magister  operis" 
was  one  to  whom  the  public  works  was  en 
trusted.  Such  an  officer  existed  in  the  monas- 
teries. He  was  also  called  operarius  and 
magister  operarurn.   Du  Cange  says  that 

kings  had  their  operarii,  magistri  operarurn  or 
masters  of  the  works.   It  is  these  Masters  pf 
the  works  whom  Anderson  has  constantly 
called  Grand  Masters.   Thus,  when  he  says 
(Constitutions,  1738,  p.  69  )  that  "King  John 
made  Peter  de  Cole-Church  Grand  Master  of 
the  Masons  in  rebuilding  London  bridge,"  he- 
should  have  said  that  he  was  appointed 
operarius  or  Master  of  the  works.   The  use 
of  the  correct  title  would  have  made  Ander- 
son's history  more  valuable. 
Master,  Past.  See  Past  Master. 
Master,  Perfect.  See  Perfect  Master, 
Master,  Perfect  Architect.  The  Twen- 
ty-seventh Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Master,  Perfect  Irish.  See  Perfect  Irish 
Master.  . 

Master  Philosopher  by  the  Number  3. 
(Mattre  pkUosophe  par  le  N ombre  S.)  A 
degree  in  the  manuscript  collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master  Philosopher  by  the  Number  9. 
(Mattre  philosophe  par  le  Nomhre  9.)  A 
degree  in  the  manuscript  collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master  Philosopher  Hermetic.  (MaUre 
philosophe  Hermitique.)  A  degree  in  the 
collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master,  Private.  (Mattre  Particulier.) 
The  Nineteenth  Degree  of  the  Metropolitan 
Chapter  of  France. 

Master  Provost  and  Judge.  (Mattre 
Prevdt  et  Juge.)  The  Eighth  Degree  of  the 
Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France. 

Master,  Puissant  Irish.  See  Puissant 
Irish  Master. 

Master,  Pythagorean.  (MaUre  Pythago- 
ricien.)  Thory  says  that  this  is  the  Third 
and  last  degree  of  the  Masonic  system  in- 
stituted according  to  the  doctrine  of  Pythago- 


Master,  Royal.  See  Royal  Master. 
Master,  Secret.  See  Secret  Master, 
Master,  Select.   See  Select  M aster. 
Master,  Supreme  Elect.  (Mattre  su- 
prime  Elu.)   A  degree  in  the  Archives  of  the 
Philosophic  Scottish  Rite. 

Master  Theosophlst.  (MaUre  Thios- 
ophie.)  The  Third  Degree  of  the  Rite  of 

Master  through  Curiosity.  (MaUre  par 
CuriosUe.)  I.  The  Sixth  Degree  of  the  Rite 
of  Mizraim;  2.  The  Sixth  Degree  of  the  col- 
lection of  the  Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France. 
It  is  a  modification  of  the  Intimate  Secretary 
of  the  Scottish  Rite. 

Master  to  the  Number  15.  (Mattre  au 
Nombre  15.)  A  degree  in  the  manuscript 
collection  of  Peuvret. 

Master,  True.  (Vrai  MaUre.)  A  degree 
of  the  Chapter  of  Clermont, 
Master,  Worshipful.  See  Worshipful. 
Materials  of  the  Temple.  Masonic  tra- 
dition tells  us  that  the  trees  out  of  which  the 
timbers  were  made  for  the  Temple  were  felled 
and  prepared  in  the  forest  of  Lebanon,  and 
that  the  stones  were  hewn,  cut,  and  squared 
in  the  quarries  of  Tyre.  But  both  the  Book 
of  Kings  and  Josephus  concur  in  the  state- 
ment that  Hiram  of  Tyre  furnished  only 
cedar  apd  fir  trees  for  the  Temple.  The  stones 




were  most  probably  (and  the  explorations  of 
modern  travelers  confirm  the  opinion)  taken 
from  the  quarries  which  abound  in  and  around 
Jerusalem.  The  tradition,  therefore,  which 
derives  these  stones  from  the  quarries  of  Tyre, 
is  incorrect. 

Slaters.  In  the  Cooke  MS.  (line  825)— 
and  it  is  the  only  Old  Constitution  in  which 
it  occurs— we  find  the  word  maters:  "Hit  is 
seyd  in  ye  art  of  Masonry  yt  no  man  scholde 
make  ende  so  well  of  worke  begonne  bi 
another  to  ye  profite  of  his  lorde  as  he  began 
hit  for  to  end  hit  bi  his  maters  or  to  whom  he 
scheweth  his  maters,"  where,  evidently,  maters 
is  a  corruption  of  the  Latin  matrix,  a  mold; 
this  latter  being  the  word  used  in  all  the  other 
Old  Constitutions  in  the  same  connection. 
(See  Mold.) 

Mathoc.  (Amiability,  sweetness.)  The 
name  of  the  Third  Step  01  the  Mystic  Ladder 
of  the  Kadosh  of  the  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite. 

Matriculation  Book.  In  the  Rite  of 
Strict  Observance,  the  register  which  con- 
tained the  lists  of  the  Provinces,  Lodges,  and 
members  of  the  Rite  was  called  the  Matricu- 
lation Book.  The  term  was  borrowed  from 
the  usage  of  the  Middle  Ages,  where  matricula 
meant  "a  catalogue."  It  was  applied  by  the 
ecclesiastical  writers  of  that  period  to  lists  of 
the  clergy,  and  also  of  the  poor,  who  were 
to  be  provided  for  by  the  churches,  whence 
we  have  matricula  dericorum  and  matricula 

Matter.  A  subject  deemed  of  impor- 
tant study  to  the  alchemical  and  hermetical 
devotee.  The  subject  will  not  be  discussed 
here.  It  holds  a  valued  position  for  instruc- 
tion in  the  Society  of  the  Rosicrucians,  who 
hold  that  matter  is  subject  to  change,  trans- 
formation, and  apparent  dissolution;  but,  in 
obedience  to  GodV  great  laws  of  economy, 
nothing  is  tost,  but  is  simply  transferred. 

Mature  Age.  The  Charges  of  1722  pre- 
scribe that  a  candidate  for  initiation  must  be 
of  "mature  and  discreet  age";  but  the  usage 
of  the  Craft  has  differed  in  various  countries 
as  to  the  time  when  maturity  of  age  is  sup- 
posed to  have  arrived.  In  the  Regulations 
of  1663,  it  is  set  down  at  twenty-one  years 
(Constitutions,  1738,  p.  102);  and  this  con- 
tinues to  be  the  construction  of  maturity  in 
all  English  Lodges  both  in  Great  Britain  and 
this  country.  France  and  Switierland  have 
adopted  the  same  period.  At  Frankfort-on- 
the-Main  it  is  fixed  at  twenty,  and  in  Prussia 
and  Hanover  at  twenty-five.  The  Grand 
Lodge  of  Hamburg  has  decreed  that  the  age 
of  Masonic  maturity  shall  be  that  which  is 
determined  by  the  laws  of  the  land  to  be  the 
age  of  legal  majority.  [Under  the  Scotch 
Constitution  the  age  was  eighteen  until  1891, 
when  it  was  raised  to  twenty-one;  and  under 
the  Irish  Constitution  it  was  twenty-one  until 
1741,  when  it  was  raised  to  twenty-five  and 
so  remained  until  1817,  when  it  was  again 
lowered  to  twenty-one.] 

Maul  or  Setting  Maul.    See  Mallet. 

Maurer.  German  for  Mason,  as  Maurerei 
ia  for  Masonry,  and  Freimaurer  for  Freemason 

Maurer,  Grass.  A  German  Masonic 
operative  expression,  divided  by  some  into 
Grass  Maurer,  Wort  Maurer,  Schrift  Maurer, 
and  Brieftrager — that  is,  those  who  claimed 
aid  and  recognition  through  signs  and  proving, 
and  those  who  carried  written  documents. 

Maut.  The  consort  of  the  god  Amon, 
usually  crowned  with  a  pschent  or  double 
diadem,  emblem  of  the  sovereignty  of  the  two 
regions.  Sometimes  a  vulture,  the  symbol  of 
maternity,  of  heaven,  and  knowledge  of  the 
future,  snows  its  head  on  the  forehead  of  the 
goddess,  its  wings  forming  the  head-dress. 
Horapollo  says  the  vulture  designates  ma- 
ternal love  because  it  feeds  its  young  with  its 
own  blood;  and,  according  to  Pliny,  it  rep- 
resents heaven  because  no  one  can  reach  its 
nest,  built  on  the  highest  rocks,  and,  there- 
fore, that  it  is  begotten  of  the  winds.  Maut 
is  clothed  in  a  long,  close-fitting  robe,  and 
holds  in  her  hand  the  sacred  Anch,  or  sign 
of  life. 

Maximilian,  Joseph  I.  King  of  Bavaria, 
who,  becoming  incensed  against  the  Frater- 
nity, issued  edicts  against  Freemasons  in  1799 
and  1804,  which  he  renewed  in  1814. 

Mecklenburg.  Masonry  was  introduced 
here  in  1754,  but  not  firmly  rooted  until  1799. 
There  are  two  Provincial  G.  Lodges,  with  13 
Lodges  and  1,250  Brethren. 

Medals.  A  medal  is  defined  to  be  a  piece 
of  metal  in  the  shape  of  a  coin,  bearing  figures 
or  devices  and  mottoes,  struck  and  distributed 
in  memory  of  some  person  or  event.  When 
Freemasonry  was  in  its  operative  stage,  no 
medals  were  issued.  The  medals  of  the  Oper- 
ative Masons  were  the  monuments  _  which 
they  erected  in  the  form  of  massive  buildings, 
adorned, with  all  the  beauties  of  architectural 
art.  But  it  was  not  long  after  its  transfor- 
mation into  a  Speculative  Order  before  it 
__„jn  to  issue  medals.  Medals  are  now 
struck  every  year  by  Lodges  to  commemorate 
some  distinguished  member  or  some  remark- 
able event  in  the  annals  of  the  Lodge.  Many 
Lodges  in  Europe  have  cabinets  of  medals,  of 
which  the  Lodge  Minerva  of  the  Three  Palms 
at  Leipsio  is  especially  valuable.  In  America 
no  Lodge  has  made  such  a  collection  except 
Pythagoras  Lodge  at  New  York. 

No  Masonic  medal  appears  to  have  been 
found  earlier  than  that  of  1733,  commemora- 
tive of  a  Lodge  being  established  at  Florence, 
by  Lord  Charies  Sackville.  The  Lodge  appears 
not  to  have  been  founded  by  regular  author- 
ity; but,  however  that  may  be,  the  event  was 
commemorated  by  a  medal,  a  copy  of  which 
exists  in  the  collection  m_possession  of  the 
Lodge  "Minerva  of  the  Three  Palms,"  at 
Leipsio.  The  obverse  contains  a  bust  repre- 
sentation of  Lord  Sackville,  with  the  inscrip- 
tion—"Carolvs  Sackville,  Magister,  Fl." 
The  reverse  represents  Harpocrates  in  the  atti- 
tude of  silence,  leaning  upon  a  broken  column, 
and  holding  in  his  left  arm  the  cornucopia 
filled  with  rich  fruits,  also  the  implements  of 
Masonry,  with  a  thyrsus,  staff,  and  serpent 
resting  upon  the  fore  and  back  ground. 
The  minimum  of  charity  found  among  Mark 



Masters  is  the  Roman  penny  {denarius), 
weighing  60  grains  silver,  worth  fifteen  cents, 


The  above  was  struck  at  Rome,  under  Ti- 
berius, a.d.  18.  The  portrait  is  ''Tiberius"; 
the  reverse  the  "Goddess  Clemency."  The 
inscription  reads:  "Tiberius  Caesar  Augustus, 
the  son  of  the  Deified  Augustus,  the  High 

Two  medals,  weighing  120  grains  each,  of 
silver,  about  thirty  cents,  were  struck  off  at 


Jerusalem,  under  Simon  Maccabee,  the  Jew- 
ish ruler,  b.c.  138,  139.  They  are  the  old- 
est money  coined  by  the  Jews.  The  devices 
are  the  brazen  laver  that  stood  before  the 
Temple,  and  three  lilies  springing  from  one 
stem.  The  inscriptions,  translated  from  the 
Hebrew  of  the  oldest  style,  say,  "Half-shekel; 
Jerusalem  the  Holy." 

Bro.  Robt.  Morris  and  Bro.  Coleman,  in 
their  Calendar,  furnish  much  valuable'  in- 
formation on  this  subject. 

[The  earliest  work  on  Masonic  Medals  is  by 
Ernest  Zacharias,  entitled  Numotheca  Numis- 
matica  Latomorum.  It  was  issued  at  Dres- 
den in  parts,  the  first  appearing  on  Septem- 
ber 13,  1840,  the  eighth  and  last  on  January 
29;1846.  It  gave  48  medals  in  all.  Then  came 
Die  DenkmUnzen  der  Freimaurerbruderschaft, 
by  Dr.  J.  F.  L.  Theodor  Merzdorf,  published 
at  Oldenburg  in  1851,  and  describing  334 

The  standard  work  now  on  the  subject 
is  The  Medals  of  the  Masonic  Fraternity,  by 
W.  T.  R.  Marvin,  privately  printed  at  Boston 
in  1880,  in  which  over  700  medals  are  de- 

Mediterranean  Pass.  A  side  degree 
sometimes  conferred  in  America  on  Royal 
Arch  Masons.  It  has  no  lecture  or  legend, 
and  should  not  be  confounded,  as  it  some- 
times is,  with  the  very  different  degree  of 

Knight  of  the  Mediterranean  Pass.  It  is, 
however,  now  nearly  obsolete. 

Meeting  of  a  Chapter.  See  Convocation. 

Meeting  of  a  Lodge.  See  Communica- 

Meet  on  the  Level.  In  the  Prestonian 
lectures  as  practised  in  the  beginning  of  the 
last  century,  it  was  said  that  Masons  met  on 
the  square  and  hoped  to  part  on  the  level.  In 
the  American  system  of  Webb  a  change  was 
made,  and  we  were  instructed  that  they  meet 
on  the  level  and  part  on  the  square.  And  in 
1842  the  Baltimore  Convention  made  a  still 
further  change,  by  adding  that  they  act  by  the 
plumb; ,  and  this  formula  is  now,  although 
quite  modern,  generally  adopted  by  the 
Lodges  in  America. 

Megacosm.  An  intermediate  world,  great, 
but  not  equal  to  the  Macrocosm,  and  yet 
greater  than  the  Microcosm,  or  little  world, 

Mehen.  An  Egyptian  mythological  ser- 
pent, the  winding  of  whose  body  represented 
the_  tortuous  course  of  the  sun  in  the  nocturnal 
regions.  The  serpentine  course  taken  when 
traveling  through  darkness.  The  direction 
metaphorically  represented  by  the  initiate  in 
his  first  symbolic  journey  as  Practicus  in  the 
Society  of  the  Rosicrucians. 

Mehour.  Space,  the  name  given  to  the 
feminine  principle  of  the  Deity  by  the  Egyp- 

Melster.  German  for  Master;  in  French, 
Mattre;  in  Dutch,  Meester;  in  Swedish,  Mas- 
tar;  in  Italian,  Maestro;  in  Portuguese,  Mes- 
tre.  The  old  French  word  appears  to  have 
been  Meistrier.  In  old  French  operative 
laws,  Le  Mestre  was  frequently  used. 

Melster  lm  Stuhl.  (Master  in  the  Chair.) 
The  Germans  so  call  the  Master  of  a  Lodge. 

Melanethon,  Philip.  The  name  of  this 
celebrated' reformer  is  signed  to  the  Charter 
of  Cologne  as  the  representative  of  Dantzic. 
The  evidence  of  his  connection  with  Free- 
masonry depends  entirely  on  the  authenticity 
of  that  document. 

Melchizedek.  King  of  Salem,  and  a  priest 
of  the  Most  High  God,  of  whom  all  that  we 
know  is  to  be  found  in  the  passages  of  Scrip- 
ture read_  at  the  conferring  of  the  degree  of 
High  Priesthood.  Some  theologians  have 
supposed  him  to  have  been  Shem,  the  son  of 
Noah.  The  sacrifice  of  offering  bread  and 
wine  is  first  attributed  to  Melchizedek;  and 
hence,  looking  to  the  similar  Mithraic  sacri- 
fice, Higgins  is  inclined  to  believe  that  he  pro- 
fessed the  religion  of  Mithras.  He  aban- 
doned the  sacrifice  of  slaughtered  animals, 
and,  to  quote  the  words  of  St.  Jerome,  "  offered 
bread  and  wine  as  a  type  of  Christ."  Hence,  in 
the  New  Testament,  Christ  is  represented  as 
a  priest  after  the  order  of  Melchizedek.  In 
Masonry,  Melchizedek  is  connected  with  the 
order  or  degree  of  High  Priesthood,  and  some 
of  the  high  degrees. 

Melchizedek,  Degree  of.  The  Sixth 
Degree  of  the  Order  of  Brothers  of  Asia. 

Melech.  Properly,  Malach,  a  messenger, 
and  hence  an  angel,  because  the  angels  were 




supposed  to  be  the  messengers  of  God.  In 
the  ritual  of  one  of  the  high  degrees  we  meet 
with  the  sentence  haTnelechGebalim,  which  has 
been  variously  translated.  The  French  ritual- 
ists handle  Hebrew  words  with  but  little  at- 
tention to  Hebrew  grammar,  and  hence  they 
translate  this  sentence  as  "  Jabulum  est  un  bon 
Maoon."  The  former  American  ritualists  gave 
it  as  meaning  "Guibulum  is  a  good  man." 
Guibulum  is  undoubtedly  used  as  a  proper 
name,  and  is  a  corrupt  derivation  from  the 
Hebrew  Masonic  Giblim,  which  means  stone- 
equarers  or  masons,  and  melach  for  maiach 
means  a  messenger,  one  sent  to  accomplish  a 
certain  task.  Bros.  Pike  and  Rockwell  make 
the  first  word  hamalek,  the  king  or  chief.  If 
the  words  were  reversed,  we  should  have  the 
Hebrew  vocative,  "O!  Gibulum  the  messen- 
ger." As  it  is,  Bro.  Pike  makes  it  vocative,  and 
interprets  it,  "Oh!  thou  glory  of  the  Build- 
ers." Probably,  however,  the  inventor  of  the 
degree  meant  simply  to  say  that  Gibulum  was 
a  messenger,  or  one  who  had  been  sent  to  make 
a  discovery,  but  that  he  did  not  perfectly  ex- 
press the  idea  according  to  the  Hebrew  idiom, 
or  that  his  expression  has  since  been  corrupted 
by  the  copyists. 

Melesf no,  Bite  of.  This  is  a  Rite  scarcely 
known  out  of  Russia,  where  it  was  founded 
about  the  year  1765,  by  Melesino,  a  very 
learned  man  and  Mason,  a  Greek  by  birth,  but 
high  in  the  military  service  of  Russia.  It 
consisted  of  seven  degrees,  viz.:  1.  Appren- 
tice. 2.  Fellow-Craft.  3.  Master  Mason. 
4.  The  Mystic  Arch.  5.  Scottish  Master  and 
Knight.  6.  The  Philosopher.  7.  The  Priest 
or  High  Priest  of  the  Templars.  The  four 
higher  degrees  abounded  in  novel  traditions 
and  myths  unknown  to  any  of  the  other  Rites, 
and  undoubtedly  invented  by  the  founder. 
The  whole  Rite  was  a  mixture  of  Kabbahsm, 
magic,  Gnosticism,  and  the  Hermetic  philos- 
ophy mixed  in  almost  inextricable  confusion. 
The_  Seventh  or  final  degree  was  distinctly 
Rosicrucian,  and  the  religion  of  the  Rite  was 
Christian,  recognizing  and  teaching  the  belief 
in  the  Messiah  and  the  dogma  of  the  Trinity. 

Melita.  The  ancient  name  of  the  island 
of  Malta. 

Hember,  Honorary.  See  Honorary  Mem- 

Member,  Life.   See  Life  Member. 

Member  of  a  Lodge.  As  soon  as  perma- 
nent Lodges  became  a  part  of  the  Masonic  or- 
ganization, it  seems  to  have  been  required  that 
every  Mason  should  belong  to  one,  and  this 
is  explicitly  stated  in  the  charges  approved 
in  1722.    (See  Affiliated  Mason.) 

Membership,  Right  of.  The  first  right 
which  a  Mason  acquires,  after  the  reception  of 
the  Third  Degree,  is  that  of  claiming  member- 
ship in  the  Lodge  in  which  he  has  been  initi- 
ated. The  very  fact  of  his  having  received 
that  degree  makes  him  at  once  an  inchoate 
member  of  the  Lodge — that  is  to  say,  no  fur- 
ther application  is  necessary,  and  no  new  bal- 
lot is  required;  but  the  candidate,  having 
now  become  a  Master  Mason,  upon  signifying 
his  submission  to  the  regulations  of  the  So- 

ciety by  affixing  his  signature  to  the  book  of 
by-laws,  is  constituted,  by  virtue  of  that  act, 
a  full  member  of  the  Lodge,  and  entitled  to  all 
the  rights  and  prerogatives  accruing  to  that 

[Under  the  English  Constitution  (Rule  191), 
initiation  is  sufficient  for  membership.] 

Memphis,  Site  of.  In  1839,  two  French 
Masons,  named  respectively  Marconis  and 
Moullet,  of  whom  the  former  was  undoubtedly 
the  leader,  instituted,  first  at  Paris,  then  at 
Marseilles,  and  afterward  at  Brussels,  a  new 
Rite  which  they  called  the  "Rite  of  Mem- 
phis," and  which  consisted  of  ninety-one  de- 
grees. Subsequently,  another  degree  was 
added  to  this  already  too  long  list.  The  Rite, 
however,  has  repeatedly  undergone  modifi- 
cations. The  Rite  of  Memphis  was  undoubt- 
edly founded  on  the  extinct  Rite  of  Mizraim; 
for.  as  Ragon  says,  the  Egyptian  Rite  seems 
to  have  inspired  Marconis  and  Moullet  in  the 
organization  of  their  new  Rite.  It  is  said  by 
Ragon,  who  has  written  copiously  on  the  Rite, 
that  the  first  series  of  degrees,  extending  to  the 
Thirty-fifth  Degree,  is  an  assumption  of  the 
thirty-three  degrees  of  the  Ancient  and  Ac- 
cepted Rite,  with  scarcely  a  change  of  name. 
The  remaining  degrees  of  the  Rite  are  bor- 
rowed, according  to  the  same  authority,  from 
other  well-known  systems,  and  some,  perhaps, 
the  invention  of  their  founders. 

The  Rite  of  Memphis  was  not  at  first  rec- 
ognized by  the  Grand  Orient  of  France,  and 
consequently  formed  no  part  of  legal  French 
Masonry.  So  about  1852  its  Lodges  were 
closed  by  the  civil  authority,  and  the  Rite,  to 
use  a  French  Masonic  phrase,  "went  to  sleep." 

In  the  year  1862,  Marconis,  still  faithful  to 
the  system  which  he  had  invented,  applied  to 
the  Grand  Master  of  France  to  give  to  it  a  new- 
life.  The  Grand  College  of  Rites  was  con- 
sulted on  the  subject,  and  the  Council  of  the 
Order  having  made  a  favorable  decree,  the 
Rite  of  Memphis  was  admitted,  in  November, 
1862,  among  those  Masonic  systems  which 
acknowledge  obedience  to  the  Grand  Orient 
of  France,  and  perform  their  functions  within 
its  bosom.  To  obtain  this  position,  however, 
the  only  one  which,  in  France,  preserves  a 
Masonic  system  from  the  reputation  of  being 
clandestine,  it  was  necessary  that  Marconis, 
who  was  then  the  Grand  Hierophant,  should, 
as  a  step  preliminary  to  any  favorable  action 
on  the  part  of  the  Grand  Orient,  take  an  obli- 
gation by  which  he  forever  after  divested  him- 
self of  all  authority,  of  any  kind  whatsoever, 
over  the  Rite,  It  passed  entirely  out  of  his 
hands,  and,  going  into  "obedience"  to  the 
Grand  Orient,  that  body  has  taken  complete 
and  undivided  possession  of  it,  and  laid  its 
high  degrees  upon  the  shelf ,  as  Masonic  curi- 
osities, since  theGrand  Orient  onlyrecognizes, 
in  practise,  the  thirty-three  degrees  of  the 
Ancient  and  Accepted  Rite. 

This,  then,  is  the  present  position  of  the 
Rite  of  Memphis  in  France.  Its  original  pos- 
sessors have  disclaimed  all  further  control  or 
direction  of  it.  It  has  been  admitted  by  the 
Grand  Orient  among  the  eight  systems  of 


Rites  which  are  placed  "  under  its  obedience ' ; 
that  is  to  say,  it  admits  its  existence,  but  it 
does  not  suffer  it  to  be  worked.  Like  all  Ma- 
sonic Bites  that  have  ever  been  invented,  the 
organization  of  the  Bite  of  Memphis  is 
founded  on  the  first  three  degrees  of  Ancient 
CraftMasonry.  These  threedegrees>of  course, 
are  given  in  Symbolic  lodges.  In  1862,  when 
Mar  cords  surrendered  the  Bite  into  the  hands 
of  the  ruling  powers  of  French  Masonry, 
many  of  these  Lodges  existed  in  various  parts 
of  France,  althougn  in  a  dormant  condition, 
because,  as  We  have  already  Been,  ten  years 
before  they  had  been  closed  by  the  civil  au- 
thority. Had  they  been  in  active  operation, 
they  would  not  have  been  recognized  by  the 
French  Masons;  they  would  have  been  looked 
upon  as  clandestine,  and  there  Would  have 
been  no  affiliation  with  them,  because  the 
Grand  Orient  recognizes  no  Masonic  bodies  as 
legal  which  do  not  in  return  recognize  it  as  the 
head  of  French  Masonry. 

But  when  Marconis  surrendered  his  powers 
as  Grand  Hierophant  of  the  Rite  of  Memphis 
to  the  Grand  Orient,  that  body  permitted 
these  Lodges  to  be  resuscitated  and  reopened 
only  on  the  conditions  that  they  would  ac- 
knowledge their  subordination  to  the  Grand 
Orient;  that  they  would  work  only  hi  the  first 
three  degrees  and  never  confer  any  degree 
higher  than  that  of  Master  Mason;  the  mem- 
bers of  these  Lodges^however  high  might  be 
their  dignities  in  the  Rite  of  Memphis,  were  to 
be  recognized  only  as  Master  Masons;  every 
Mason  of  the  Rite  of  Memphis  was  to  deposit 
his  Masonic  titles  with  the  Grand  Secretary  of 
the  Grand  Orient;  these  titles  were  then  to  be 
visS  or  approved  and  regularized,  but  only  as 
far  as  the  degree  of  Master  Mason;  no  Mason 
of  the  Rite  of  Memphis  was  to  be  permitted  to 
claim  any  higher  degree,  and  if  he  attempted 
to  assume  any  such  title  of  a  higher  degree 
which  was  not  approved  by  the  Grand  Master, 
he  was  to  be  considered  as  irregular,  and  was 
not  to  be  affiliated  with  by  the  members  of 
any  of  the  regular  Lodges. 

Such  is  now  the  condition  of  the  Bite  of 
Memphis  in  France.  It  has  been  absorbed 
into  the  Grand  Orient;  Marconis,  its  founder 
and  head,  has  surrendered  all  claim  to  any 
jurisdiction  over  it ;  there  are  Lodges  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  Grand  Orient  which  orig- 
inally belonged  to  the  Rite  of  Memphis,  and 
they  practise  its  ritual,  but  only  so  far  as  to 
give  the  degrees  of  Apprentice,  Fellow-Craft, 
and  Master  Mason.  Its  "Sages  of  the  Pyra- 
mids," its  "Grand  Architects  of  the  Mysteri- 
ous City,"  its  "Sovereign  Princes  of  the  Magi 
of  the  Sanctuary  of  Memphis,"  with  its 
"Sanctuary,"  its  "Mystical  Temple,"  its 
"Liturgical  College/'  its  "Grand  Consistory," 
and  its  "Supreme  Tribunal,"  exist  no  longer 
except  in  the  diplomas  and  charters  which 
have  been  quietly  laid  away  oh  the  shelves  of 
the  Secretariat  of  the  Grand  Orient.  To  at- 
tempt to  propagate  the  Bite  is  now  in  France 
a  high  Masonic  offense.  The  Grand  Orient 
alone  has  the  power,  and  there  is  no  likelihood 
that  it  will  ever  exercise  it.   Some  eirjum- 


stances  which  have  recently  occurred  in  the 
Grand  Orient  of  France  very  clearly  show  the 
true  condition  of  the  Rite  of  Memphis.  A 
meeting  was  held  in  Paris  by  the  Council  of  the 
Order,  a  body  which,  something  like  the  Com- 
mittee of  General  Purposes  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  England,  does  all  the  preliminary  business 
for  the  Grand  Orient,  but  which  is  possessed  of 
rather  extensive  legislative  and  administrative 
powers,  as  it  directs  the  Order  during  the  re- 
cess of  the  Grand  Orient.  At  that  meeting.  a 
communication  was  received  from  a  Lodge  in 
Moldavia,  called  "The  Disciples  of  Truth," 
which  Lodge  is  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the 
Grand  Orient  of  France,  having  been  char- 
tered by  that  body.  This  communication 
stated  that  certain  brethren  of  that  Lodge  had 
been  invested  by  one  Carence  with  the  degree 
of  Rose  Croix  in  the  Rite  of  Memphis,  and 
that  the  diplomas  had  been  dates  at  the 
"Grand  Orient  of  Egypt,"  and  signed  by  Bro. 
Marconis  as  GranoTffierophant.  The  com- 
mission of  the  Council  of  the  Order,  to  whom 
the  subject  was  referred,  reported  that  the  con- 
ferring of  these  degrees  was  null  and  void; 
that  neither  Carence  nor  Marconis  had  any 
commission,  authority,  or  power  to  confer 
degrees  of  the  Memphis  Rite  or  to  organize 
bodies;  and  that  Marconis  had,  by  oath, 
solemnly  divested  himself  of  all  right  to  claim 
the  title  of  Grand  Hierophant  of  the  Rite; 
which  oath,  originally  taken  in  May,  1862, 
had  at  several  subsequent  times,  namely,  m 
September,  1863,  March,  1864,  September, 
1865,  and  March,  1866,  been  renewed.  As  a 
matter  of  clemency,  the  Council  determined 
not,  for  the  present  at  least,  to  prefer  charges 
against  Marconis  and  Carence  before  the 
Grand  Orient,  but  to  warn  them  of  the  error 
they  committed  in  making  a  traffic  of  Masonic 
degrees.  It  also  ordered  the  report  to  be  pub- 
lished and  widely  diffused,  so  that  the  Fra- 
ternity might  be  apprised  that  there  was  no 
power  outside  of  the  Grand  Orient  which  could 
confer  the  high  degrees  of  any  Rite.  ' 

An  attempt  having  been  made*  in  1872,  to 
establish  the  Rite  m  England,  Bro.  Mon- 
tague, the  Secretary-General  of  the  Supreme 
Comncil,  wrote  to  Bro.  Thevenot,  the  Grand 
Secretary  of  the  Grand  Orient  of  France,  for 
information  as  to  its  validity.  From  him  he 
received  a  letter  containing  the  following 
statements,  from  which  official  authority  we 
gather  the  fact  that  the  Bite  of  Memphis  is  a 
dead  Rite,  and  that  no  one  has  authority  in 
any  country  to  propagate  it. 

^'Neither  in  1866,  nor  at  any  other  period, 
has  the  Grand  Orient  of  France  recognized 
'the  Ancient  and  Primitive  Rite  of  Masonry,* 
concerning  which  you  inquire,  and  which  has 
been  recently  introduced  m  Lancashire.  _ 

"  At  a  particular  time,  and  with  the  inten- 
tion of  causing  the  plurality  of  Rites  to  dis- 
appear, the  Grand  Orient  of  France  annexed 
and  absorbed  the  Rite  of  Memphis,  under  the 
express  condition  that  the  Lodges  of  that  Rite, 
which  were  received  under  its  jurisdiction, 
should  confer  only  the  three  symbolic  degrees 
«*f  Apprentice,  Fellow-Craft,  and  Master,  ad- 


cording  to  its  special  rituals,  and  refused  to 
recognize  any  other  degree,  or  any  other  title, 
belonging  to  such  Bite. 
_  "At  the  period  when  this  treaty  was  nego- 
tiated with  the  Supreme  Chief  of  this  Rite  by 
Bro.  Marconis  de  Negre,  Bro.  H.  J,  Seymour 
was  at  Paris,  and  seen  by  us,  but  no  power  was 
conferred  on  him  by  the  Grand  Orient 
of  France  concerning  this  Rite;  and,  what  is 
more,  the  Grand  Orient  of  France  does  not 
give,  and  has  never  given,  to  any  single  per- 
son the  right  to  make  Masons  or  to  create 
Lodges.  , 

"Afterwards,  and  in  consequence  of  the  bad 
faith  of  Bro.  Marconis  de  Negre,  who  pre- 
tended he  bad  ceded  his  Rite  to  the  Grand 
Orient  of  France  for  France  alone,  Bro.  Harry 
J.  Seymour  assumed  the  title  of  Grand  Master 
of  the  Rite  of  Memphis  in  America,  and 
founded  in  New  York  a  Sovereign  Sanctuary 
of  this  Rite.  A  correspondence  ensued  be- 
tween this  new  power  and  the  Grand  Orient  of 
France,  -and  even  the  name  of  this  Sovereign 
Sanctuary  appeared  in  our  Calendar  for  1867. 
But  when  the  Grand  Orient  of  France  learned 
that  this  power  went  beyond  the  three  sym- 
bolic degrees,  and  that  its  confidence  had  been 
deceived,  the  Grand  Orient  broke  off  all  con- 
nection with  this  power,  and  personally  with 
Bro.  Harry  J.  Seymour;  and,  in  fact,  since 
that  period,  neither  the  name  of  Bro.  Harry  J. 
Seymour,  as  Grand  Master,  nor  the  Masonic 
power  which  he  founded,  have  any  longer  ap- 
peared in  the  Masonic  Calendar  of  the  Grand 

"Your  letter  leads  me  to  believe  that  Bro. 
Harry  J.  Seymour  is  endeavoring,  I  do  not 
know  with  what  object,  to  introduce  a  new 
Rite  into  England,  in  that  country  of  the  prim- 
itive and  only  true  Masonry,  one  of  the  most 
respectable  that  I  know  of.  I  consider  this 
event  as  a  misfortune. 

"The  Grand  Orient  of  France  has  made  the 
strongest  efforts  to  destroy  the  Rite  of  Mem- 
phis; it  has  succeeded.  The  Lodges  of  the 
Rite,  which  it  at  first  received  within  its  juris- 
diction, have  all  abanddned  the  Rite  of  Mem- 
phis to  work  according  to  the  French  Rite.  I 
sincerely  desire  that  it  may  be  the  same  in  the 
United  Kingdom,  and  you  will  ever  find  me 
ready  to  second  your  efforts. 

"Referring  to  this  letter,  I  have,  very  illus- 
trious brother,  but  one  word  to  add,  and  that 
is.  that  the  Constitution  of  the  Grand  Orient 
of  France  interdicts  its  founding  Lodges  in 
countries  where  a  regular  Masonic  power  al- 
ready exists;  and  if  it  cannot  found  Lodges 
a  fortiori,  it  cannot  grant  charters  to  establish 
Grand  Masonic  Powers:  in  other  terms,  the 
Grand  Orient  of  France  never  has  given  to 
Bro.  Harry  J.  Seymour,  nor  to  any  other  per- 
son, powers  to  constitute  a  Lodge,  or  to  create 
a  Rite,  or  to  make  Masons.  Bro.  Harry  J. 
Seymour  may  perfectly  well  have  the  signa- 
tures of  the  Grand  Master  and  of  the  Chief  of 
the  Secretary's  office  of  the  Grand  Orient  of 
France  on  a  diploma,  as  a  fraternal  visi;  but 
certainly  he  has  neither  a  charter  nor  a  power. 
I  also  beg  you  to  make  every  effort  to  obtain  | 

.■SI  S>^^i*%*$SW$f?r'.(    ,,,  .  . 

MERIT  481 

the  textual  copy  of  the  documents  of  which 
Bro.  Harry  J.  Seymour  takes  advantage.  It 
is  by  the  inspection  of  this  document  it  will  be 
necessary  to  judge  the  question,  and  I  await 
new  communications  on  this  subject  from  your 
fraternal  kindness." 

Menatzchim.  In  2  Chron.  ii.  18,  it  is 
said  that  at  the  building  of  the  Temple  there 
were  "three  thousand  and  six  hundred  over- 
seers to  set  the  people  awork."  The  word 
translated  "overseers"  is,  in  the  original, 
DTUMtt,  MeNaTZCHIM.  Anderson,  in  hm 
catalogue  of  workmen  at  the  Temple,  calls 
these  Menatzchim  "expert  Master  Masons"; 
and  so  they  nave  been  considered  in  all  sub- 
sequent rituals. 

Mental  Qualifications.  See  Qualifica- 

Menu.  In  the  Indian  mythology,  Menu  is 
the  son  of  Brahma,  and  the  founder  of  the 
Hindu  religion.  Thirteen  other  Menus  are 
said  to  exist,  seven  of  whom  have  already 
reigned  on  earth.  But  itis  the  first  one  whose 
instructions  constitute  the  whole  civil  and 
religious  polity  of  the  Hindus.  The  code  at- 
tributed to  him  by  the  Brahmans  has  been 
translated  by  Sir  William  Jones,  with  the  title 
ot  The  Institutes  of  Menu. 

Mercy.  The  point  of  a  Knights  Templar's 
,  sword  is  said  to  be  characterized  by  the 
quality  of  "mercy  unrestrained";  which  re- 
minds us  of  the  Shakespearian  expression — 
"the  quality  of  mercy  is  not  strained."  In  the 
days  of  chivalry,  mercy  to  the  conquered  foe 
was  an  indispensable  quality  of  a  knight. ,  An 
act  of  cruelty  in  battle  was  considered  infa- 
mous, for  whatever  was  contrary  to  the  laws 
of  generous  warfare  was  also  contrary  to  the 
laws  of  chivalry. 
Mercy,  Prince  of.  See  Prince  of  Mercy. 
Mercy-Seat.  The  lid  or  cover  of  the  ark 
of  the  covenant  was  called  the  Mercy-seat  or 
the  Propitiatory,  because  on  the  day  of  the 
atonement  the  High  Priest  poured  on  it  the 
blood  of  the  sacrifice  for  the  sins  of  the  people. 

Meridian  Sun.  The  sun  in  the  South  is 
represented  in  Masonry  by  the  Junior  Warden, 
for  this  reason:  when  the  sun  has  arrived  at 
the  zenith,  at  which  time  he  is  in  the  South, 
the  splendor  of  his,  beams  entitles  him  to  the 
appellation  which  he  receives  in  the  ritual  as 
"toe  beauty  and  glory  of  the  day."  Hence,  as 
the  Pillar  of  Beauty  which  supports  the  Lodge 
is  referred  to  the  Junior  Warden,  that  officer  is 
said  to  represent  "the  sun  in  the  Southat  High 
Twelve,"  at  which  hour  the  Craft  are  called  by 
him  to  refreshment,  and  therefore  is  he  also 
placed  in  the  South  that  he  may  the  better 
observe  the  time  and  mark  the  progress  of  the 
shadow  over  the  dial-plate  as  it  crosses  the 
meridian  line. 

Merit.  The  Old  Charges  say,  "all  prefer- 
ment among  Masons  is  grounded  upon  real 
worth  and  personal  merit  only;  that  so  the 
Lords  may  be  well  served,  the  Brethren  not 
put  to  shame,  nor  the  Royal  Craft  despised. 
Therefore  no  Master  or  Warden  is  chosen  by 
seniority,  but  for  his  merit."  (See  Prefer' 




Mer-Sker.  The  space  in  which  the  sun 
moves,  as  an  Egyptian  personification,  signi- 
fying the  habitation  of  Horus. 

Merzdorf,  J.  L.  T.  A  learned  German 
Mason,  born  in  1812.  Initiated  in  Apollo 
Lodge,  at  Leipsic,  in  1834.  He  resuscitated  the 
Lodge  "Zum  goldenen  Hirsch,"  Oldenburg, 
and  was  for  years  Deputy  Master.  He  pub- 
lished Die  Symbole,  etc.,  Leipsic,  1836,  and 
later  several  other  works. 

Meshla,  Mesblane.  Corresponding  to 
Adam  and  Eve,  in  accordance  with  Persian 

Mesmer,  Frledrlch  Anton.  A  German 
physician  who  was  born  in  Suabia,  in 1734,  and, 
after  a  long  life,  a  part  of  which  was  passed  in 
notoriety  and  tne  closing  years  in  obscurity, 
died  in  1815.  He  was  the  founder  of  the  doc- 
trine of  animal  magnetism,  called  after  him 
Mesmerism.  He  visited  Paris,  and  became 
there  in  some  degree  intermixed  with  the 
Masonic  charlatanism  of  Cagliostro,  who  used 
the  magnetic  operations  of  Mesmer's  new 
science  in  his  initiations.  (See  Mesmeric 

Mesmeric  Masonry.  In  the  year  1782, 
Mesmer  established  in  Paris  a  society  which 
he  called  "the  Order  of  Universal  Harmony." 
It  was  based  on  the  principles  of  animal  mag- 
netism or  mesmerism,  and  had  a  form  of  initi- 
ation by  which  the  founder  claimed  that  its 
adepts  were  purified  and  rendered  more  fit 
to  propagate  the  doctrines  of  his  science. 
French  writers  have  dignified  this  Order  by  the 
title  of  "Mesmeric  Masonry." 

Mesopolyte.  The  Fourth  Degree  of  the 
German  Union  of  XXII. 

Mesooraneo.  A    Greek    word,  n*nv- 

ftanu,  signifying,  I  am  in  the  center  of  heaven. 
lutchinson  fancifully  derives  from  it  the 
word  Masonry,  which  he  says  is  a  corruption 
of  the  Greek,  and  refers  to  the  constellation 
Magaroth  mentioned  by  Job;  but  he  fails  to 
give  a  satisfactory  reason  for  his  etymology 
Nevertheless,  Oliver  favors  h. 

Metals.  •  In  the  divestiture  of  metals  as  a 
preliminary  to  initiation,  we  are  symbol- 
ically taught  that  Masonry  regards  no  man  on 
account  of  his  wealth.  The  Talmudical 
treatise  "Beracoth,"  with  a  like  spirit  of  sym- 
bolism, directs  in  the  Temple  service  that  no 
man  shall  go  into  the  mountain  of  the  house, 
that  is,  into  the  Holy  Temple,  "with  money 
tied  up  in  his  purse." 

Metal  Tools.  We  are  told  in  Scripture 
that  the  Temple  was  "built  of  stone  made 
ready  before  it  was  brought  thither:  so  that 
there  was  neither  hammer,  nor  axe,  nor  Any 
tool  of  iron  heard  in  the  house  while  it  was  in 
building."  (1  Kings  vi.  7.)  Masonry  has 
adopted  this  as  a  symbol  of  the  peace  and  har- 
mony which  should  reign  in  a  Lodge,  itself  a 
type  of  the  world.  But  Clarke,  in  his  com 
mentary  on  the  place,  suggests  that  it  was  in 
tended  to  teach  us  that  the  Temple  was  a  type 
of  the  kingdom  of  God,  and  that  the  souls  of 
men  are  to  be  prepared  here  for  that  place  of 
blessedness.  There  is  no  repentance,  tears, 
nor  prayers:  the  stones  must  be  all  squared, 

and  fitted  here  for  their  place  in  the  New  Jeru- 
salem; and,  being  living  stones,  must  be  built 
up  a  holy  temple  for  the  habitation  of  God. 

Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France.  There 
existed  in  France,  toward  the  end  of  the  last 
century,  a  body  calling  itself  the  Grand  Chap- 
ter General  of  France.  It  was  formed  out  of 
the  d&rris  of  the  Council  of  Emperors  of  the 
East  and  West,  and  the  Council  of  Knights  of 
the  East,  which  had  been  founded  by  Pirlet. 
In  1786,  it  united  with  the  schismatic  Grand 
Orient,  and  then  received  the  title  of  the  Met- 
ropolitan Chapter  of  France.  It  possessed  in 
its  archives  a  large  collection  of  manuscript 
eahiers  of  degrees,  most  of  them  being  mere 
Masonic  curiosities. 

MetusaeL  The  name  given  to  the  Hebrew 
quarryman,  who  is  represented  in  some  leg- 
ends as  one  of  the  assassins,  Fanor  and  A  mm 
being  the  other  two. 

Mexico.  Masonry  was  introduced  into 
Mexico,  in  the  Scottish  Rite,  some  time  prior  to 
1810,  by  the  civil  and  military  officers  of  Spain, 
but  the  exact  period  of  its  introduction  is  un- 
known. The  first  Work  Charters  were  granted 
for  a  Lodge  at  Vera  Cruz  in  1816,  and  one  at 
Campeche  in  1817,  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Louisiana,  followed  by  a  Charter  for  a  Lodge  at 
Vera  Cruz  in  1823  by  the  "  City  "  Grand  Lodge 
of  New  York,  and  one  in  the  same  city  in 
1824  from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania. 
February  10, 1826,  five  Charters  were  granted 
for  Lodges  in  the  City  of  Mexico  by  the  "Coun- 
try "  Grand  Lodge  of  New  York,  on  the  rec- 
ommendation of  Joel  R.  Poinsett,  Past  Dep- 
uty Grand  Master  of  South  Carolina,  at  that 
time  United  States  Minister  to  Mexico,  who 
constituted  the  Lodges  and  organized  them 
into  a  Grand  Lodge  with  Jose  Ignacio  Esteva 
as  Grand  Master. 

The  Masonic  bodies,  both  York  and  Scot- 
tish Rite,  however,  soon  degenerated  into 
rival  political  clubs,  and  the  bitter  factional- 
ism became  so  strong  that  in  1833  the  authori- 
ties issued  an  edict  suppressing  all  secret  soci- 
eties. The  bodies  met,  however,  secretly,  and 
about  1834  the  National  Mexican  Bite  was 
organized  with  nine  degrees  copied  after  the 
Scottish  Rite.  In  1843  a  Lodge  was  char- 
tered at  Vera  Cruz,  and  in  1845  at  Mexico  by 
the  Grand  Orient  of  France.  In  1859  a  Su- 
preme Council  33°,  with  jurisdiction  over  the 
Symbolic  degrees,  was  organized:  by  authority 
of  Albert  Pike,  and  for  a  time  the  Supreme 
Council  dominated  all  the  bodies.  In  1865 
the  Grand  Lodge  Valle  de  Mexico  was  organ- 
ized as  a  York  Rite  Grand  Lodge,  and  worked 
as  such  until  1911,  when  a  number  of  the 
Lodges,  under  the  leadership  of  Past  Grand 
Masters  Levi  and  Pro,  left  the  Grand  Lodge 
and  organized  a  rival  body,  under  the  obedi- 
ence of  the  Supreme  Council.     (W.  J._  A.] 

Mezusa.  The  third  fundamental  principle 
of  Judaism,  or  the  sign  upon  the  door-post 
The  precept  is  founded  upon  the  command, 
"And  thou  shalt  write  them  upon  the  posts 
of  thy  house,  and  on  thy  gates."  (Deut.  vi- 
4-9;  xi.  13-21.)  The  door-posts  must  be 
those  of  a  dwelling;  synagogues  are  excluded. 


The  Karaite  Jews  affix  Mezuzas  to  synagogues 
and  not  to  private  houses.   The  Mezuza  is  con- 
structed as  follows:  the  two  above-mentioned 
portions  of  Scripture  are  written  on  ruled  vel- 
lum prepared  according  to  Rabbinical  rules, 
then  rolled  and  fitted  into 
a  metallic  tube.    The  word 
Shaddai  (Almighty)  is  writ- 
ten on  the  outside  of  the  roll, 
and  can  be  read,  when  in  the 
tube,  through  a  slot.  The 
Mezuza  is  then  nailed  at  each 
end  on  the  right-hand  door- 
post,  while   the  following 
prayer  is  being  said;  "Blessed 
art  thou,  O  Lord  our  God! 
King  of  the  Universe,  who 
hath  sanctified  us  with  His 
laws,  and  commanded  us  to 
fix  the  Mezuza."  Under  the 
word  Shaddai  some  Jews 
write  the  three  angelic  names 
Coozu,  Bemuchsaz,  Coozu. 
To  these  some  pray  for  suc- 
cess in  business. 

The  Talmud  estimates  the 
IrWsu^-.'of  the  Talith,  the  Phy- 
lacteries, and  the  Mezuza  in 
the  following  terms:  "Who- 
soever has  the  phylacteries 
bound  to  his  head  and  arm, 
and;  the  fringes  thrown  over 
his  garments,  and  the  Mezuza 
faxed  on  his  door-post,  is  safe  from  sin;  for 
these  are  excellent  memorials,  and  the  angels 
secure  him  from  sin;  as  it  is  written,  'The 
angel  of  the  Lord  encamped  round  about 
them  that  fear  Him,  and  delivereth  them.'  " 
(Ps.  xxxiv.  7.)  fC.  T.  McClenachan.l 

Michael.  Who  is  like  unto  God. 

The  chief  of  the  seven  archangels.  He  is  the 
leader  of  the  celestial  host,  as  Lucifer  is  of  the 
infernal  spirits,  and  the  especial  protector  of 
Israel.  He  is  prominently  referred  to  in  the 
Twenty-eighth  Degree  of  the  Ancient  and 
Accepted  Scottish  Site,  or  Knight  of  the  Sun. 

Michigan.  A  Charter  was  issued  by  the 
Prov.  Grand  Master  of  New  York  under  date 
of  April  27,  1764,  for  a  Lodge  at  Detroit,  and 
upon  this  foundation  it  has  been  customary  to 
rest  the  claim  that  Michigan  Masonry  dates 
from  1764.  In  fact,  there  is  no  evidence  that 
any  work  was  ever  done  under  the  Charter  of 
1764,  and  if  a  Lodge  ever  came  into  existence 
thereunder,  as  is  probable,  it  is  certain  that  it 
was  short-lived,  and  differed  in  no  respect 
from  several  other  Lodges  known  to  have  been 
temporarily  held  at  Detroit  at  various  times 
prior  to  1794  by  British  soldiers  and  other 

•  i_In  17j94  Detroit  was  still  garrisoned  by  Brit- 
ish soldiers  and  it  was  British  soldiers  who 
were  founders  of  the  Lodge  of  1794.  After- 
ward, when  the  British  Government  had 
tardily  turned  the  post  over  to  the  Americans, 
and  the  British  soldiers  had  been  removed  and 
the  region  had  become  somewhat  American- 
ized, a  sentiment  arose  in  favor  of  building 
under  some  American  Grand  Lodge  in  prefer- 



ence  to  a  Canadian,  and  in  October,  1803. 
the  members  of  the  Lodge  voted  to  pWion 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  NewYork  for  a  Charter 
proposing  to  surrender  their  Canadian  Char- 
ter. Chiefly  on  account  of  the  slowness  of  com- 
munication in  those  days,  this  transaction  was 
not  brought  to  a  close  until  the  session  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  New  York,  held  in  September, 
1806.  Zion  Lodge  died  in  1812.  owing  to  the 
capture  of  Detroit  by  the  British,  but  after 
the  war  the  Grand  Lodge  of  New  York  gave 
the  members  a  new  Charter. 

Other  Lodges  were  subsequently  estab- 
lished, and  on  July  31,  1826,  a  Grand  Lodge 
was  organized  by  them,  and  Lewis  Cass  elected 
Grand  Master.  In  consequence  of  the  political 
pressure  of  the  anti-Masonic  party  at  that 
^I'J?16  9rand  Lod8°  suspended  its  labors 
in  1829,  and  remained  in  a  dormant  condition 
until  1841,  when,  at  a  general  meeting  of  the 
Masons  of  the  State,  it  was  resolved  that  the 
old  Grand  Officers  who  were  still  alive  should, 
on  the  principle  that  their  prerogatives  bad 
never  ceased,  but  only  been  in  abeyance, 
grant  dispensations  for  the  revival  of  the 
Lodges  and  the  renewal  of  labor.  But  this 
course  having  been  objected  to  as  irregular 
by  most  of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  the  United 
States,  delegates  of  a  constitutional  number  of 
Lodges  met  in  September,  1844,  and  organ- 
ized the  Grand  Lodge,  electing  John  MuHett 
Grand  Master. 

The  Grand  Chapter  was  organized  in  1848, 
the  Grand  Commandery  in  1857,  and  the 
Grand  Council  in  1858.  [A.  G.  Pitts  1 
Microcosm.  See  Man. 
Middle  Ages.  These  are  supposed  by 
the  best  historians  to  extend  from  the  time 
Theodoric  liberated  Rome  (493)  to  the  end 
of  the  fifteenth  century,  the  important  events 
being  the  fall  of  Constantinople  in  1453, 
the  discovery  of  America  in  1492,  and  the 
doubling  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  in  1497. 
This  period  of  ten  centuries  is  one  of  great 
importance  to  the  Masonic  student,  because  it 
embraces  within  its  scope  events  intimately 
connected  with  the  history  of  the  Order,  such 
as  the  diffusion  throughout  Europe  of  the 
Roman  Colleges  of  Artificers,  the  establish- 
ment of  the  architectural  school  of  Como,  the 
rise  of  the  gilds,  the  organization  of  the 
building  corporations  of  Germany,  and  the 
company  of  Freemasons  of  England,  as  well  as 
many  customs  and  usages  which  have  de- 
scended with  more  or  less  modification  to  the 
modern  Institution.  - 

Middle  Chamber.  There  were  three 
stories  of  side  chambers  built  around  the 
Temple  on  three  sides;  what,  therefore,  is 
called  in  the  authorized  version  a  middle  cham- 
ber was  really  the  middle  story  of  those  three. 
The  Hebrew  word  is  US"1,  yatsang.  They  are 
thus  described  in  1  Kings  vi.  5,  6,  8.  "And 
against  the  wall  of  the  house  he  built  chambers 
round  about,  against  the  walls  of  the  house 
round  about,  both  of  the  temple  and  of  the 
oracle:  and  he  made  chambers  round  about. 

  ~ —  "~  ^umuucso  luuuu  auuuij. 

ine  nethermost  chamber  was  five  cubits 
broad,  and  the  middle  was  six  cubits  broad, 



and  the  third  was  seven  cubits  broad:  for 
without  in  the  wall  of  the  house  he  jnade 
narrowed  rests  round  about,  that  the  beams 
should  not  be  fastened  in  the  walls  of  tbe 
house  The  door  for  the  middle  chamber  was 
in  the  right  side  of  the  house:  and  they  went 
up  with  winding  stairs  into  the  middle  cham- 
ber, and  out  of  the  middle  into  the  third. 

These  chambers,  after  the  Temple  was  com- 
pleted, served  for  the  accommodation  of  t&e 
priests  when  upon  duty;  in  them  they  de- 
posited their  vestments  and  the  saeredyessete. 
But  the  knowledge  of  the  purpose  to  which  the 
middle  chamber  was  appropriated  while  tne 
Temple  was  in  the  course  of  construction,  i» 
only  preserved  in  Masonic  tradition.  This 
tradition  is,  however,  altogether  mythical  and 
symbolical  in  its  character,  and  belongs  to  tne 
symbolism  of  the  Winding  Stairs,  which  see. 

Miles.  1.  In  pure  Latin,  miles  means  a 
soldier:  but  in  Medieval  Latin  the  word  was 
used  to  designate  the  military  knightswbose 
institution  began  at  that  panod.  Thus l  a 
Knight  Templar  was  called  Miles  Templarius, 
and  a  Knight  Banneret,  Miles  Barmerettus. 
The  pure  Latin  word  egues,  which  signified  a 
knight  in  Rome,  was  never  used  in  that  sense 
in  the  Middle  Ages.    (See  Knighthood.Y  . 

2.  The  Seventh  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Afri- 
can Architects.  ,  . 

Military  Lodges.  Lodges  established  m 
an  army.   They  are  of  an  early  date,  having 
long  existed  in  the  British  army.   In  America, 
the  first  Lodge  of  this  kind  of  which  we  have 
any  record  was  one  the  Warrant  for  which  was 
granted  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachu- 
setts, in  1738,  to  Abraham  Savage,  to  be  used 
in  the  expedition  against  Canada.   A  similar 
one  was  granted  by  the  same  authonty,.  in 
1756,  to  Richard  Gridley,  for  the  expedition 
against  Crown  Point.   In  both  of  these  in- 
stances the  Warrants  were  of  a  general  charac- 
ter, and  might  rather  be  considered  as  deputa- 
tions, as  they  authorized  Savage  and  Gridley 
to  congregate  Masons  into  one  or  more  Lodges. 
In  1779,  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania 
granted  a  Warrant  to  Col.  Proctor,  of  the  ar- 
tillery, to  open  a  Military  Lodge,  which  in  the 
Warrant  is  called  a  "Movable  Lodge."  In  the 
Civil  War  in  the  United  States  between  1861 
and  1865,  many  Military  Lodges  were  estab- 
lished on  both  sides;  but  it  is  questionable 
whether  they  had  a  good  effect.  They  met, 
certainly,  with  much  opposition  in  many  juris- 
dictions.  In  England,  the  system  of  Mili- 
tary Lodges  is  regulated  by  special  provisions 
of  the  Grand  Lodge  Constitution.   They  are 
strictly  limited  to  the  purposes  for  which  the 
Warrants  were  granted,  and  no  new  Lodge  can 
be  established  in  a  regiment  without  the  con- 
currence of  the  commanding  officer.  They 
cannot  make  Masons  of  any  but  military  men 
who  have  attained  some  rank  in  the  army 
above  that  of  a  private  soldier,  although  the 
latter  may  by  dispensation  be  admitted  as 
Serving  Brethren;  and  they  are  strictly  en- 
joined not  to  interfere  with  the  Masonic  juris- 
diction of  any  country  in  which  they  may  be 
stationed.   Military  Lodges  also  exist  on  the 


Continent  of  Europe.  We  find  one  at  Berlin, 
in  Prussia,  as  far  back  as  1775,  under  the  name 
of  the  "Military  Lodge  of  the  Blazing  Star, 
of  which  Wadzeck,  the  Masonic  writer,  was 
the  orator.  , 
Militia.  In  Medieval  Latin,  this  word 
signifies  cMyalry  or  the  body  of  knighthood. 

Slguiueo  uuivauj  \*         »»*~ j  «-  — — <»  ;  

Hence  Militia  Tempi*,  a  title  sometimes  given 
to  Knights  Templar,  does  not  signify,  as  it  has 
sometimes  been  improperly  translated,,  the 
army  of  the  Temple,  but  the  chivalry  of  the 
Temple.  .       . .  ■  „ 

Mlllin  de  Grand  Maison,  A.  L.  Born, 
1759;  died,  1818.  Founder  of  the  Magasm 
Encyclojmiigm.  He  was  a  Mason  under  the 
Rite  Ecossais,  and  also  belonged  to  the  "  Mere 
Loee"  of  the  "Rite  Ecossais  Phdosophique." 

Mlnerval.  The  Third  Degree  of  the  H- 
luminati  of  Bavaria.  _ 

Minister  of  State.  An  officer  in  the  Su- 
preme Councils,  Grand  Consistories,  and  some 
of  the  high  degrees  of  the  Ancient  and  Ac- 
cepted Scottish  Rite.  ... 

Minnesota.  Masonry  was  introduced  into 
this  State  in  1849  by  the  constitistaon  in  the 
city  of  St.  Paul  of  a  Lodge  under  a  Warrant  is- 
sued by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Ohio.  Two  other 
Lodges  were  subsequently  constituted  by  the 
Grand  Lodges  of  Wisconsin  and  Illinois^  A 
convention  of  delegates  from  these  Lodges 
was  held  at  St.  Paul,  and  a  Grand  Lodge  or- 
ganized on  February  12,  1853.  A.  E.  Ames 
was  elected  Grand,  Master.  The  Grand  Chap- 
ter was  organized  December  17, 1859,  and  the 
Grand  Commandery  was  organized  in  1866. 

Minor.  The  Fifth  Degree  of  the  German 
Rose  Croix.  •  . 

Minor  Illuminate.  (Illumxnatus  Minor.) 
The  Fourth  Degree  of  the  IUuminati  of  Ba- 
varia. ,    ,  _  ,  , 

Minute-Book.  The  records  of  a  Lodge  are 
kept  by  the  Secretary  in  a  Journal,  which  is 
called  the  Minute-Book.  The  French  call  it 
Planche  trade,  and  the  Minutes  a  Morceau 
d' Architecture.  _ 

Minutes.  The  records  of  a  Lodge  are 
called  its  minutes.  The  minutes  of  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Lodge  should  always  be  read 
just  before  closing,  that  any  alterations  or 
amendments  may  be  proposed  by  the  breth- 
ren; and  again  immediately  after  opening  at 
the  next  communication,  'that  they  may  be 
confirmed.  But  the  minutes  of  a  regular  com- 
munication are  not  to  be  read  at  a  succeeding 
extra  one,  because,  as  the  proceedings  of  a 
regular  communication  cannot  be  discussed  at 
an  extra,  it  would  be  unnecessary  to  read  them, 
for,  if  incorrect,  they  could  not  be  amended 
until  the  next  regular  communication. 

Misehchan,  Mischaphereth,  Mlschtai, 
nwn  pW3,  Tent  of  Testimony.  K3»T 
Tmt  of  Festival.    (See  Twenty-fourth  Degree 
of  the  Scottish  Bite.)    "BBS  is  used  in  the  Thir- 
tieth Degree.  _      .    .  . 

Misconduct.  The  Constitution  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England  provides  that  "if 
any  brother  behave  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
disturb  the  harmony  of  the  Lodge,  he  shall  be 
thrice  formally  admonished  by  the  Master; 


and  if  he  persist  in  his  irregular  conduct,  he 
shall  be  punished  according  to  the  by-laws  of 
that  particular  Lodge,  or  toe  case  may  be  re- 
ported to  higher  Masonic  authority."  A  sim- 
ilar rule  prevails  wherever  Masonry  exists. 
Every  Lodge  may  exercise  instant  discipline 
over  any  member  or  visitor  who  violates  the 
rules  of  order  and  propriety,  or  disturbs  the 
harmony  of  the  Lodge,  by  extrusion  from 
the  room. 

Miserable  Scald  Masons.  See  Scald 

Mishna.   See  Talmud. 

Mississippi.  Masonry  was  introduced 
into  this  State  at  least  as  far  back  as  1801,  in 
which  year  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Kentucky 
chartered  a  Lodge  at  Natchez,  which  became 
extinct  in  1814.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  Ken- 
tucky subsequently  granted  charters  to  two 
other  Lodges  in  1812  and  1815.  Two  Lodges 
were  also  constituted  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Tennessee.  The  delegates  of  three  of  these 
Lodges  met  in  convention  at  the  city  of  Nat- 
chez in  July  and  August,  1818,  and  on  the 
25th  of  the  latter  month  organized  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Mississippi,  Henry  Tooley  being 
elected  Grand  Master.  The  Grand  Chapter 
was  organized  at  Vicksburg,  May  18,  1846; 
the  Grand  Council  of  R.  and  S.  Master,  Jan- 
uary 19, 1856;  and  the  Grand  Commahdery, 
January  22, 1857.  Scottish  Masonry  was  in- 
troduced into  the  State  in  1815  by  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  Grand  Council  of  Princes  of 
Jerusalem  under  the  obedience  of  the  South- 
ern Supreme  Council. 

Missouri.  Masonry  was  introduced  into 
this  State  in  1807  by  the  constitution  of  a 
Lodge  in  the  town  of  St.  Genevieve,  under  a 
charter  granted  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Penn- 
sylvania, which  body  granted  a  charter  for 
another  Lodge  in  1809.  Several  charters  were 
subsequently  granted  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Tennessee.  In  1821  there  appear  to  have  teen 
but  three  Lodges  in  the  State.  Delegates  from 
these  organized,  April  23. 1821,  a  Grand  Lodge 
at  St.  Louis,  and  elected  Thomas  F.  Biddick 
Grand  Master.  The  Grand  Chapter  was  or- 
ganized May  18,  1846,  and  the  Grand  Com- 
mandery  May  22, 1860. 

Mistletoe.  (Viscum  Album.)  A  sacred 
plant  among  the  Druids.  It  was  to  them  a 
symbol  of  immortality,  and  hence  an  analogue 
of  the  Masonic  Acacia.  "The  mistletoe," 
says  Vallancey,  in  his  Grammar  of  the  Irish 
Language,  "was  sacred  to  the  Druids,  because, 
not  only  its  berries  but  its  leaves  also  grow  in 
clusters  of  three  united  to  one  stock.  The 
Christian  Irish  hold  the  shamrock  (clover, 
trefoil)  sacred,  in  like  manner,  because  of  the 
three  'eaves  united  to  one  stalk." 

In  Scandinavian  countries  it  is  called  Mistel. 
It  is  a  parasitic  evergreen  plant  bearing  a 
glutinous  fruit.  It  was  from  a  fragment  of 
this  plant  that  the  dart  was  made  which  cost 
the  life  of  Balder,  according  to  the  Scandina- 
vian Mysteries.    (See  Balder.) 

The  Mistletoe,  to  the  Scandinavian,  is  the 
coincident  symbol  of  the  acacia  to  the  Mason, 
the  toy  to  those  of  the  Mysteries  of  Dionysius, 


the  wtyrife  to  those  of  Ceres,  the  erica  or  heath 
to  those  of  the  Osirian,  the  lettuce  to  those  of 
the  Adonisian,  and  the  lotus  or  water4ily  to 
those  of  India  and  Egypt.  The  Mistletoe 
that  caused  the  death  of  Balder  was  deemed 
sacred  as  the  representative  of  the  number 
three.  The  berries  and  leaves  of  the  plant  or 
vine  grow  in  clusters  of  three  united  on  one 
stalk.  It  was  profanation  to  touch  it.  It 
was  gathered  with  ceremony,  and  then  con- 
secrated, when  it  was  reputed  to  possess  every 
sanative  virtue,  and  denominated  "All  Heal." 

Mitchell,  James  W.  S.  A  Masonic  writer 
and  journalist,  was  born  in  the  State  of  Ken- 
tucky, in  the  year  1800.  He  was  initiated 
into  Masonry  in  Owen  Lodge,  at  Port  William, 
now  Carrollton,  Kentucky,  in  the  year  1821. 
He  subsequently  removed  to  the  State  of  Mis- 
souri, where  he  took  a  prominent  position  in 
the  Masonic  Fraternity,  and  held  the  offices  of 
Grand  Master  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  Grand 
High  Priest  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  and  Grand 
Commander  of  the  Grand  Commandery  of 
Knights  Templar.  In  1848  he  established,  in 
the  city  of  St.  Louis,  a  monthly  journal  en- 
titled the  Masonic  Signet  and  Literary  Mirror, 
which  he  removed  to  Montgomery,  Alabama, 
in  1852,  where  it  lasted  for  a  short  time,  and 
then  was  discontinued  for  want  of  patronage. 
In  1858  he  published  The  History  of  Free- 
masonry and  Masonic  Digest,  in  two  vol- 
umes, octavo.  Bro.  Mitchell  was  a  warm- 
hearted and  devoted  Mason,  but,  unfortu- 
nately for  Jris  reputation  as  an  author,  not  an 
accomplished  scholar,  hence  his  style  is  de- 
ficient, not  only  in  elegance,  but  even  in 
grammatical  purity.  His  natural  capacity, 
however,  was  good,  and  his  arguments  as  a 
controversialist  were  always  trenchant,  if  the 
language  was  not  polished.  As  a  Masonic 
jurist  his  decisions  have  been  considered  gen- 
erally, but  by  no  means  universally,  correct. 
His  opinions  were  sometimes  eccentric,  and 
his  History  possesses  much  less  value  than 
such  a  work  should  have,  in  consequence  of 
its  numerous  inaccuracies,  and  the  adoption 
by  its  author  of  all  the  extravagant  views  of 
earlier  writers  on  the  origin  of  Masonry.  He  1 
died  at  Griffin,  Georgia,  November  12,  1873, 
having  been  for  many  years  a  great  sufferer 
from  illness. 

Mithras,  Mysteries  of.  There  are  none 
of  the  Ancient  Mysteries  which  afford  a  more 
interesting  subject  of  investigation  to  the 
Masonic  scholar  than  those  of  the  Persian  god 
Mithras.  Instituted,  as  it  is  supposed,  by 
Zeradusht  or  Zoroaster,  as  an  initiation  into 
the  principles  of  the  religion  which  he  had 
founded  among  the  ancient  Persians,  they  in 
time  extended  into  Europe,  and  lasted  so  long 
that  traces  of  them  have  been  found  in  the 
fourth  century.  "With  their  penances," 
says  Mr.  King  (Gnostics,  p.  47),  "and  tests  of 
the  courage  of  the  candidate  for  admission, 
they  have  been  maintained  by  a  constant  tra- 
dition through  the  secret  societies  of  the  Mid- 
dle Ages  and  the  Rosicrucians  down  to  the 
modern  faint  reflex  of  the  latter — the  Free- 



Of  the  identity  of  Mithras  with  other  deities 
there  have  been  various  opinions.  Herodotus 
says  he  was  the  Assyrian  Venus  and; the  Arab- 
ian Alittaj  Porphyry  calls  him  the  Demi- 
urges, an<i  Lord  of  Generation;  the  Greeks 
identified  him  with  Phcebus;  and  ffiggins 
supposed  that  he  was  generally  considered  tne 
aame  as  Osiris.  But  to  the  Persians,  who  first 
practised  his  mysteries,  he  was  a  sun  god,  and 
worshiped  as  tne  God  of  Light  He  was  rep- 
resented as  a  young  man  covered  with  a  Phryg- 
ian turban,  and  clothed  in  a  mantle  and 
tunic.  He  presses  with  his  knee  uppn  a^buil, 
one  of  whose  horns  he  holds  in  his  left  hand, 
while  with  the  right  he  plunges  a  dagger  into 
his  neck,  while  a  dog  standing  near  laps  up 
the  dripping  blood.  .       ,  ,  „. 

This  symbol  has  been  thus  interpreted:  His 
piercing  the  throat  with  his  dagger  signifies 
the  penetration  of  the  solar  rays  into  the 
bosom  of  the  earth,  by  which  action  all  nature 
is  nourished;  the  last  idea  being  expressed  by 
the  dog  licking  up  the  blood  as  it  flows  from  the 
wound.  But  it  will  be  seen  hereafter  that  this 
last  symbol  admits  of  another  interpretation. 

The  mysteries  of  Mithras  were  always  cele- 
brated in  caves.  They  were  divided  into  seven 
stages  or  degrees  (Suidas  says  twelve),  and 
consisted  of  the  most  rigorous  proofs  of  forti- 
tude and'  courage.   Nonnus  the  Greek  poet 
says,  in  his  Dionysiaca,  that  these  proofs  were 
eighty  a  number,  gradually  increasing  in  se- 
verity.  No  one,  says  Gregory  Nazianzen, 
could  be  initiated  into  the  mysteries  of  Mith- 
ras unless  he  had  passed  through  all  the  trials, 
and  proved  himself  passionless  and  pure, 
The  aspirant  at  first  underwent  the  purifica- 
tions by  water,  by  fire, 'and  by  fasting;  after 
which  he  was  introduced  into  a  cavern  repre- 
senting the  world,  on  whose  walls  and  roof 
were  inscribed  the  celestial  signs.   Here  he 
submitted  to  a  species  of  baptism,  and  re- 
ceived a  mark  on  his  forehead.   He  was  pre- 
sented with  a  crown  on  the  point  of  a  sword, 
which  he  was  to  refuse,  declaring  at  the  same 
time,  "Mithras  alone  is  my  crown."   He  was 
prepared,  by  anointing  him  with  oil,  crowning 
him  with  olive,  and  clothing  him  in  enchantec 
armor,  for  the  seven  stages  of  initiation 
through  which  he  was  about  to  pass.  These 
commenced  in  the  following  manner:  In  the 
first  cavern  he  heard  the  howling  of  wild 
beasts,  and  was  enveloped  in  total  darkness, 
except  when  the  cave  was  illuminated  by  the 
fitful  glare  of  terrific  flashes  of  lightning.  He 
was  hurried  to  the  spot  whence  the  sounds 
proceeded,  and  was  suddenly  thrust  by  hia 
silent  guide  through  a  door  into  a  den  of  wild 
beasts,  where  he  was  attacked  by  the  initiated 
in  the  disguise  of  lions,  tigers,  hyenas,  and 
other  ravenous  beasts.   Hurried  through  this 

Xirtment,  in  the  second  cavern  he  was  again 
ouded  in  darkness,  and  for  a  time  m  fearful 
silence,  until  it  was  broken  by  awful  peals  of 
thunder,  whose  repeated  reverberations  shook 
the  very  walls  of  the  cavern,  and  could  not 
fail  to  inspire  the  aspirant  with  terror.  He 
was  conducted  through  four  other  caverns,  in 
which  the  methods  of  exciting  astonishment 


and  fear  were  ingeniously  varied.   He  was 
made  to  swim  over  a  raging  flood;  was  sub- 
jected to  a  rigorous  fast;  exposed  to  all  the 
horrors  of  a  dreary  desert;  and  finally,  if  we 
may  trust  the  authority  of  Nieffitas,  after 
being  severely  beaten  with  rods,  was  buried 
for  many  days  up  to  the  neck  m  snow.  In 
the  seventh  cavern  or  Sacellum,  the  darkness 
was  changed  to  light,  and  the  candidate  was 
introduced  into  the  presence  of  the  Arctu- 
magus,  or  chief  priest,  seated  on  a  splendid 
throne,  and  surrounded  by  the  assistant  dis- 
pensers of  the  mysteries.   Here  the  obliga- 
tion of  secrecy  was  administered,  and  he  was 
made  acquainted  with  the  sacred  words.  He 
received  also  the  appropriate  myestiture, 
which,  says  Maurice  {Irtd.  Antt^.,  v.,  ch.  i.), 
consisted  of  the  Kara  or  corneal  cap,  and 
candys  or  loose  tunic  of  Mithras;  on  which  was 
depicted  the  celestial  constellations,  the  zone, 
or  belt,  containing  a  representation  of  the  fig- 
ures of  the  zodiac,  the  pastoral  staff  or  crozier, 
alluding  to  the  influence  of  the  sun  in  the 
labors  of  agriculture,  and  the  golden  serpent, 
which  was  placed  in  his  bosom  as  an  emblem 
of  his  having  been  regenerated  and  made  a  dis- 
ciple of  Mithras,  because  the  serpent,  by  cast- 
ing its  skin  annually,  was  considered  in  these 
mysteries  as  a  symbol  of  regeneration. 

He  was  instructed  in  the  secret  doctrines  of 
the  rites  of  Mithras,  of  which  the  history  of 
the  creation,  already  recited,  formed  a  part. 
The  mysteries  of  Mithras  passed  from  Persia 
into  Europe,  and  were  introduced  into  Rome 
in  the  time  of  Pompey.  Here  they  flourished, 
with  various  success,  until  the  year  378,  when 
they  were  proscribed  by  a  decree  of  the  Sen- 
ate, and  the  sacred  cave,  in  which  they  had 
been  celebrated,  was  destroyed  by  the  pre- 
torian  prefect. 

The  Mithraic  monuments  that  are  still 
extant  in  the  museums  of  Europe  evidently 
show  that  the  immortality  of  the  soul  was  one 
of  the  doctrines  taught  in  the  Mithraic  initia- 
tion. The  candidate  was  at  one  time  made  to 
personate  a  corpse,  whose  restoration  to  life 
dramatically  represented  the  resurrection. 
Figures  of  this  corpse  are  found  in  several  of 
the  monuments  and  talismans.  There  is 
circumstantial  evidence  that  there  was  a  Mith- 
raic death  in  the  initiation,  just  as  there  was  a 
Carbiric  death  in  the  mysteries  of  Samothrace, 
and  a  Dionysiac  in  those  of  Eleusis.  Corn- 
modus,  the  Roman  emperor,  had  been  initi- 
ated into  the  Mithraic  mysteries  at  Rome,  and 
is  said  to  have  taken  great  pleasure  in  the  cere- 
monies. Lampridius,  in  his  Lives  of  the 
Emperors,  records,  as  one  of  the  mad  freaks  of 
Commodus,  that  during  the  Mithraic  cere- 
monies, where  "  a  certain  thing  was  to  be  done 
for  the  sake  of  inspiring  terror,  he  polluted  the 
rites  by  a  real  murder";  an  expression  which 
evidently  shows  that  a  scenic  representation 
of  a  fictitious  murder  formed  a  part  of  the  cere- 
mony of  initiation.  The  dog  swallowing  the 
blood  of  the  bull  was  also  considered  as  a  sym- 
bol of  the  resurrection. 

It  is  in  the  still  existing  talismans  and  gems 
that  we  find  the  most  interesting  memorials 




of  the  old  Mithraio  initiation.  One  of  these 
is  thus  described  by  Mr.  C.  W.  King,  in  his 
valuable  work  on  the  Gnostics  and  their  Re- 
mains (London,  1864): 

"There  is  a  talisman  which,  from  its  fre- 
quent repetition,  would  seem  to  be  a  badge  of 
some  particular  degree  amongst  the  initiated, 
perhaps  of  the  first  admission.  A  man  blind- 
folded, with  hands  tied  behind  his  back,  is 
bound  to  a  pillar,  on  which  stands  a  gryphon 
holding  a  wheel;  the  latter  a  most  ancient 
emblem  of  the  sun.  Probably  it  was  in  this 
manner  that  the  candidate  was  tested  by  the 
appearance  of  imminent  death  when  the 
bandage  was  suddenly  removed  from  his  eyes." 

As  Mithras  was  considered  as  synonymous 
with  the  sun,  a  great  deal  of  solar  symbolism 
clustered  around  his  name,  his  doctrines,  and 
his  initiation.  Thus,  MEI8PA2  was  found,  by 
the  numerical  value  of  the  letters  in  the  Greek 
alphabet,  to  be  equal  to  365,  the  number  of 
days  in  a  solar  year;  and  the  decrease  of  the 
solar  influence  in  the  winter,  and  its  revivifi- 
cation in  the  summer,  was  made  a  symbol  of 
the  resurrection  from  death  to  life. 

Miter.  The  head-covering  of  the  high  priest 
of  the  Jews  was  called  riBJlttt,  metznephet, 
which,  coming  from  the  verb  NAPHAT, 
to  roll  around,  signified  something  rolled 
around  the  head,  a  turban;  and  this  was  really 
the  form  of  the  Jewish  miter.  It  is  described 
by  Leusden,  in  his  Philolo- 
gus  Hebrmo-Mvttw,  as  being 
made  of  dark  linen  twisted 
in  many  folds  around  the 
head.  Many  writers  con- 
tend that  the  miter  was 
peculiar  to  the  high  priest; 
but  Josephus  and  the  Mishna  assert  that  it 
was  worn  by  all  the  priests,  that  of  the  high 
priest  being  distinguished  from  the  rest  by  the 
golden  band,  or  holy  crown,  which  was  at- 
tached to  its  lower  rim  and  fastened  around 
the  forehead,  and  on  which  was  inscribed  the 
words  nw;  snp,  KADOSH  L'YEHOVAH, 
Holiness  to  J ehovah,  or,  as  it  is  commonly  trans- 
lated, Holiness  to  the  Lord.  The  miter  is  worn 
by  the  High  Priest  of  a  Royal  Arch  Chapter, 
because  he  represents  the  Jewish  high  priest; 
but  the  form  is  inaccurate.  The  vestment,  as 
usually  made,  is  a  representation  rather  of  the 
modern  Episcopal  than  of  the  Jewish  miter. 
_  The  modern  miter — which  is  but  an  imita- 
tion of  the  Phrygian  cap,  and  peculiar  to 
bishops  of  the  Christian  Church,  and  which 
should  therefore  be  worn  by  the 
Prelate  of  a  Commandery  of 
Knights  Templar;  who  is  sup- 
posed to  hold  Episcopal  rank — 
differs  in  form  from  the  Jewish 
vestment.  It  is  a  conical  cap, 
divided  in  the  middle  so  as  to 
come  to  two  points  or  horns, 
one  in  front  and  one  behind, 
which,  Durandus  says,  are 
symbolic  of  the  two  laws  of  the  Old  and  New 

Mizraim.  Often  by  Masonic  writers  im- 
properly spelled  Misraim.   It  is  the  ancient 

Hebrew  name  of  Egypt,  and  was  adopted  as  the 
name  of  a  Rite  to  indicate  the  hypothesis  that 
it  was  derived  from  the  old  Egyptian  initiation. 

Mlzralm,  Site  of i  This  Rite  originated, 
says  Clavel,  at  Milan,  in  the  year  1805,  in  con- 
sequence of  several  brethren  having  been  re- 
fused admission  into  the  Supreme  Council  of 
the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Rite,  which  had 
just  been  established  in  that  city.  One  Lech- 
anaaur  has  the  credit  of  organizing  the  Rite 
and  selecting  the  statutes  by  which  it  was  to 
be  coverned.  It  consisted  at  first  of  only 
eigfity-seven  degrees,  to  which  three  others 
well  subsequently  added.  Sixty-six  of  the 
ninety  degrees  thus  formed  are  said  to  have 
been  taken  from  the  Ancient  and  Accepted 
Rite,  while  the  remaining  twenty-four  were 
either  borrowed  from  other  systems  or  were 
the  invention  of  Lechangeur  and  his  colleagues, 
Joly  and  Bedarride.  The  system  of  Mizraim 
spread  over  Italy,  and  in  1814  was  introduced 
into  Prance.  Dissensions  in  the  Rite  soon 
took  place,  and  an  attempt  was  unsuccess- 
fully made  to  obtain  the  recognition  of  the 
Grand  Orient  of  France.  This  having  been 
refused,  the  Supreme  Council  was  dissolved 
in  1817;  but  the  Lodges  of  the  Rite  still  con- 
tinued to  confer  the  degrees,  although,  accord- 
ing to  the  constitution  of  French  Masonry, 
their  non-recognition  by  the  Grand  Orient 
had  the  effect  of  making  them  illegal.  But 
eventually  the  Rite  ceased  altogether  to  exist 
as  an  active  and  independent  system,  and  its 
place  in  Masonic  history  seems  only  to  be 
preserved  by  two  massive  volumes  on  the 
subject,  written  by  Mark  Bedarride,  the  most 
intelligent  and  indefatigable  of  its  founders, 
who  published  at  Paris,  in  1835,  a  history  of 
the  Rite,  under  the  title  of  De  I'Ordre  de 

The  Rite  of  Mizraim  consisted  of  90  degrees, 
divided  into  4  series  and  17  classes.  Some  of 
these  degrees  are  entirely  original,  but  many 
of  them  are  borrowed  from  the  Scottish  Rite. 

For  the  gratification  of  the  curious  in- 
spector, the  following  list  of  these  degrees 
is  subjoined.  The  titles  are  translated  as 
literally  as  possible  from  the  French. 

I.  Series-— Symbolic. 

1st  Class:  1,  Apprentice;  2,  Fellow-Craft; 
3,  Master.  2d  Class:  4,  Secret  Master;  5, 
Perfect  Master:  6,  Master  through  Curiosity; 
7,  Provost  and  Judge  or  Irish  Master;  8, 
English  Master.  3d  Class:  9,  Elect  of  Nine; 
10,  Elect  of  the  Unknown;  11,  Elect  of  Fifteen; 
12,  Perfect  Elect;  13,  Illustrious  Elect.  4th 
Class:  14,  Scottish,  Trinitarian;  15,  Scottish 
Fellow-Craft;  16,  Scottish  Master;  17,  Scottish 
panisiere;  18,  Master  Ecossais;  19,  Ecossais 
of  the  three  J.  J.  J. ;  20*  Ecossais  of  the  Sacred 
Vault  of  James  VI.;  21,  Ecossais  of  St. 
Andrew.  5th  Class:  22.  Little  Architect;  23, 
Grand  Architect;  24,  Architecture:  25,  Ap- 
prentice Perfect  Architect;  26,  Fellow-Craft 
Perfect  Architect:  27,  Master  Perfect  Archi- 
tect; 28,  Perfect  Architect;  29,  Sublime  Ecos- 
sais; 30,  Sublime  Ecossais  of  Heroden.  6th 
Clms:  31,  Grand  Royal  Arch;  32,  Grand  Ax; 


33,  Sublime  Knight  of  Election,  Chief  of  the 
First  Symbolic  Series. 

II.  Series — Philosophic. 
70,  Class:  34.  Knight  of  the  Sublime  Elec- 
tion; 35,  Prussian  Knight;  36,  Knight  of  the 
Temple;  37,  Knight  of  the  Eagle;  38,  Knight 
of  the  Black  Eagle:  39,  Knight  of  the  Red 
Eagle;  40,  White  Knight  of  the  East;  41, 
Knight  of  the  East.  8th  Class:  42,  Comman- 
der of  the  East;  43,  Grand  Commander  of  the 
East;  44,  Architecture  of  the  Sovereign  Com- 
manders of  the  Temple;  45,  Prince  of  Jeru- 
salem. 9th  Class:  46,  Sovereign  Prince  Rose 
Croix  of  Kilwinning  and  Heroden;  47,  Knight 
of  the  West;  48,  Sublime  Philosopher;  49, 
Chaos  the  first,  discreet;  50,  Chaos  the  second, 
wise;  51,  Knight  of  the  Sun.  10th  Class:  52, 
Supreme  Commander  of  the  Stars;  53,  Sub* 
lime  Philosopher;  54,  First  Degree  of  the  Key 
of  Masonry,  Minor:  55,  Second  Degree, 
Washer;  56,  Third  Degree,  Bellows-blower; 
57,  Fourth  Degree,  Caster;  58,  True  Mason 
Adept;  59,  Sovereign  Elect;  60,  Sovereign  of 
Sovereigns;  61,  Grand  Master  of  Symbolic 
Lodges;  62,  Most  High  and  Most  Powerful 
Grand  Priest  Sacrificer;  63,  Knight  of  Pales- 
tine; 64,  Grand  Knight  of  the  White  and 
Black  Eagle:  65,  Grand  Elect  Knight  Kadosh: 
•  66,  Grand  Inquiring  Commander,  Chief  of 
the  Second  Series. 

III.  Sebibs — Mystical. 

Uth  Class:  67,  Benevolent  Knight;  68, 
Knight  of  the  Rainbow;  69,  Knight  Cha- 
nuka,  called  Hynaroth;  70,  Most  Wise  Is- 
raelitish  Prince.  12th  Class:  71,  Sovereign 
Princes  Talmudim;  72,  Sovereign  Prince 
Zadkim;  73,  Grand  Haram.  13th  Class:  74, 
Sovereign  Princes  Haram;  75,  Sovereign 
Princes  Hasidim;  77,  Grand  Inspector  In- 
tendant,  Regulator  General  of  the  Order, 
Chief  of  the  Third  Series. 

IV.  Series — Kabbalistic. 

15th  and  16th  Classes:  78,  79,  80,  81,  82,  83, 
84,  85,  86,  degrees  whose  names  are  concealed 
from  all  but  the  possessors.  17«A  Class:  87. 
Sovereign  Grand  Princes,  constituted  Grand 
Masters,  and  legitimate  representatives  of 
the  order  for  the  First  Series;  88,  Ditto  for 
the  Second  Series;  89,  Ditto  for  the  Third 
Series;  90,  Absolute  Sovereign  Grand  Master. 
Supreme  Power  of  the  Order,  and  Chief  of 
the  Fourth  Series. 

The  chiefs  of  this  Rite  demanded  the 
privilege — whioh,  of  course,  was  never  con- 
ceded to  them — of  directing  and  controlling 
all  the  other  Rites  of  Freemasonry,  as  their 
common  source.  Its  friends  claimed  for  it 
an  eminently  philosophical  character.  The 
organization  of  the  Rite  is,  however,  too  com- 
plicated and  diffuse  to  have  ever  been  prac- 
tically convenient.  Many  of  its  degrees  were 
founded  upon,  or  borrowed  from,  the  Egyp- 
tian rites,  and  its  ritual  is  a  very  close  imita- 
tion  of  the  ancient  system  of  initiation. 

The  legend  of  the  Third  Degree  in  this  Rite 
is  abolished.   HAB  is  said  to  have  returned 


to  his  family,  after  the  completion  of  the 
Temple,  and  to  have  passed  the  remainder  of 
his  days  in  peace  and  opulence.  ,  The  legend, 
substituted  by  the  Rite  of  Mizraim  for  that 
admitted  by  all  the  other  rites,  is  carried 
back  to  the  days  of  Lamech,  whose  son  Jubal, 
under  the  name  of  Hario-Jubal-Abi,  is  re- 
ported to  have  been  slain  by  three  traitors, 
Hagava,  Hakina,  and  Heremda. 

Lenning  calls  the  Rite  of  Mizraim  "one 
of  the  latest  of  the  monstrous  visionary 
schemes  introduced  into  Freemasonry";  and 
Ragon  characterizes  it  as  a  "fantastical  con- 
nection of  various  rites  and  degrees." 

Moablte  Stone.  A  relic  of  black  basalt, 
rounded  at  the  top,_  two  by  four  feet,  across 
it  being  an  inscription  of  thirty-four  lines  in 
the  letters  of  the  Hebrew-Phoenician  alphabet, 
discovered  in  the  ruins  of  ancient  Dibon,  by 
Dr.  Klein,  a  German  missionary,  in  jl869.  A 
record  of  Mesha,  King  of  Moab,  who  (2 
Kings  iii.  5),  after  Ahab's  death,  "rebelled 
against  the  King  of  Israel."  Chemosh  was 
the  national  god  of  the  Moabites.,  The  cov- 
enant name  of  the  God  of  Israel  occurs  in  the 
inscription,  showing  that  the  name  was  not 
then  unpronounceable,  or  unknown  to  the 
neighboring  nations.  The  described  wars 
date  in  the  tenth  century  B.C. 

Moabon  He  whom  the  Junior 

Warden  represents  in  the  Fourteenth  Degree 
of  the  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite,  as  the  tried  and 
trusty  friend  of  Hiram  the  Builder.  (See 
Gen.  xix.  36.) 

Moabon.  This  word  is  found  in  some  of 
the  high  degrees  according  to  the  French 
ritual,  where  it  is  explained  as  expressing 
"Praised  be  God  that  the  crime  and  the 
criminal  are  punished."  {Les  -plus  secrets  des 
hauls  grades,  etc.,  p,  33.)  There  is  no  such 
word  in  Hebrew,  and  the  explanation  is  a 
fanciful  one.  The  word  is  undoubtedly  a 
Gallic  corruption,  first  in  sound  and  then  in 
letters,  of  the  Master's  Word. 

Mock  Masons.  A  name  given,  says 
Noorthouck,  to  the  unfaithful  brethren  and 
profanes  who,  in  1747,  got  up  a  procession  in 
ridicule  of  that  made  at  the  Grand  Feast. 
(Constitutions,  1784,  p.  252.)  (See  Scald 

Modern  Bite.  (Rite  Moderns.)  See 
French  Rite. 

Moderns.  The  Irish  Masons  who  formed 
a  rival  Grand  Lodge  in  London  in  1751,  called 
the  supporters  of  the  original  Grand  Lodge  j 
established  in  1717  Moderns,  while  for  them- 
selves they  assumed  the  title  of  Ancients. 
(See  Ancients.)  ' 

Mohammed.   See  Koran. 

Mohrtms.  Initiates,  pilgrims,  those  en- 
tering upon  an  important  undertaking. 

Moira,  Francis  Bawdon,  Baron.  Born 
1754,  died  1826.  A  distinguished  statesman 
and  Mason.  He  was  Acting  Grand  Master 
of  England  from  1790  to  1812.  Also  Grand 
Master  of  Scotland  in  1806.  As  a  Mason  he 
was  always  energetic.  Dr.  Oliver  says,  "To 
no  person  had  Masonry  for  many  years  been 
more  indebted  than  to  the  Earl  of  Moira,  now 


Marquess  Hasting}."  He  died  while  Gov- 
ernor of  Malta. 

Molart,  William.  Anderson  (Constiiu- 
Hons,  1738,  p.  74)  writes:  "Nay,  even  during 
this  King's  (Henry  VI.)  Minority  >  there  was  a 
good  Lodge  under  Grand  Master  Chieheley 
held  at  Canterbury,  as  appears  from  the 
Latin  Register  of  William  Molart  (entitled 
Liberates  generaUs  Domini  Oulielmi  Prions 
Ecclesice  Christi  Caniuariensis  erga  Festum 
Naialis  Domini  1429)  Prior  of  Canterbury,  in 
Manuscript,  pap.  88,  in  which  are  named 
Thomas  Stapyfton  the  Master,  and  John 
Morris  Custos  de  la  Lodge  Lathomorum  or 
Warden  of  the  Lodge  of  Masons,  with  fifteen 
Fellow  Crafts,  and  three  Enter'd  Prentices  all 
named  there." 

What  appears  to  be  the  register  alluded  to 
by  Anderson  is  among  the  Tanner  MSS.  (166) 
in  the  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford,  and  proves 
to  be  merely  a  list  kept  by  William  Molassh 
or  Mokssh  (the  name  occurs  in  both  forms, 
but  not  as  Molart),  the  Prior,  of  persons  con- 
nected with  the  Priory  and  receiving  livery 
from  it.  On  page  133  there  is  a  list  of  persons 
for  1429,  which  contains  "Magr  Thorn 
Mapylton  Mgr  Latbamorum,  Morys  custos 
de  la  loygge  Lathamorum"  and  a  list  headed 
"Latham?"  with  16  names  including  Mapyl- 
ton and  below  "Apprenticii  idem"  followed 
by  three  names.  Similar  lists  are  given  for 
subsequent  years,  and  thus  it  is  plain  that 
there  was  an  organized  body  of  Operative 
Masons  attached  to  the  Priory  at  that  time. 

EE.  L.  H.] 

Molay,  James  de.  The  twenty-eecond 
and  last  Grand  Master  of  the  Templars  at  the 
destruction  of  the  Order  in  the  fourteenth 
century.  He  was  born  about  the  year  1240, 
at  Besangon,  in  Burgundy,  being  descended 
from  a  noble  family.  He  was  received  into 
the  Order  of  Knights  Templar  in  1265,  by 
Imbert  de  Peraudo,  Preceptor  of  France, 
in  the  Chapel  of  the  Temple  at  Beaune.  He 
immediately  proceeded  to  Palestine,  and 
greatly  distinguished  himself  in  the  wars 
against  the  infidels,  under  the  Grand  Master- 
ship of  William  de  Beaujeu.  In  1298,  while 
absent  from  the  Holy  Land,  he  was  unan- 
imously elected  Grand  Master  upon  the  death 
of  Theobald  Gaudinius.  In  1305,  he  was 
summoned  to  France  by  Pope  Clement  V.. 
upon  the  pretense  of  a  desire,  on  the  part  of 
the  Pontiff,  to  effect  a  coalition  between  the 
Templars  and  the  Hospitalers.  He  was 
received  by  Philip  the  Fair,  the  treacherous 
King  of  France,  with  the  most  distinguished 
honors,  and  even  selectefl  by  him  as  the  god- 
father of  one  of  his  children.  In  April,  1307, 
he  repaired,  accompanied  by  three  of  his 
knights,  to  Poitiers,  where  the  Pope  was 
then  residing,  and  as  he  supposed  satisfac- 
torily exculpated  the  Order  from  the  charges 
which  had  been  preferred  against  it.  But 
both  Pope  and  King  were  guilty  of  the  most 
infamous  deceit. 

On  the  12th  of  September,  1307,  the  order 
was  issued  for  the  arrest  of  the  Templars,  and 
De  Molay  endured  an  imprisonment  for  five 


yean  and  a  half,  during  which  period  he  was 
subjected  to  the  utmost  indignities  and 
sufferings  for  the  purpose  of  extorting  from 
him  a  confession  of  the  guilt  of  his  Order. 
But  he  was  firm  and  loyal  and  on  the  11th 
of  March,  1314,  he  was  publicly  burnt  in  front 
of  the  Cathedral  of  Notre  Dame,  in  Paris. 
When  about  to  die,  he  solemnly  affirmed  the 
innocence  of  the  Order,  and,  it  is  said,  sum- 
moned Pope  Clement  to  appear  before  the 
judgment-seat  of  God  in  forty  days  and  the 
King  of  France  within  a  year,  and  both,  it  is 
well  known,  died  within  the  periods  specified. 
(See  Transactions  of  the  Quatuor  Coronati 
Lodge,  Vol.  20.) 

Moloch.  (Heb.  Moleeh,  king.)  The  chief 
god  of  the  Phoenicians,  and  a  god  of  the 
Ammonites.  Human  sacrifices  were  offered 
at  his  shrine,  and  it  was  chiefly  in  the  valley 
of  Tophet,  to  the  east  of  Jerusalem,  that  this 
brutal  idolatry  was  perpetrated.  Solomon 
built  a  temple  to  Moloch  upon  the  Mount  of 
Olives,  and  Manasseh,  long  after,  imitated 
his  impiety  by  making  his  son  pass  through 
the  fire  kindled  in  honor  of  this  deity.  Wierus 
calls  Moloch  Prince  of  the  realm  of  tears. 

First  Moloch,  horrid  king,  besmeared  with  blood 
Of  human  sacrifice  and  parents'  tears; 
Though  for  the  noise  of  drums  and  timbrels  loud, 
Their  children's  cries  unheard,  that  passed 
through  fire 

To  his  grim  idol.  .  .  .  Nor  content  with  such  . 
Audacious  neighborhood,  the  wisest  heart 
Of  Solomon  he  led,  by  fraud,  to  build 
His  temple  right  against  the  temple  of  God, 
On  that  opprobrious  hill;  and  made  his  grove, 
The  pleasant  valley  of  Hinnom,  Tophet  thence 
And  black  Gehenna  called,  the  type  of  Hell. 

—Par.  Lost.B.  1. 

Monad.  The  Monad  in  the  Pythagorean 
system  of  numbers  was  unity  or  the  number 
one.  (See  Numbers  and  One.) 
:  Monitor.  Those  manuals  published  for 
the  convenience  of  Lodges,  and  containing 
the  charges,  general  regulations,  emblems, 
and  account  of  the  public  ceremonies  of  the 
Order,  are  called  Monitors.  The  amount 
of  ritualistic  information  contained  in  these 
works  has  gradually  increased:  thus  the 
monitorial  instructions  in  Preston's  Illus- 
trations, the  earliest  Monitor  in  the  English 
language,  are  far  more  scanty  than  those  con- 
tained in  Monitors  of  the  present  day.  _  As 
a  general  rule,  it  may  be  said  that  American 
works  of  this  class  give  more  instruction  than 
English  ones,  but  that  the  French  and  German 
manuals  are  more  communicative  than  either. 

Of  the  English  and  American  manuals 
published  for  monitorial  instruction,  the 
first  was  by  Preston,  in  1772.  This  has  been 
succeeded  by  the  works  of  the  following  au- 
thors: Webb,  1797;  Dalcho,  1807;  Cole,  1817; 
Hardie,  1818;  Cross,  1819:  Tannehill,  1824; 
Parmele,  1825;  Charles  W.  Moore,  1846; 
Cornelius  Moore,  1846;  Dove,  1847;  Davis, 
1849;  Stewart,  1861;  Mackey,  1862;  Macoy, 
1853;  Sickels,  1866. 

Monitorial  Instruction.  The  instruc- 
tion contained  in  Monitors  is  called  monitorial, 
to  distinguish  it  from  esoteric  instruction, 



which  is  not  permitted  to  be  wntten,  and  can 
be  obtained  only  in  the  precincts  of  the  Lodge. 

Monitorial  Sign.  A  sign  given  in  the 
English  system,  but  not  recognized  m  this 
country.   Oliver  says  of  it  that  it  "reminds 
us  of  the  weakness  of  human  nature,  unable  of 
itself  to  resist  the  power  of  Darkness,  unless 
aided  by  that  Light  which  is  from  above. 
Monitor,  Secret.  See  Secret  Monitor. 
Monogram.  An  abbreviation  of  a  name 
by  means  of  a  cipher  composed  of  two  or 
more  letters  intertwined  with  each 
11  other.    The  Constantinian  mono- 
<wf5i  gram  of  Christ  is  often  used  by 
jkr^  Knights  Templar.   The  Triple  Tau, 
or  Royal  Arch  badge,  is  also  a  mono- 
■      gram;  although  there  is  a  difference 
of  opinion  as  to  its  real  meaning,  some  sup- 
posing that  it  is  a  monogram  of 

RTemplum  Hierosolymse  or  the  Tem- 
ple of  Jerusalem,  others  of  Hiram 
of  Tyre,  and  others;  again,  bestow- 
ing on  it  different  significations. 
Montana.  April  27,  1863,  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Nebraska  granted  a  Warrant  f  or 
a  Lodge  at  Bannack,  in  Montana;  but  in 
consequence  of  the  removal  of  the  petitioners, 
the  Lodge  was  never  organized.  Three  other 
Lodges  were  subsequently  established  by 
Warrants  from  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Kansas 
and  Colorado.  On  January  24,  1866,  three 
Lodges  met  in  convention  at  Virginia  City, 
and  organized  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Montana, 
John  J.  Hull  being  elected  Grand  Master. 

Royal  Arch  Masonry  and  Templarism  were 
introduced,  the  one  by  the  General  Grand 
Chapter,  and  the  other  by  the  Grand  Encamp- 
ment of  the  United  States. 

Montfaucon,  Prior  of.  One  of  the  two 
traitors  on  whose  false  accusations  was  based 
the  persecution  of  the  Templars.  (See  Squin 
de  Fkxian.) 

Months,  Hebrew.  Masons  of  the  Ancient 
and  -Accepted  Scottish  Rite,  use  in  their 
documents  the  Hebrew  months  of  the  civil 
year.  Hebrew  months  commence  with  the 
full  moon;  and  as  the  civil  year  began  about 
the  time  of  the  autumnal  equinox,  the  first 
Hebrew  month  must  have  begun  with  the  new 
moon  in  September,  which  is  also  used  by  Scot- 
tish Masons  as  the  beginning  of  their  year,  An- 
nexed is  a  table  of  the  Hebrew  months,  and 
their  correspondence  with  our  own  calendar. 









Sept.  and  Oct. 
Oct.  and  Nov. 

Nov.  and  Dec. 
Dec.  and  Jan. 
Jan.  and  Feb. 
Feb.  and  March. 
March  and  April 

April  and  May. 
May  and  June. 

June  and  July. 

July  and  Aug. 

August  and  Sept. 


As  the  Jews  computed  time  by  the  appear- 
ance of  the  moon,  it  is  evident  that  there  soon 
would  be  a  confusion  as  to  the  keeping  of  these 
feasts,  if  some  method  had  not  been  taken 
to  correct  it;  since  the  lunar  year  is  only  354 
days,  8  hours,  and  48  minutes,  and  the  solar 
year  is  365  days,  6  hours,  15  minutes,  and  20 
seconds.  Accordingly,  they  intercalated  a 
month  after  their  12th  month.  Adar,  when- 
ever they  found  that  the  15th  day  of  the 
following  month,  Abib,  would  fall  before  the 
vernal  equinox.  This  intercalated  month 
was  named  "njfl,  Ve-*dar,  or  "the  second 
Adar,"  and  was  inserted  every  second  or  third 
year,  as  they  saw  occasion;  so  that  the  differ- 
ence between  the  lunar  and  solar  year  could 
never,  in  this  way,  be  more  than  a  month. 

Months,  Masonic.  In  the  French  Rite 
the  old  calendar  is  retained,  and  the  year 
begins  with  the  month  of  March,  the  months 
being  designated  numerically  and  not  by 
their  usual  names.  Thus  we  find  in  French 
Masonic  documents  such  dates  as  this:  "Le 
lOme  jour  du  3me  mois  Maconnique,"  that  is, 
the  10th  day  of  the  3d  Masonic  month,  or  the 
10th  of  May. 

Montpelller,  Hermetic  Bite  of.  The 
Hermetic  Rite  of  Pemetty,  which  had  been 
established  at  Avignon  in  1770,  was  in  1778 
transported  to  Montpellier.  in  France,  by  a 
Past  Master,  and  some  of  the  members  of  the 
Lodge  of  Persecuted  Virtue  in  the  former 
place,  who  laid  the  foundations  of  the  Acad- 
emy of  True  Masons,  which  see.  Hence  the 
degrees  given  in  that  Academy  constituted 
what  is  known  as  the  Hermetic  Rite  of 

Monument.  It  is  impossible  to  say 
exactly  at  what  period  the  idea  of  a  monu- 
ment in  the  Third  Degree  was  first  intro- 
duced into  the  symbolism  of  Freemasonry. 
The  early  expositions  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  although  they  refer  to  a  funeral, 
make  no  allusion  to  a  monument.  The 
monument  adopted  in  the  American  sys- 
tem, and  for  which  we  are  indebted,  it  is 
said,  to  the  inventive  genius  of  Cross,  con- 
sists of  a  weeping  virgin,  holding  in  one 
hand  a  sprig  of  acacia  and  in  the  other  an 
urn;  before  her  is  a  broken  column,  on 
which  rests  a  copy  of  the  Book  of  Constitu- 
tions, while  Time  behind  her  is  attempting  to 
disentangle  the  ringlets  of  her  hair.  The 
explanation  of  these  symbols  will  be  found 
in  their  proper  places  in  this  work.  Oliver, 
in  his  Landmarks  (ii.,  146),  cites  this  monu- 
ment without  any  reference  to  its  American 
origin.  Early  in  the  last  century  the  Master's 
monument  was  introduced  into  the  French 
system,  but  its  form  was  entirely  different 
from  the  one  adopted  in  this  country.  It  is 
described  as  an  obelisk,  on  which  is  inscribed 
a  golden  triangle,  in  the  center  of  which  the 
Tetragrammaton  is  engraved.  On  the  top 
of  the  obelisk  is  sometimes  seen  an  urn  pierced 
by  a  sword.  In  the  Scottish  Rite  an  entire 
degree  has  been  consecrated  to  the  subject 
of  the  Hiramic  monument.  Altogether,  the 
monument  is  simply  the  symbolic  expression 

M00N  MOPSES  491 

religions.   In  Eg^  °6S was  tlT^  ET^2^  ^  472>>  "^  ie 
and  bis  the  mSn;  in  «ff  AM  WuS        rJ^11         aati-M'asonic  excitement 
sun,  and  Ashtoroth  thfm^-  Z  &ee^  sS/^l  v1**  !lS  violenoe  m  this 

adored  her  as  Diana,  arid  ILate-  if  ^  tif^^  ^  °?clal.act  was  to  attest 
mysteries  of  Ceres^^t!* Shi  or  tW  rS'f1  ""J*011  ^  hjm,  surrendering  to 
5!&^I^rto^dS^£  £*SSaUHT  act  °f  ^corporation  of 

In  short,  moon-worsh  p  wS  ^s^dtlv  Hit  fhf  ^Ip?'ate  pfowers  that  »  might  escape 
seminated  as  sun-worship^  Masons retain"  kturi  ^  0nm  °f  an ,  ^'Masonic  Leg£ 
her  image  in  their  Rites,  feaXthe  l2  Lf.S'*w^  memorial,  however,  boldly 
is  a  representation  rftheSerst6  ft*?'  ™^te  KTt^  °f  its,^Po^ 
as  the  sun  rules  over  the  dav  the  monTn™ '  ^!  %  v  Srand.  L°a^  has  relinquished 
sides  over  the  nisftt-  as  t&^« ,2^tK  ?°ne»of  Tlts  Masonic  attributes  or  pieroga- 
the  year,  so  doeXWher  the  mon^S  kTrLnn^T?0  ^S^'  BF°-  Moore 
as  the  former  is  the  king  of  XeXrTCts  In  KtfL'lMf1  ??  a  °«rnalist. 
of  heaven,  so  is  the  latter  theh-  S  • kS  3,j  t 25 'he  ^J^ed  the  Masonic  Mirror, 

Moore.    Chart**   Whl««nt     »  ,,.       \Monihly  Magazine,  which  he  published  for 

Lodn  »  H«nnLX3*  *iT?D  .neDe?  m  ™e  western  States.  With  the  exception 
iioage,  at  tiauowell,  with  the  consent  and  of  the  Constitution  nf  +v,o  rt«r.j  t  „j~T 

Lodge  St.  Andrew.   In  October,  1872,  that     Mopses.   In  1738  PoDe  Clement  XTT 

In rfjw/ifo  Si,   n    u  ,    -pk         .  the  practise  of  the  rites  of  Freemasonry. 

St  aK frww6  Cy^ar  Df^eg.  >n  Several  brethren  in  the  Catholic  StateTof 

PrifS  1 7*!o                 JSf-  ei?Ct<1  Germany  unwilling  to  renounce  the  Order 

Priest  of  thfora^H^Sw  t,yw»rand  aBiy*  V"1  of  Ending  the  ecclesiastical 
rSS^JriSSE?  P^ter.   He  was  made  authority,  formed  at  Vienna,  September  22, 

V^T8  Tem?££.  m  B^ton  Encampment  1738,  under  the  name  of  Movses  what  wm 

JSL^ffi  ■XSftJ5?lw"  Pretended  to  be  a  S a^S;  to  which 

KwSF " n}^1  he  was  etect?d Grand  vas  in  truth  nothing  else  than  an  imitation  of 

aS^5^T^^I°TT^t  Freemasonry  under*  a  less  oS«~ta: 

w1"^  K  was  PateoniZed  by  the  mostillus- 

I^qS3^"  ln  18P2  he  received  the  Royal  tnous   persons   of   Germany,    and  many 

and  Select  degrees  in  Boston  Council,  over  Princes  6? the  Empire  were  its  ttartMaatanr 

Ttt,  r  PreS'idn  *S>          years.   ^  was  the  Duke  of  Bavari^  Re  ally  took  it^der' 

nf^'S?"1™1  Gra?d  Cam?-General  of  the  his  protection.    Hie  titteS  derived from the 

1847  .SS'r   ~?  S^16*1  States  in  German  word  mops,  sfgSS  a  KH£ 

ifm'  T.i«2f2eral  Grand  Generahssnno  in  and  was  indicative  of  the  mutual  Melity w£L 

Sted  Sctftt4XT^^  of  ?he  b^ethren'  thes?  vS 

^^wl  a  a     *  te,and  m  th e  same  year  being  characteristic  of  that  animal.  The 

*Wil  1^    Secretary-General  of  the  Holy  alarm  made  for  entrance  was  to  imitate  thl 

Empire  m  the  Supreme  Council  for  the  barking  of  a  dog. 

Northern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States,  '  The  Mopses  were  an  androgynous  Order, 




?hat  of  Grand  Master,  whiA  was  held  to  "^ggjg^ygg  An  eminence  situated 
life.  There  was,  however  a  Grand  ^L"^^  part  of  Jerusalem.  In 
and  the  male  and  female  heads  oi  the  uraej-  m  u»  have  been  culti- 

Xrnately  assumed,  for  «  "^J",^  •  H "I 'called  "the  threshing-floor 

the  supreme  authority.  ^/^Cn  of  Oman  the  Jebusite,"  from  whom  that 
of  the  spirit  of  ^^'hwh?h  monarXpurehased  it  for  the  purpose  of  plac- 

in  some  degree  paralyzed  by  the  attacKs  01  ,  y  Solomon  subsequently 

•  the  ChurchTthe  society  of  Mopses  «^  to  "f^^^m^nificent  Temple.  Blount 

^^Hty.   In  the  American  system  it  is  Moriah  was  ^gJSS^S  JESS 

one  of  the  three  precious  jewels  of  a  M«ter  ^?0^at^t  Abraham  was  directed,  to 


and  that  tfie  principle .  which  it  ^ates  ^fgZniwKpb*  it  md  to  them,  as  the 
inevitably  tend  to  nWke  the  brother ^bo  obeys  have XSemxfe,  it  is  especially  sacred,  and, 
their  dictates  a  more  virtuous  man.  Hence  ^  "he 'Abrahamic  legend, 

the  English  lectures  very  property define  M°  rfah  the  ap%lla- 

Freeniasonry  to  be  'a  system  of  morahty.  *^  ^£ f^^d  floor  of  the  Lodge,  and  as- 
r^SLfoMm  « '  is  ob UgTby  hT teZe  to  £  it  as  thfplace  where  what  are  called  « the 

of  the 

Mogu^f  ^ 

t^SMLnlPhil/ixavhv  vol  ii., P.  122.  Lon-  Patent  was  granted,  Thory,  Kagon,  Clayei. 
Tn twTS •  the  " 'mo?al  law"  to  and  Lerming  say  by  the  Grand  Council  of 
d °d' »,  Ik!' }„M  f^,ft™e  ^reafv  cited  refers,  Emperorsof  the  East  and  West.  Others  say 
Swhkh it °Sc&bShSw ofMalS'  by  ^  Grand  Lodge.  DaMo  say^byti* 
STCwas^^done,  for  it  is  evident  that  Gr^d  Consistory  of  Pnncw  of  the  Eoval 

lEE^V>BohsnunMde«of"to  Lata,  of  Frmt.  and  tto  Onmd  eojafd, 

of  SSSS5  which  waT founded  C^stotory.   From  the  Gra^  I-odgehe  »" 

t  UppTLus^tia,  about  1722,  by  Count  ceived  the  power  to  «tabheh 
Zinzendorf ,  is  said  at  one  tune  to  have  formed  Lodge,-  and  from  the  Orand  Councu  or 
a  Sets "of  religious  Freemasons.   For  an  Consistory  the  power  to  confer  the  higher 

account  of  which,  see  Mustard  Seed,  Order  of.    degrees.  •         .  ,  ,  mM 

MOTran.  William.  Born  in  Culpeper  Not  long  after  receiving  these  powers, 
OD™WvfeS>17m  HepubfiriQ  Morin  sailed  for  America,  and I  established 
hY  18$ a pwtaSW  Exposition  of  Maaonry,  Bodies  of  the  Scottish  Rite  in  St.  Domingo 
which  attracted  at  the  time  more  attention  and  Jamaica.  He  also  appointed  M  M. 
tb£n it  dSrad.  Morgan  soon  after  disap-  Hayes  a  Deputy  Inspector-General  for  North 
pXed,  Se  M  were  charged  by  some  America.  ^^^^^^^ 
SnZm«i  of  the  Order  with  having  removed  Isaac  da  Costa  a  Deputy  for  South  Carolina, 
hteTby  Mmem  WW  was  the  real  fate  and  through  him  the  Subhme  degrees  were 
ofMoreanhw  never  been  ascertained.  There  disseminated  among  the  Masons  of  the  United 
are  v^rW  mX  oflto  disappearance,  and  States  (See  Scottish  tiMe.}  After  appointing 
mbselSent  Residence  in  other  countries,  several  Deputies. and  establishing  somebodies 
IteS  or^yTot  be  true,  but  it  is  certain  in  the  West  India  Wands,  Monn  is  lost  sight 
SSfthw"  m T  evidence  of  his  death  that  of.  ™^&PV^«tow&fM 
wo^d  be  admitted  in  a  Court  of  Probate,  history,  or  of  the  time  or  place of  ^isdeatii. 
HVwu»*  man  of  questionable  character  and  Eagon,  Thory,  and  Claydsay  that  Moruv tfas 
SLolute  hS,  and  his  enmity  to  Masonry  is  a  Jew;  but  ^  these  wntera  have  jy/teaA  all 
■sMto .have originated  from  the  refusal  of  the  founders  of  the  Scottish  Rite  m 



we  have  no  right  to  place  any  confidence  in 
their  statements/  The  name  of  Morin  has 
been  borne  by  many  French  Christians  of  lit- 
erary reputation,  from  Peter  Morin,  a  learned 
ecclesiastical  writer  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
to  Stephen  Morin,  an  antiquary  and  Protes- 
tant clergyman,  who  died  in  1700,  and  his  son 
Henry,  who  became  a  Catholic,  and  died  in 

Morltz,  Carl  Philipp.  •  A  Privy  Council- 
lor, Professor,  and  Member  of  the  Academy  of 
Sciences  in  Berlin,  was  born  at  Hameln  on  the 
loth  of  September,  1757,  and  died  the  26th  of 
June,  1793.  Gadicke  says  that  he  was  one  of 
the  most  celebrated  authors  of  his  age,  and 
distinguished  by  his  works  on  the  German 
language.  He  was  the  author  of  several  Ma- 
sonic works,  among  which  are  his  Contribw- 
tions  to  the  Philosophy  of  Life  and  the  Diary  of  a 
Freemason,  Berlin,  1793,  and  &Bodk  of  Masonic 

Mormon  Fattb.  See  Book  of  Mormon. 

Morphey.  The  name  of  one  of  the  twelve 
Inspectors  in  the  Eleventh  Degree  of  the  An- 
cient and  Accepted  Scottish  Bite;  This  name, 
like  the  others  in  the  samp  catalogue,  bids 
defiance  to  any  Hebraic  derivation.  They 
are  all  either  French  corruptions,  worse  even 
than  Jakinai  for  Shekmah,  or  they  have  some 
allusion  to  names  or  events  connected  with  the 
political  intrigues  of  the  exiled  house  of  Stuart, 
which  had,  it  is  known,  a  connection  with  some 
of  the  higher  degrees  which  sprang  up  at  Arras, 
and  other  places  where  Masonry  is  said  to 
have  been  patronized  by  the  Pretender.  This 
word  Morphey  may,  for  instance,  be  a  cor- 
ruption of  Murray.  James  Murray,  the 
second  son  of  Lord  Stormont,  escaped  to  the 
court  of  the  Stuarts  in  1715.  He  was  a  de- 
voted adherent  of  the  exiled  family,  and  be- 
came the  governor  of  the  young  prince  and  the 
chief  minister  of  his  father,  who  conferred 
upon  him  the  empty  title  of  Earl  of  Dunbar. 
H«  died  at  Avignon  in  1770.  But  almost 
every  etymology  of  this  kind  must  be  entirely 

Morris,  Robert,  LL.D.  Born  August  31, 
1818.  Was  first  brought  to  Masonic  light 
March  5, 1846,  in  Oxford  Lodge,  at  a  place  of 
the  same  name  in  Mississippi.  The  life  of 
Bro.  Morris  was  so  active  ana  untiring  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Institution  of  Masonry,  that  he 
had  the  opportunity  of  filling  very  many  posi- 
tions in  all  the  departments  of  Masonry,  and 
was  Grand  Master  of  Masons  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Kentucky  in  1858-59.  His  writings 
cover  Masonic  jurisprudence,  rituals  and 
handbooks,  Masonic  belles-lettres,  history 
and  biography,  travels,  and  contributions  to 
The  Review,  Keystone,  Advocate,  N.  Y.  Dis- 
patch, and  other  papers  and  periodicals.  His 
Masonic  songs  and  poetic  effusions  stand  out 
in  prominent  volumes.  He  was  the  author  of 
We  Meet  upon  the  Level,  which  is  sufficient  to 
render  his  name  immortal.  A  complete 
biography  of  Bro.  Robert  Morris  would  fill 
volumes.   He  died  in  1888.  • 

Mortality,  Symbol  of.  The  ancient 
Egyptians  introduced  a  skeleton  at  their 

MOSAIC  493 

feasts,  to  impress  the  idea  of  the  evanescence  of 
all  earthly  enjoyments;  but  the  skeletons  or 
deaths'  heads  did  not  make  their  appearance 
in  Grecian  art,  as  symbols  of  mortality,  until 
later  times,  and  on  monuments  of  no  artistic 
importance.  In  the  earliest  periods  of  ancient 
art,  the  Greeks  and  Romans  employed  more 
pleasing  representations,  such  as  the  flower 
plucked  from  its  stem,  or  the  inverted  torch. 
The  moderns  have,  however,  had  recourse  to 
more  offensive  symbolization.  In  their  hatch- 
ments or  funeral  achievements  the  heralds 
employ  a  death's  head  and  crossed  bones,  to 
denote  that  the  deceased  person  is  the  last  of 
his  family.  The  Masons  have  adopted  the 
same  symbol,  and  in  all  the  degrees  where  it  is 
necessary  to  impress  the  idea  of  mortality,  a 
skull,  or  a  skull  and  crossed  bones,  are  used 
for  that  purpose. 

Mortar,  Untempered.  See  Untempered 

Mosaic  Pavement.  Mosaic  work  consists 
properly  of  many  little  stones  of  different  coW 
ors  united  together  in  patterns  to  imitate  a 
painting.  It  was  much  practised  among  the 
Romans,  who  called  it  musivum,  whence  the 
Italians  get  their  musaico^  the  French  their 
mosaique,  and  we  our  mosaic.  The  idea  that 
the  work  is  derived  from  the  fact  that  Moses 
used  a  pavement  of  colored  stones  in  the 
tabernacle  has  been  long  since  exploded  by 
etymologists.  The  Masonic  tradition  is  that 
the  floor  of  the  Temple  of  Solomon  was  deco- 
rated with  a  mosaic  pavement  of  black  and 
white  stones.  There  is  no  historical  evidence 
to  substantiate  this  statement.  Samuel  Lee, 
however,  in  his  diagram  of  the  Temple,  rep- 
resents not  only  the  floors  of  the  building,  but 
of  all  the  outer  courts,  as  covered  with  such  a 
pavement.  The  Masonic  idea  was  perhaps 
first  suggested  by  this  passage  in  the  Gospel  of 
St.  John  (xix.  13).  "when  Pilate,  therefore, 
heard  that  saying,  he  brought  Jesus  forth,  and 
sat  down  in  the  judgment-seat  in  a  place  that 
is  called  the  Pavement,  but  in  the  Hebrew, 
Gabbatha."  The  word  here  translated  Pave- 
ment is  in  the  original  Lithostroion,  the  very 
word  used  by  Pliny  to  denote  a  mosaic  pave- 
ment. The  Greek  word,  as  well  as  its  Latin 
equivalent,  is  used  to  denote  a  pavement 
formed  of  ornamental  stones  of  various  colors, 
precisely  what  is  meant  by  a  mosaic  pave- 

There  was,  thereforet  a  part  of  the  Temple 
which  was  decorated  with  a  mosaic  pavement. 
The  Talmud  informs  us  that  there  was  such  a 

Eavement  in  the  conclave  where  the  Grand 
anhedrim  held  its  sessions. 
By  a  little  torsion  of  historical  accuracy,  the 
Masons  have  asserted  that  the  ground  floor 
of  the  Temple  was  a  mosaic  pavement,  and 
hence,  as  the  Lodge  is  a  representation  of  the 
Temple,  that  the  floor  of  the  Lodge  should 
also  be  of  the  same  pattern. 

The  mosaic  pavement  is  an  old  symbol  of 
the  Order.  It  is  met  with  in  the  earliest  rit- 
uals of  the  last  century.  It  is  classed  among 
the  ornaments  of  the  Lodge  in  combination 
with  the  indented  tessel  ana  the  biasing  star. 

494  MOSAIC 

Its  party-colored  stones  of  black  and  whfte 
have  been  readily  and  appropriately  inter- 

Ereted  as  symbols  of  the  evil  and  good  of 

Mosaic  Symbolism.  In  the  religion  of 
Moses,  more  than  in  any  other  which  preceded 
or  followed  it,  is  symbolism  the  predominating 
idea.  From  the  tabernacle,  which  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  central  point  of  the  whole  system, 
down  to  the  vestments  which  clothed  the  serv- 
ants at  the  altar,  there  will  be  found  an  un- 
derlying principle  of  symbolism.  Long  before 
the  days  of  Pythagoras  the  mystical  nature  of 
numbers  had  been  inculcated  by  the  Jewish 
lawgiver,  and  the  very  name  of  God  was  con- 
structed in  a  symbolical  form,  to  indicate  his 
eternal  nature.  Much  of  the  Jewish  ritual  of 
worship,  delineated  in  the  Pentateuch  with 
so  much  precision  as  to  its  minutest  details, 
would  almost  seem  puerile  were  it  not  for 
the  symbolic  idea  that  is  conveyed.  So  the 
fringes  of  the  garments  are  patiently  described, 
not  as  decorations,  but  that  by  them  the  peo- 
ple, in  looking  upon  the  fringe,  might  "remem- 
ber all  the  commandments  of  the  Lord  and 
do  them."  Well,  therefore,  has  a  modem 
writer  remarked,  that  in  the  symbolism  of  the 
Mosaic  worship  it  is  only  ignorance  that  can 
find  the  details  trifling  or  the  prescriptions 
minute;'  for  if  we  recognize  the  worth  and 
beauty  of  symbolism,  we  shall  in  vain  seek  in 
the  Mosaic  symbols  for  one  superfluous  enact- 
ment or  one  superstitious  idea.  To  the  Mason 
the  Mosaic  symbolism  is  very  significant,  be- 
cause from  it  Freemasonry  has  derived  and 
transmitted  for  its  own  uses  many  of  the  most 
precious  treasures  of  its  own  symbolical  art. 
Indeed,  except  in  some  of  the  higher,  and 
therefore  more  modern  degrees,  the  symbolism 
of  Freemasonry  is  almost  entirely  deduced 
from  the  symbolism  of  Mosaism.  Thus  the 
symbol  of  the  Temple,  which  persistently 
pervades  the  whole  of  the  ancient  Masonic 
system,  comes  to  us  directly  from  the  symbol- 
ism of  the  Jewish  tabernacle.  If  Solomon  is 
revered  by  the  Masons  as  their  traditional 
Grand  Master,  it  is  because  the  Temple  con- 
structed by  him  was  the  symbol  of  the  Divine 
life  to  be  cultivated  in  every  heart.  And  this 
symbol  was  borrowed  from  the  Mosaic  taber- 
nacle; and  the  Jewish  thought,  that  every 
Hebrew  was  to  be  a  tabernacle  of  the  Lord, 
has  been  transmitted  to  the  Masonic  system, 
"which  teaches  that  every  Mason  is  to  be  a 
temple  of  the  Grand  Architect.  The  Papal 
Church,  from  which  we  get  all  ecclesiastical 
symbolism,  borrowed  its  symbology  from  the 
ancient  Romans.  Hence  most  of  the  high 
degrees  of  Masonry  which  partake  of  a  Chris- 
tian character  are  marked  by  Roman  sym- 
bolism transmuted  into  Christian.  But  Craft 
Masonry,  more  ancient  and  more  univer- 
sal, finds  its  symbolic  teachings  almost  ex- 
clusively in  the  Mosaic  symbolism  instituted 
in  the  wilderness. 

If  we  inquire  whence  the  Jewish  lawgiver 
derived  the  symbolic  system  which  he  intro- 
duced into  his  religion,  the  history  of  his 
life  will  readily  answer  the  question.  Philo- 


Judasus  says  that  "Moses  was  instructed  by 
the  Egyptian  priests  in  the  philosophy  of  sym- 
bols and  hieroglyphics  as  well  as  in  the  mys- 
teries of  the  sacred  animals."  The  sacred  his- 
torian tells  us  that  he  was  "learned  in  all  the 
wisdom  of  the  Egyptians";  and  Manetho  and 
other  traditionary  writers  tell  us  that  he  was 
educated  at  Heliopolis  as  a  priest,  under  his 
Egyptian  name  of  Osarsiph,  and  that  there  he 
was  taught  the  whole  range  of  literature  and 
science,  which  it  was  customary  to  impart  to 
the  priesthood  of  Egypt.  When,  then,  at  the 
head  of  his  people,  he  passed  away  from  the 
servitude  of  Egyptian  taskmasters,  and  began 
in  the  wilderness  to  establish  his  new  religion, 
it  is  not  strange  that  he  should  have  given  a 
holy  use  to  the  symbols  whose  meaning  he  had 
learned  in  his  ecclesiastical  education  on  the 
banks  of  the  Nile. 

Thus  is  it  that  we  find  in  the  Mosaic  symbol- 
ism so  many  identities  with  the  Egyptian 
ritual.  Thus  the  Ark  of  the  Covenant,  the 
Breastplate  of  the  High  Priest,  the  Miter, 
and  many  other  of  the  Jewish  symbols,  will 
find  their  analogies  in  the  ritualistic  ceremo- 
nies of  the  Egyptians.  Reghellini,  who  has 
written  an  elaborate  work  on  Masonry  con- 
sidered as  the  resjdt  of  the  Egyptian,  Jewish, 
and  Christian  Religions,  says  on  the  subject: 
"Moses,  in  his  mysteries,  and  after  him  Sol- 
omon, adopted  a  great  part  of  the  Egyptian 
symbols,  which,  after  them,  we  Masons  have 
preserved  in  our  own." 

Moses,  iTfftt,  which  means  drawn  out;  but 
the  true  derivation  is  from  two  Egyptian 
words,  /to,  mo,  and  owe*,  oushes,  signifying 
saved  from  the  water.  The  lawgiver  of  the 
Jews,  and  referred  to  in  some  of  the  higher 
degrees,  especially  in  the  Twenty-fifth  Degree, 
or  Knight -of  the  Brazen  Serpent  in  the  Scot- 
tish Rite,  where  he  is  represented  as  the  pre- 
siding officer.  He  plays  also  an  important 
part  in  the  Royal  Arch  of  the  York  and  Amer- 
ican Rites,  all  of  whose  ritual  is  framed  on  the 
Mosaic  symbolism. 

Mossdorf,  Friedrlch.  An  eminent  Ger- 
man Mason,  who  was  born  March  2,  1757,  at 
Eckartsberge,  and  died  about  1830.  He  re- 
sided in  Dresden,  and  took  an  active  part  in 
the  affairs  of  Masonry.  He  was  a  warm  sun- 
porter  of  Fessler's  Masonic  reforms,  and  made 
several  contributions  to  the  Freyberg  FreU 
maurerischen  Taschenbuche  in  defense  of  Fess- 
ler's system.  He  became  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  learned  Krause,  the  author  of 
The  Three  Most  Ancient  Records  of  the  Masonic 
Fraternity,  and  wrote  and  published  in  1809  a 
critical  review  of  the  work,  in  consequence  of 
which  the  Grand  Lodge  commanded  him  to 
absent  himself  for  an  indefinite  period  from 
the  Lodges.  Mosdorf  then  withdrew  from 
any  further  connection  with  the  Fraternity. 
His  most  valuable  contributions  to  Masonic 
literature  are  his  additions  and  emendations 
to  Lenning's  Encyclop&die  der  Freimaurerei. 
He  is  the  author  also  of  several  other  works 
of  great  value. 

Most  Excellent.  The  title  given  to  a 
Royal  Arch  Chapter,  and  to  its  presiding  offi- 


cer,  the  High  Priest;  also  to  the  presiding 
officer  of  a  Lodge  of  Most  Excellent  Mas- 

Most  Excellent  Master.  The  Sixth  De- 
gree in  the  York  Bite.  Its  history  refers  to 
the  dedication  of4he  Temple  by  King  Solo- 
mon, who  is  represented  by  its  presiding  officer 
under  the  title  of  Most  Excellent.  Its  officers 
are  the  same  as  those  in  a  Symbolic  Lodge. 
There  are,  however,  some  rituals  in  which  the 
Junior  Warden  is  omitted.  This  degree  is 
peculiarly  American,  it  being  practised  in  no 
other  country.  It  was  the  invention  of  Webb, 
who  organized  the  capitular  system  of  Ma- 
sonry as  it  exists  in  America,  and  established 
the  system  of  lectures  which  is  the  foundation 
of  all  subsequent  systems  taught  there. 

Most  Puissant.  The  title  of  the  presiding 
officer  of  a  Grand  Council  of  Royal  and  Select 

Most  Worshipful.  The  title  given  to  a 
Grand  Lodge  and  to  its  presiding  officer,  the 
Grand  Master.  The  title  of  Grand  Master  of 
Pennsylvania  is  Right  Worshipful. 

Mot  de  Semestre.  Half  yearly  word. 
Every  six  months  the  Grand  Orient  of  France 
sends  to  each  of  the  Lodges  of  its  obedience  a 
password,  to  be  used  by  its  members  as  an 
additional  means  of  gaining  admission  into  a 
Lodge.  Each  Mason  obtains  this  word  only 
from  the  Venerable  of  bis  own  Lodge.  It  was 
instituted  October  28,  1773,  when  the  Duke 
of  Chartres  was  elected  Grand  Master. 

Mother  Council.  The  Supreme  Council 
of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  for 
the  Southern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States 
of  America,  which  was  organized  in  1801,  at 
Charleston,  is  called  the  "Mother  Council  of 
the  World,"  because  from  it  have  issued  di- 
rectly or  indirectly  all  the  other  Supreme 
Councils  of  the  Rite  which  are  now  in  exist- 
ence, or  have  existed  since  its  organization. 

Mother  Ledge.  In  the  last  century 
certain  Lodges  in  France  and  Germany  as- 
sumed an  independent  position,  and  issued 
Charters  for  the  constitution  of  Daughter 
Lodges  claiming  the  prerogatives  of  Grand 
Lodges.  Thus  we  find  the  Mother  Lodge  of 
Marseilles,  in  France,  which  constituted  many 
Lodges.  In  Scotland  the  Lodge  of  Kilwinning 
took  the  title  of  Mother  Lodge,  and  issued 
Charters  until  it  was  merged  in  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Scotland.  The  system  is  altogether 
irregular,  and  has  no  sanction  in  the  present 
laws  of  the  Fraternity. 

Motion.  A  motion  when  made  by  a 
member  cannot  be  brought  before  the  Lodge 
for  deliberation  unless  it  is  seconded  by  an- 
other member.  Motions  are  of  two  kinds, 
principal  and  subsidiary;  a  principal  motion 
is  one  that  presents  an  independent  propo- 
sition for  discussion.  Subsidiary  motions  are 
those  which  are  intended  to  affect  the  prin- 
cipal motion — such  as  to  amend  it,  to  lay  it  on 
the  table,  to  postpone  it  definitely  or  indefi- 
nitely, or  to  reconsider  it,  all  of  which  are  gov- 
erned by  the  parliamentary  law  under  certain 
modifications  to  suit  the  spirit  and  genius  of 
the  Masonic  organization.  (See  Dr.  Mackey's 


Treatise  on  Parliamentary  Law  as  applied  to 
Masonic  Bodies.) 

Motto.  In  imitation  of  the  sentences  ap- 
pended to  the  coats  of  arms  and  seals  of  the 
gilds  and  other  societies,  the  Masons  have  for 
the  different  branches  of  their  Order  mottoes, 
which  are  placed  on  their  banners  or  put  at 
the  head  of  their  documents,  which  are  ex- 
pressive of  the  character  and  design,  either  of 
the  whole  Order  or  of  the  particular  branch  to 
which  the  motto  belongs.  Thus,  in  Ancient 
Craft  Masonry,  we  have  as  mottoes  the  sen- 
tences, Ordo  ab  Chao,  and  Lux  e  tenebris;  in 
Capitular  Masonry,  Holiness  to  the  Lord;  in 
Templar  Masonry,  In  hoc  signo  vinces;  in 
Scottish  Masonry,  Ne  plus  ultra  is  the  motto 
of  the  Thirtieth  Degree,  and  Sves  mea  in  deo 
est  of  the  Thirty-second;  while  the  Thirty- 
third  has  for  its  motto  Deus  meumque  Jus. 
All  of  these  will  be  found  with  their  significa- 
tion and  origin  in  their  appropriate  places. 

Mold.  This  word  is  very  common  in  the 
Old  Constitutions,  where  it  is  forbidden  that  a 
Freemason  should  give  a  mold  to  a  rough 
Mason,  whereby,  orcourse,  he  would  be  im- 
parting to  him  the  secrets  of  the  Craft.  Thus, 
in  the  Harleian  MS.,  No.  2054:  "Alsoe  that 
noe  Mason  make  moulds,  square  or  rule  to 
any  rough  layers.  Also,  that  no  Mason  set 
noe  laves  within  a  lodge  or  without  to  haue 
Mould  Stones  with  one  Mould  of  his  worke- 
iag."  We  find  the  word  in  Piers  Plough' 
man's  Vision: 

"  If  eny  Mason  there  do  makede  a  molds 
With  alle  here  wyse  castes." 

Parker  (Gloss.  Architect.,  p.  313)  thus  defines 
it:  "The  model  or  pattern  used  by  workmen, 
especially  by  Masons,  as  a  guide  in  working 
mouldings  and  ornaments.  It  consists  of  a 
thin  board  or  plate  of  metal,  cut  to  represent 
the  exact  section  of  the  mouldings  to  be 
worked  from  it."  In  the  Cooke  MS.  the  word 
maters  is  used,  which  is  evidently  a  corruption 
of  the  Latin  matrix. 

Mold  Stone.  In  the  quotation  from  the' 
Harleian  MS.  in  the  preceding  article,  the  ex- 
pression mould  stones  occurs,  as  it  does  in 
other  Constitutions  and  in  many  old  contracts. 
It  means,  probably,  large  and  peaked  stones 
for  those  parts  of  the  building  which  were  to 
have  moldings  cut  upon  them,  as  window 
and  door  jambs. 

Mount  Calvary.   See  Calvary. 

Mount  Caf .  In  the  Mohammedan  myth- 
ology, a  fabulous  mountain  which  encircles  the 
earth.  The  home  of  the  giants  and  fairies, 
and  rests  upon  the  sacred  stone  Sakhral,  of 
which  a  single  grain  gives  miraculous  powers. 
It  is  of  an  emerald  color,  and  its  reflected  light 
is  the  cause  of  the  tints  of  the  sky. 

Mount  Morlah.  See  Moriah. 

Mount  Sinai.   See  Sinai. 

Mourning.  The  mourning  color  has  been 
various  in  different  times  and  countries. 
Thus,  the  Chinese  mourn  in  white;  the  Turks 
in  blue  or  in  violet;  the  Egyptians  in  yellow; 
the  Ethiopians  in  gray.  In  all  the  degrees 
and  rites  of  Masonry,  with  a  single  exception 


496  MOUTH 

black  is  the  symbol  of  grief,  and  therefore  the 
mourning  color.  But  in  the  highest  degrees  of 
the  Scottish  Rite  the  mourning  color,  like  that 
used  by  the  former  kings  of  France,  is  violet. 

Month  to  Ear.  The  Mason  is  taught  by 
an  expressive  symbol,  to  whisper  good  counsel 
in  hk  brother's  ear,  and  to  warn  him.  of  ap- 
proaching danger.  "It  is  a  rare  thing,''  says 
Bacon,  "except  it  be  from  a  perfect  and  entire 
friend,  to  have  counsel  given  that  is  not  bowed 
and  crooked  to  some  ends  which  he  hath  that 
giveth  it."  And  hence  it  is  an  admirable 
lesson,  which  Masonry  here  teaches  us,  to  use 
the  lips  and  the  tongue  only  in  the  service  of  a 

Movable  Jewels.  See  Jewels  of  a  Lodge. 

Mozart,  3.  C.  W.  G.  Born  in  1756  at 
Salzburg,  and  died  December  5,  1791,  at  Vi- 
enna. One  of  the  greatest  and  most  delight- 
ful of  musical  composers.  He  first  saw  the 
Masonio  light  about  1780,  and  was  a  member 
of  the  Lodge  "Zur  gekronten  Hoffnuag." 
There  were  many  musical  compositions  and 
dedications  to  Masonry  by  this  eminent  com- 

Muenter,  Friederich.  Born  in  1781,  and 
died  in  1830.  He  was  Professor  of  Theology 
in  the  University  of  Copenhagen,  and  after- 
ward Bishop  of  Seeland.  He  was  the  author 
of  a  treatise  On  the  Symbols  and  Art  Repre- 
sentations of  the  Early  Christians.  In  1794  he 
published  his  Statute  Book  of  the  Order  of 
Knights  Templar,  "Statutenbuch  des  Ordens 
der  Tempelherren  ";  a  work  which  is  one  of 
the  most  valuable  contributions  that  we  have 
to  the  history  of  Templarism. 

Munkhouse,  D.D.,  Rev.  Richard.  The 
author  of  A  Discourse  in  Praise  of  Freemasonry, 
8vo,  Lond.,  1805;  An  Exhortation  to  the  Prac- 
tice of  those  Specific  Virtues  which  ought  to  pre- 
vail in  the  Masonic  Character,  with  Historical 
Notes,  8vo,  Lond.,  1805;  and  Occasional  Dis- 
courses on  Various  Subjects,  with  Copious  An- 
notations, 3  vols.,  8vo,  Lond.,  1805.  This  last 
work  contains  many  discourses  on  Masonic 
subjects.  Dr.  Munkhouse  was  an  ardent  ad- 
mirer and  defender  of  Freemasonry,  into  which 
•  he  was  initiated  in  the  Phoenix  Lodge  of  Sun- 
derland. On  his  removal  to  Wakefield,  where 
he  was  rector  of  St.  John  the  Baptist's  Church, 
he  united  with  the  Lodge  of  Unanimity,  under 
the  Mastership  of  Richard  Linnecar,  to  whose 
virtues  and  Masonic  knowledge  he  has  paid 
a  high  tribute.  Dr.  Munkhouse  died  in  the 
early  part  of  this  century. 

Murat,  Joachim.  Bom  in  1771,  executed 
in  1815.  The  great  cavalry  general  of  Nape 
leon,  and  titular  king  of  Naples.  In  1803  he 
was  appointed  S.  G.  Warden  in  the  Grand 
Orient  of  France.  When  the  fifth  Supreme 
Council  of  the  World  was  established  at 
Naples,  on  June  11,  1809,  by  the  Supreme 
Council  at  Milan,  a  concordat  became 
necessary,  and  was  executed  May  3,  1811, 
between  the  Grand  Orient  which  was  created 
June  24,  1809,  and  the  Supreme  Council  of 
Naples,  whereby  the  latter  should  have  sole 
control  over  the  degrees  beyond  the  eighteenth, 
in  like  manner  as  signified  in  the  concordat  of 


France.  King  Joachim  Murat  accepted  the  su- 
preme command  of  both  bodies.  The  change 
in  his  political  surroundings  allowed  him  no 
permanent  rest. 

Murat,  Joachim,  Prince.  Son  of  the 
King  of  Naples.  Was  appointed  Gtand  Mas- 
ter of  the  Grand  Orient  of  France,  and  initi- 
ated February  26,  1825.  He  resigned  the 
office  in  1861. 

Man,  Christoph  Gottlieb  von.  A  dis- 
tinguished historical  and  archeologioal  writer, 
who  was  bom  at  Nuremberg,  in  1733,  and 
died  April  8,  1811.  In  1760  he  published  an 
Essay  on  the  History  of  the  Greek  Tragic  Poets, 
in  1777-82,  six  volumes  of  AnUquitm  of  Her- 
culanceum,  and  several  other  historical  works. 
In  1803  he  published  an  essay  On  the  True 
Origin  of  the  Orders  of  Rosicrucianism  and 
Freemasonry,  with  an  Appendix  on  the  His- 
tory of  the  Order  of  Templars.  In  this  work, 
Murr  attempts  to  trace  Freemasonry  to  the 
times  of  Oliver  Cromwell,  and  maintains  that 
it  and  Rosicrucianism  had  an  identical  origin, 
and  the  same  history  until  the  year  1633, 
when  they  separated. 

Muscus  Domus.  In  the  early  rituals  of 
the  last  century,  the  tradition  is  given,  that 
certain  Fellow-Crafts,  while  pursuing  their 
search,  discovered  a  grave  covered  with  green 
moss  and  turf,  when  they  exclaimed,  Muscus 
Domus,  Deo  gralias,  which  was  interpreted, 
"Thanks  be  to  God,  our  Master  has  a  mossy 
house."  Whence  a  Mason's  grave  came  to  be 
called  Muscus  Domus.  But  both  the  tradi- 
tion and  its  application  have  become  obsolete 
in  the  modem  rituals. 

Music.  One  of  the  seven  liberal  arts  and 
sciences,  whose  beauties  are  inculcated  in 
the  Fellow-Craft's  Degree.  Music  is  recom- 
mended to  the  attention  of  Masons,  because  as 
the  "concord  of  sweet  sounds"  elevates  the 
generous  sentiments  of  the  soul,  so  should  the 
concord  of  good  feeling  reign  among  the  breth- 
ren, that  by  the  union  of  friendship  and 
brotherly  love  the  boisterous  passions  may 
be  lulled  and  harmony  exist  throughout  the 

Musical  Instruments,  Ancient.  As  in 

the  Fellow-Craft's  Degree,  music  is  dilated 
upon  as  one  of  the  liberal  arts,  the  sweet  and 
harmonious  sounds  being  the  representative 
of  that  harmony  which  should  ever  exist 
among  the  brethren,  we  are  apt  to  inquire 
what  were  the  instruments  used  by  the  an- 
cients in  their  mystical  service.  The  oldest 
ever  discovered,  we  believe,  is  a  small  clay 
pipe  not  over  three  inches  in  length,  found  by 
Captain  Willock  among  the  presumed  ruins  of 
Babylon;  if  so,  it  must  be  2,600  years  old. 
By  the  use  of  the  two  finger  holes,  the  intervals 
of  the  common  chord,  Cf  E,  and  G,  are  pro- 
duced, or  the  harmonic  triad.  From  the  ruins 
of  Nineveh  we  have  countless  representations 
of  the  harp,  with  strings  varying  from  ten  to 
twenty-six;  the  lyre,  identical  in  structure 
with  that  of  the  Greeks;  a  harp-shaped  in- 
strument held  horizontally,  and  the  Six  to  ten 
strings  struck  with  a  plectrum,  which  has 
been  termed  the  Asor,  from  its  resemblance  to 


the  Hebrew  instrument  of  that  name.  There 
is  also  the  guitar-shaped  instrument,  and  a 
double  pipe  with  a  single  mouthpiece  and 
finger-holes  on  each  pipe.  The  Assyrians  used 
musical  bells,  trumpets,  flutes,  drums,  cym- 
bals, and  tambourines.  The  Abyssimans 
call  their  lyre  the  Kissar  (Greek,  kithara). 
There  is  also  the  flute,  called  Monaulos,  which 
m  of  great  antiquity,  and  named  by  the 
Egyptians  Photins,  or  curved  flute.  The 
crooked  horn  or  trumpet,  called  Buccina,  and 
the  Cithara,  held  sacred  in  consequence  of  its 
shape  being  that  of  the  Greek  delta. 

Mustard-Seed,  Order  of.  (Der  Orden 
vom  Senfkorn.)  This  association,  whose  mem- 
bers also  called  themselves  "  The  Fraternity  of 
Moravian  Brothers  of  the  Order  of  Religious 
Freemasons,"  was  one  of  the  first  innovations 
introduced  into  German  Freemasonry.  It 
was  instituted  in  the  year  1739.  Ite  mys- 
teries were  founded  on  that  passage  in  the 
fourth  chapter  of  St.  Mark's  Gospel  in  which 
Christ  compares  the  kingdom  of  heaven  to  a 
mustard-seed.  The  brethren  wore  a  ring,  on 
Which  was  inscribed  Keiner  von  uns  lebt  ihm 
selber,  i.  e.,  "No  one  of  us  lives  for  himself." 
The  jewel  of  the  Order  was  a  cross  of  gold  sur- 
mounted by  a  mustard-plant  in  full  bloom, ' 
with  the  motto.  Quod  fuit  ante  nihil,  i.  e., 
"What  was  before  nothing."  It  was  sus- 
pended from  a  green  ribbon.  The  professed 
object  of  the  association  was,  through  the  in- 
strumentality of  Freemasonry,  to  expend  the 
kingdom  of  Christ  over  the  world.  It  has 
lone  been  obsolete. 

Mata.   The  Roman  goddess  of  silence. 

Muttoa  or  Bf&thura.  The  birthplace  of 
the  Hindu  Redeemer,  Krishna.  The  capital 
of  a  district  in  the  Northwest  Provinces  of 
British  India. 

Myrrh.  A  resinous  gum  of  a  tree  growing 
in  Arabia,  valued  from  the  most  ancient  times. 
(Gen.  xxxvii.  25.)  It  was  among  the  presents 
Jacob  sent  to  Egypt,  and  those  brought  to  the 
infant  Jesus  by  the  wise  men  of  the  East. 

Myrtle.  The  sacred  plant  of  the  Eleusin- 
ian  mysteries,  and  analogous  in  its  symbol- 
ism to  the  acacia  of  the  Masons. 

Mystagogue.  The  one  who  presided  at 
the  Ancient  Mysteries,  and  explained  the 
sacred  things  to  the  candidate.  He  was  also 
called  the  faierophant.  The  word,  which  is 
Greek,  signifies  literally  one  who  makes  or 
conducts  an  initiate. 

Mysteries,  Ancient.  Each  of  the  Pagan 
gods,  says  Warburton  (Div.  Leg,,  I.,  ii.,  4),  had, 
besides  the  public  and  open,  a  secret  worship 
paid  to  him,  to  which  none  were  admitted  but 
those  who  had  been  selected  by  preparatory 
ceremonies  called  Initiation.  This  secret  wor- 
ship was  termed  the  Mysteries.  And  this  is 
supported  by  Strabo  (lib.  x.,  cap.  3),  who  says 
that  it  was  common,  both  to  the  Greeks  and 
the  Barbarians,  to  perform  their  religious  cere- 
monies with  the  observance  of  a  festival,  and 
that  they  are  sometimes  celebrated  publicly, 
and  sometimes  in  mysterious  privacy.  Noel 
(Diet,  de  la  Fable)  thus  defines  them:  Secret 
ceremonies  which  were  practised  in  honor  of 


certain  gods,  and  whose  secret  was  known  to 
the  initiates  alone,  who  were  admitted  only 
after  long  and  painful  trials,  whieh  it  was  more 
than  their  life  was  worth  to  reveal. 

As  to  their  origin,  Warburton  is  probably 
not  wrong  in  hjs  statement  that  the  first  of 
which  we  have  any  account  are  those  of  Isis 
ancTOsiris  in  Egypt;  for  although  those  of 
Mithras  came  into  Europe  from  Persia,  they 
were,  it  is  supposed,  carried  from  Egypt  by 

The  most  important  of  these  mysteries  were 
the  Osiric  in  Egypt,  the  Mithraic  in  Persia, 
the  Cabiric  in  Thrace,  the  Adonisrian  in  Syria, 
the  Dionysiac  and  Eleusinian  in  Greeoe,  the 
Scandinavian  among  the  Gothio  nations,  and 
the  Druidical  among  the  Celts. 

In  all  these  mysteries  we  find  a  singular 
unity  of  design,  clearly  indicating  a  common 
origin,  and  a  purity  of  doctrine  as  evidently 

graving  that  this  common  origin  was  not  to 
e  sought  for  in  the  popular  theology  of  the 
Pagan  world.  The  ceremonies  of  initiation 
were  all  funereal  in  their  character.  They 
celebrated  the  death  and  the  resurrection  of 
some  cherished  being,  either  the  object  of 
esteem  as  a  hero,  or  of  devotion  as  a  god. 
Subordination  of  degrees  was  instituted,  and 
the  candidate  was  subjected  to  probations 
varying  in  their  character  and  severity;  the 
rites  were  practised  in  the  darkness  of  night, 
and  often  amid  the  gloom  of  impenetrable 
forests  or  subterranean  caverns;  and  the  full 
fruition  of  knowledge,  for  which  so  much' labor 
was  endured,  and  bo  much  danger  incurred, 
was  not  attained  until  the  aspirant,  well  tried 
and  thoroughly  purified,  had  reached  the  place 
of  wisdom  and  of  light. 

These  mysteries  undoubtedly  owed  their 
origin  to  the  desire  to  establish  esoteric  phi- 
losophy, in  which  should  be  withheld  from 
popular  approach  those  sublime  truths  which 
it  was  supposed  could  only  be  entrusted  to 
those  who  nad  been  previously  prepared  for 
their  reception.  Whence  these  doctrines  were 
originally  derived  it  would  be  impossible  to 
say  ;  but  I  am  disposed  to  accept  Creuzer's 
hypothesis  of  an  ancient  and  highly;  instructed 
body  of  priests,  having  their  origin  either  in 
Egypt  or  in  the  East,  from  whom  was  derived 
religious,  physical,  and  historical  knowledge, 
under  the  veil  of  symbols.  1 

By  this  confinement  of  these  doctrines  to  a 
system  of  secret  knowledge,  guarded  by  the 
most  rigid  rites,  could  they  only  expect  to  pre- 
serve them  from  the  superstitions,  innovations, 
and  corruptions  of  the  world  as  it  then  existed. 
"The  distinguished  few,"  says  Oliver  (Hist. 
Init.,  p.  2),  "who  retained  their  fidelity,  un- 
contaminated  by  the  contagion  of  evil  exam- 
ple, would  soon  be  able  to  estimate  the  su- 
perior benefits  of  an  isolated  institution, 
whioh  afforded  the  advantage  of  a  select  soci- 
ety, and  kept  at  an  unapproachable  distance 
the  profane  scoffer,  whose  presence  might  pol- 
lute their  pure  devotions  and  social  converse, 
by  contumelious  language  or  unholy  mirth." 
And  doubtless  the  prevention  of  this  intrusion, 
and  the  preservation  of  these  sublime  truths. 


was  the  original  object  of  the  institution  of  the 
ceremonies  of  initiation,  and  the  adoption  of 
other  means  by  which  the  initiated  could  be 
recognized,  and  the  uninitiated  excluded. 
Such  was  the  opinion  of  Warburton,  who  says 
that  "the  mysteries  were  at  first  the  retreats 
of  sense  and  virtue,  till  time  corrupted  them  in 
most  of  the  gods." 

The  Abbe  Robin  in  a  learned  work  on  this 
subject  entitled  Recherckes  sur  lea  Initiations 
-Anciens  et  Modernes  (Paris,  1870),  places  the 
origin  of  the  initiations  at  that  remote  period 
when  crimes  first  began  to  appear  upon  earth. 
The  vicious,  he  remarks,  were  urged  by  the 
terror  of  guilt  to  seek  among  the  virtuous  for 
intercessors  with  the  Deity.  The  latter,  re- 
tiring into  solitude  to  avoid  the  contagion  of 
growing  corruption,  devoted  themselves  to  a 
Bfe  of  contemplation  and  the  cultivation  of 
several  of  the  useful  sciences.  The  periodical 
return  of  the  seasons,  the  revolution  of  the 
stars,  the  productions  of  the  earth,  and  the 
various  phenomena  of  nature,  studied  with 
attention,  rendered  them  useful  guides  to  men, 
both  in  their  pursuits  of  industry  and  in  their 
social  duties.  These  recluse  students  in- 
vented certain  signs  to  recall  to  the  remem- 
brance of  the  people  the  times  of  their  festi- 
vals and  of  their  rural  labors,  and  hence  the 
origin  of  the  symbols  and  hieroglyphics  that 
were  in  use  among  the  priests  of  all  nations. 
Having  now  become  guides  and  leaders  of  the 
people,  these  sages,  in  order  to  select  as  asso- 
ciates of  their  learned  labors  and  sacred  func- 
tions only  such  as  had  sufficient  merit  and 
capacity,  appointed  strict  courses  of  trial  and 
examination,  and  this,  our  author  thinks, 
must  have  been  the  source  of  the  initiations  of 
antiquity.  The  Magi,  Brahmans,  Gymnoso- 
phists;  Druids,  and  priests  of  Egypt,  lived 
thus  in  sequestered  habitations  and  subter- 
ranean caves,  and  obtained  great  reputation 
by  their  discoveries  in  astronomy,  chemistry, 
and  mechanics,  by  their  purity  of  morals,  and 
by  their  knowledge  of  the  science  of  legislation. 
It  was  in  these  schools,  says  M.  Robin,  that 
the  first  sages  and  legislators  of  antiquity  were 
f  ormed,  and  in  them  he  supposes  the  doctrines 
taught  to  have  been  the  unity  of  God  and  the 
immortality  of  the  soul;  and  it  was  from  these 
mysteries,  and  their  symbols  and  hieroglyph- 
ics, that  the  exuberant  fancy  of  the  Greeks 
drew  muoh  of  their  mythology. 

Warburton  deduces  from  the  ancient  writ- 
ers—from Cicero  and  Porphyry,  from  Origen 
and  Celsus,  and  from  others — what  was  the 
true  object  of  the  mysteries.  They  taught 
the  dogma  of  the  unity  of  God  in  opposition 
to  the  polytheistic  notions  of  the  people,  and 
in  connection  with  this  the  doctrine  of  a  future 
life,  and  that  the  initiated  should  be  happier 
in  that  state  than  all  other  mortals;  that  while 
the  souls  of  the  profane,  at  their  leaving  the 
body,  stuck  fast  in  mire  and  filth  and  re- 
mained, in  darkness,  the  souls  of  the  initiated 
winged  their  flight  directly  to  the  happy 
islands  and  the  habitations  of  the  gods. 
"Thrice  happy  they,"  says  Sophocles,  "who 
descended  to  the  shades  below  after  having 


beheld  these  rites;  for  they  alone  have  life  in 
Hades,  while  all  others  suffer  there  every  kind 
of  evil."  And  Isocrates  declares  that  "those 
who  have  been  initiated  in  the  mysteries,  en- 
tertain better  hopes  both  as  to  the  end  of  life 
and  the  whole  of  futurity." 

Others  of  the  ancients  have  given  us  the 
same  testimony  as  to  their  esoteric  character. 
"All  the  mysteries,"  says  Plutarch,  "refer  to  a 
future  life  and  to  the  state  of  the  soul  after 
death."  In  another  place,  addressing  his 
wife,  he  says,  "We  have  been  instructed,  in 
the  religious  rites  of  Dioriysus,  that  the  soul 
is  immortal,  and  that  there  is  a  future  state  of 
existence."  Cicero  tells  us  that,  in  the  mys- 
teries of  Ceres  at  Eleusis,  the  initiated  were 
taught  to  live  happily  and  to  die  in  the  hope  of 
a  blessed  futurity.  And,  finally,  Plato  in- 
forms us  that  the  hymns  of  Musaeus,  which 
were  sung  in  the  mysteries,  celebrated  the 
rewards  and  pleasures  of  the  virtuous  in  an- 
other life,  and  the  punishments  which  awaited 
the  wicked. 

These  sentiments,  so  different  from  the  de- 
based polytheism  which  prevailed  among  the 
uninitiated,  are  the  most  certain  evidence  that 
the  mysteries  arose  from  a  purer  source  than 
that  which  gave  birth  to  the  religion  of  the 

I  must  not  oass  unnoticed  Faber's  notion  of 
their  arkite  origin.  Finding,  as  he  did,  a  pro- 
totype for  every  ancient  cultus  in  the  ark  of 
Noah,  it  is  not  surprising  that  he  should  apply 
his  theory  to  the  mysteries.  "  The  initiations, 
he  says  (Orig.  Pag.  Idol.,  II.,  iv.,  5),  "into  the 
mysteries  scenically  represented  the  mythic 
descent  into  Hades  and  the  return  from  thence 
to  the  light  of  day,  by  which  was  meant  the 
entrance  into  the  ark  and  the  subsequent  lib- 
eration from  its  dark  enclosure.  They  all 
equally  related  to  the  allegorical  disappear- 
ance, or  death,  or  descent  of  the  great  father, 
at  their  commencement;  and  his  invention, 
or  revival,  or  return  from  Hades,  at  their  con- 

Dollinger  (ffent.  and  Jew,  i.,  126)  says, 
speaking  of  the  mysteries,  "the  whole  was  a 
drama,  the  prelude  to  which  consisted  in  puri- 
fications, sacrifices,  and  injunctions  with  re- 
gard to  the  behavior  "to  be  observed.  The 
adventures  of  certain  deities,  their  sufferings 
and  joys,  their  appearance  on  earth,  and  rela- 
tions to  mankind,  their  death,  or  descent  to 
the  nether  world,  their  return,  or  their  rising 
again — all  these,  as  symbolizing  the  life  of 
nature,  were  represented  in  a  connected  series 
of  theatrical  scenes.  These  representations, 
tacked  on  to  a  nocturnal  solemnity,  brilliantly 
got  up,  particularly  at  Athens,  with  all  the  re- 
sources of  art  and  sensual  beauty,  and  accom- 
panied with  dancing  and  song,  were  eminently 
calculated  to  take  a  powerful  hold  on  the  im- 
agination and  the  heart,  and  to  excite  in  the 
spectators  alternately  conflicting  sentiments 
of  terror,  and  calm,  sorrow,  and  fear,  and 
hope.  They  worked  upon  them,  now  by  agi- 
tating, now  by  soothing,  and  meanwhile  had  a 
strong  bearing  upon  susceptibilities  and  capac- 
ities of  individuals,  according  as  their  several 



dispositions  inclined  them  more  to  reflection 
and  observation,  or  to  a  resigned  credulity." 

_  Bunsen  (God  in  History,  IL,  b.  iv.,  ch.  6) 
gives  the  most  recent  and  the  most  philo- 
sophic idea  of  the  character  of  the  mysteries 
They  did,  he  says,  "indeed  exhibit  to  the  in- 
itiated coarse  physical  symbols  of  the  genera- 
tive powers  , of  Nature,  and  of  the  universal 
Natoe   herself,    eternally,  self-sustaining 
through  all  transformations;  but  the  religious 
element  of  the  mysteries  consisted  in  the  rela- 
tions of  the  universe  to  the  soul,  more  espe- 
cially after  death.   Thus,  even  without  phflo- 
sophjc  proof,  we  are  justified  in  assuming  that 
the  Nature  symbolism  referring  to  the  Zodiac 
formed  a  mere  framework  for  the  doctrines 
relating  to  the  soul  and  to  the  ethical  theory 
of  the  universe.   So,  likewise,  in  the  Samo- 
thracian  worship  of  the  Kabiri,  the  contest 
waged  by  the  orb  of  day  was  represented  by 
the  story  of  the  three  brothers  (the  seasons  of 
the  year),  one  of  whom  is  continually  slain  by 
the  other  two,  but  ever  and  anon  arises  to  life 
again.   But  here,  too,  the  beginning  and  end 
of  the  worship  were  ethical.   A  sort  of  confes- 
sion was  demanded  of  thecandidates  before  ad- 
mission, and  at  the  close  of  the  service  the  vic- 
torious God  (Dionysus)  was  displayed  as  the 
Lord  of  the  spirit.  Still  less,  however,-did  theo- 
rems of  natural  philosophy  form  the  subject- 
matter  of  the  Eleusinian  mysteries,  of  which, 
on  the  contrary,  psychical  conceptions  were 
the  beginning  and  the  end.   The  predominat- 
ing idea  of  these  conceptions  was  that  of  the 
soul  as  a  Divine,  vital  force,  held  captive  here 
on  earth  and  sorely  tried:  but  the  initiated 
were  further  taught  to  look  forward  to  a  final 
redemption  and  blessedness  for  the  good  and 
pious,  and  eternal  torment  after  death  for  the 
wicked  and  unjust." 

The  esoteric  character  of  the  mysteries 
was  preserved  by  the  most  powerful  sanctions. 
An  oath  of  secrecy  was  administered  in  the 
most  solemn  form  to  the  initiate,  and  to  vio- 
late it  was  considered  a  sacrilegious  crime,  the 
prescribed  punishment  for  which  was  imme- 
diate death,  and  we  have  at  least  one  instance 
in  Livy  of  the  infliction  of  the  penalty.  The 
ancient  writers  were  therefore  extremely  re- 
luctant to  approach  the  subject,  and  Lobeck 
gives,  in  his  Aglaophamus  (vol.  i.,  app.  131, 
151;  ii.,  12, 87),  several  examples  of  the  cau- 
tious manner  m  which  they  shrunk  from  di- 
vulging or  discussing  any  explanation  of  a 
symbol  which  had  been  interpreted  to  them  in 
the  course  of  initiation.  I  would  forbid,  says 
Horace  (L.  Hi.,  Od.  2,  26),  that  man  who 
would  divulge  the  sacred  rites  of  mysterious 
Ceres  from  being  under  the  same  roof  with  me, 
or  from  setting  sail  with  me  in  the  same  pre- 
carious bark. 

On  the  subject  of  their  relation  to  the  rites 
of  Freemasonry,  to  which  they  bear  in  many 
respects  so  remarkable  a  resemblance,  that 
some  connection  seems  necessarily  implied 
there  are  five  principal  theories.  The  first  is 
that  embraced  and  taught  by  Dr.  Oliver 
namely,  that  they  are  but  deviations  from  that 
common  source,  both  of  them  and  of  Free- 



masonry  the  patriarchal  mode  of  worship  es- 
tablished by  God  himself.  With  this  pure 
system  of  truth,  he  supposes  the  science  of 
l<Veemaaonrv  to  have  been  coeval  and  identi- 
ned.  But  the  truths  thus  revealed  by  divinity 
came  at  length  to  be  doubted  or  rejected 
through  the  imperfection  of  human  reason, 
and  though  the  visible  symbols  were  retained 
in  the  mysteries  of  the  Pagan  world,  then- 
true  interpretation  was  lost. 

There  is  a  second  theory  which,  leaving  the 
origin  of  the  mysteries  to  be  sought  in  the 
patriarchal  doctrines,  where  Oliver  las  placed 
it,  finds  the  connection  between  them  and 
Freemasonry  commencing  at  the  building  of 
King  Solomon's  Temple.   Over  the  construc- 
tion of  this  building,  Hiram,  the  Architect  of 
Tyre  presided    At  Tyre  the  mysteries  of 
iJacchus  had  been  introduced  by  the  Dio- 
nysian  Artificers,  and  into  their  fraternity 
Hu-am,  in  all  probability,  had,  it  is  necessa- 
rily suggested,  been  admitted.  Freemasonry, 
whose  tenets  had  always  existed  in  purity 
among  the  immediate  descendants  of  the 
patriarchs,  added  now  to  its  doctrines' the 
guard  of  secrecy,  which,  as  Dr.  Oliver  himself 
remarks,  was  necessary  to  preserve  them  from 
perversion  or  pollution. 
a  A  tJJfd  tlleoiy  has  been  advanced  by  the 
Abbe  Robin,  in  which  he  connects  Freema- 
sonry indirectly  with  the  mysteries,  through 
the  intervention  of  the  Crusaders.   In  the 
work  already  cited,  he  attempts  to  deduce 

«y«4»-  aiieouy  viiaxlj  ne  attempts  to  deduce, 
from  the  ancient  initiations,  the  orders  of 
chivalry,  whose  branches,  he  says,  produced 
the  Institution  of  Freemasonry. 

A  fourth  theory,  and  this  has  been  recently 
advanced  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  King  in  his  treatise 
Un  the  Gnostics,  is  that  as  some  of  them,  espe- 
cially those  of  Mithras,  were  extended  beyond 
the  advent  of  Christianity,  and  even  to  the 
very  commencement  of  the  Middle  Ages,  they 
were  seized  upon  by  the  secret  societies  of 
that  period  as  a  model  for  their  organization, 
and  that  through  these  latter  they  are  to  be 
traced  to  Freemasonry. 

But  perhaps,  after  all,  the  truest  theory  is 
that  which  would  discard  all  successive  links 
in  a  supposed  chain  of  descent  from  the  mys- 
teries to  Freemasonry,  and  would  attribute 
then*  close  resemblance  to  a  natural  coinci- 
dence of  human  thought.   The  legend  of  the 
Third  Degree,  and  the  legends  of  tie  Eleusin- 
,ani  tnf  Cabiric,  the  Dionysian,  the  Adonic, 
and  all  the  other  mysteries,  are  identical  in 
their  object  to  teach  the  reality  of  a  future  life; 
and  this  lesson  is  taught  in  all  by  the  use  of  the 
same  symbolism,  and,  substantially,  the  same 
scenic  representation.   And  this  is  not  be- 
cause the  Masonic  rites  are  a  lineal  succession 
from  the  Ancient  Mysteries,  but  because  there 
has  been  at  all  times  a  proneness  of  the  human 
heart  to  nourish  this  belief  in  a  future  life,  and 
the  proneness  of  the  human  mind  to  clothe 
this  belief  in  a  symbolic  dress.  And  if  there  is 
any  other  more  direct  connection  between  them 
it  must  be  sought  for  in  the  Roman  Colleges 
of  Artificers,  who  did,  most  probably,  exercise 
some  influence  over  the  rising  Freemasons  of 



the  early  ages,  and  who,  as  the  contemporaries 
of  the  mysteries  were,  we  may  well  suppose, 
imbued  with  something  of  their  organization. 

I  conclude  wi&  a  notice  of  their  ultimate 
fate.   They  cobtimied  to  flourish  until  long 
after  the  Christian  era;  but  they  at  length 
degenerated.  ?n  $he  fourth  century,  Chris- 
tianity had  begua  to  triumph.   Ihe  Pagans, 
desirous  of  making  converts,  threw  open  the 
hitherto  inaccessibje  portals  of  their  mys- 
terious rites.   The  strict  scrutiny  of  the  can- 
didate's past  life,  and  the  demand  for  proofs 
of  irreproachable  conduct,  were  no  tonger 
deemed  indispensable.   The  vile  and  the 
vicious  were  indiscriminately,  and  even  with 
avidity,  admitted  to  participate  in  privileges 
which  were  once  granted  only  to  the  noble  and 
the  virtuous.  The  sun  of  Paganism  was  set- 
ting, and  its  rites  had  become  contemptible 
and  corrupt.   Their  character  was  entirely 
changed,  and  the  initiations  were  indiscrim- 
inately sold  by  peddling  priests,  who  wan- 
dered through  the  country,  to  every  applicant 
who  was  willing  to  pay  a  trifling  fee  for  that 
which  had  once  been  refused  to  the  entreaties 
of  a  monarch.  At  length  these  abominations 
attracted  the  attention  of  the  emperors,  and 
Constantino  and  Gratian  forbade  their  cele- 
bration by  night,  excepting,  however,  from 
these  edicts,  the  initiations  at  Eleusis.  But 
finally  Theodosius,  by  a  general  edict  of  pro- 
scription, ordered  the  whole  of  the  Pagan  mys- 
teries to  be  abolished,  in  the  four  hundred  and 
thirty-eighth  year  of  the  Christian  era,  and 
eighteen  hundred  years  after  then-  first  estab- 
lishment in  Greece. 

Clavel,  however,  says  that  they  did  not  en- 
tirely cease  until  the  era  of  the  restoration  of 
learning,  and  that  during  a  part  of  the  Middle 
Ages  the  mysteries  of  Diana,  under  the  name 
of  the  "Courses  of  Diana,"  and  those  of  Pan, 
under  that  of  the  "Sabbats,"  were  practised 
in  country  places.  But  these  were  really  only 
certain  superstitious  rites  connected  with  the 
belief  in  witchcraft.  The  mysteries  of  Mith- 
ras, which,  continually  attacked  by  the  f  ath- 
ers of  the  Church,  lived  until  the  beginning  of 
the  fifth  century,  were,  I  think,  the  last  oi  the 
old  mysteries  which  had  once  exerasepV  so 
muchinfluence  over  the  Pagan  world  and  the 
.   Pagan  religions.  ,  ... 

Mysteries,  Mexican.  Instituted  among 
the  Mexicans  (Aztecs),  and  were  of  a  sacred 
nature.  The  adherents  adopted  the  worship 
of  some  special  deity,  Quetzalcoatl  (the  Mex- 
ican Savior),  under  secret  rites,  and  rendered 
themselves  seclusive.  A  similar  order  was 
that  called  Tlamacazaiotl,  also  the  order 
known  as  Telpochtliztfi.  It  is  understood 
that  under  the  sway  of  the  Aztecs,  the  Mex- 
ican Mysteries  had  some  Masonic  affinities, 
(See  Aztec  Writings.) 

Mystery.  Prom  the  Greek  wwww, 
secret,  something  to  be  concealed.  The  gUds 
or  companies  of  the  Middle  Ages,  out  of  which 
we  trace  the  Masonic  organization,  were  called 
mysteries,  because  they  had  trade-secrets, 
the  preservation  of  which  was  a  pnmary 
ordination  of  these  fraternities.  Mys» 


tery"  and  "Craft"  came  thus  to  be  synony- 
mous words.  In  this  secondary  sense  we 
speak  of  the  "Mystery  of  the  Stone-Masons" 
as  equivalent  to  the  "Craft  of  the  Stone- 
Masons."  But  the  Mystery  of  Freemasonry 
refers  rather  to  the  primary  meaning  of  the 
word  as  immediately  derived  from  the  Greek. 

Mystes.  (From  the  Greek  nfo,  to  skut 
the  eyes.)  One  who  had  been  initiated  into 
the  Lesser  Mysteries  of  Paganism.  He  was 
now  blind;  but  when  he  was  initiated  into  the 
Greater  Mysteries,  he  was  oailed  an  Epopt, 
or  one  who  saw. 

The  Mystes  was  permitted  to  proceed  no 
farther  than  the  vestibule  or  porch  of  the 
temple.  To  the  Epopts  only  was  accorded 
the  privilege  of  admission  to  the  adytum  or 
sanctuary.  A  female  initiate  was  called  a 
Mystis.  ,  .  .  , 

Mystical.  A  word  applied  to  any  lan- 
guage, symbol,  or  ritual  which  is  understood 
only  by  the  initiated.  The  word  was  first 
used  by  the  priests  to  describe  their  mysteri- 
ous rites,  and  them  borrowed  by  the  philoso- 
phers to  be  applied  to  the  inner,  esoteric  doc- 
trines of  their  schools.  In  this sense  we  speak 
of  the  mystical  doctrines  of  Speculative  Ma- 
sonry. Suidas  derives  the  word  from  the 
Greek  to  close,  and  especially  to  close  the 
lips.  Hence  the  mystical  is  that  about  which 
the  mouth  should  be  closed. 

Mysticism.  A  word  applied  in  religious 
phraseology  to  any  views  or  tendencies  which 
aspire  to"  more  direct  communication  between 
God  and  man  by  the  inward  perception  of  the 
mind  than  can  be  obtained  through  revela- 
tion. "  Mysticism,"  says  Vaughan  {Hours  with 
the  Mystics,  i.,  19),  "presents  itself  in  all  it* 
phases  as  more  or  less  the  religion,  of  internal 
as  opposed  to  external  revelation — of  heated 
feeling,  sickly  sentiment,  or  lawless  imagWia- 
tibn,  as  opposed  to  that  reasonable  belief  in 
which  the  intellect  and  the  heart,  the  inward 
witness  and  the  outward,  are  alike  engaged." 
The  Pantheism  of  some  of  the  ancient  philoso- 
phers and  of  the  modern  Spinoaaists,  the  Spec- 
ulations of  the  Neoplatonists,  the  Anabaptism 
of  Munster,  the  system  of  Jacob  Behmen,  the 
Quietism  of  Madame  Guyon,  the  doctrines  of 
the  Bavarian  Illuminati,  and  the  reveries  of 
Swedenborg,  all  partake  more  or  less  of  the 
spirit  of  mysticism.   The  Germans  have  two 
words,  mystik  and  mysticismus*— the  former  of 
which  they  use  in  a  favorable,  the  latter  in  an 
unfavorable  sense.   Mysticism  is  with  them 
only  another  word  for  Pantheism,  between 
which  and  Atheism  there  is  but  little  differ- 
ence.  Hence  a  belief  in  mysticism  is  with  the 
German  Freemasons  a  disqualification  for  in- 
itiation into  the  Masonic  rites.   Thus  the  sec- 
ond article  of  the  Statutes  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
Of  Hanover  prescribes  that  "ein  Freimaurer 
muss  vom  Mysticismus  und  Atheismus  gleich 
weit  entfernt  stehen,"  i.  e.,  "a  Freemason 
must  be  equally  distant  from  Mysticism  and 
Atheism."  Gadicke  (Freimaurer-LexiconHhxiB 
expresses  the  German  sentiment;  "Etwas 
mystisch  sollte  wohl  jeder  Mensch  seyn,  aber 
man  hiite  sioh  v«r  grobem  Mysticismus,  i.  e.f 


"Every  man  ought  to  be  somewhat  mystical, 
but  should  guard  against  coarse  mysticism." 

Mystic  Crown,  Kaights  and  Compan- 
ions of  the.  A  society  formed  by  the  ad- 
herents of  Mesmer,  in  August,  1787,  of  a  benef- 
icent, non-political,  and  non-sectarian  nature, 
to  which  Master  Masons  only  were  admitted. 

Mystic  Tie.  That  sacred  and  inviolable 
bond  which  unites  men  of  the  most  discord- 
ant opinions  into  one  band  of  brothers,  which 
gives  but  one  language  to  men  of  all  nations 
and  one  altar  to  men  of  all  religions,  is  prop- 
erly, from  the  mysterious  influence  it  exerts, 
denominated  the  mystic  tie;  and  Freemasons, 
because  they  alone  are  under  its  influence,  or 
enjoy  its  benefits,  are  called  "Brethren  of  the 
mystic  tie." 

Myth*  The  word  myth,  from  the  Greek 
pWos.  a  story,  in  its'  original  acceptation,  sig- 
jiified  simply  a  statement  or  narrative  of  an 
event,  without  any  necessary  implication  of 
truth  or  falsehood;  but,  as  the  word  is  now 
used,  it  conveys  the  idea  of  a  personal  narra- 
tive of  remote  date,  which,  although  not  neces- 
sarily untrue,  is  certified  only  by  the  internal 
evidence  of  the  tradition  itself.  This  defini- 
tion, which  is  substantially  derived  from  Mr. 
Grote  (Hist,  of  Greece,  toL  i.,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  295), 
may  be  applied  without  modification  to  the 
myths  of  Freemasonry,  although  intended  by 
the  author  only  for  the  myths  of  the  ancient 
Greek  religion. 

The  myth,  then,  is  a  narrative  of  remote 
date,  not  necessarily  true  or  false,  but  whose 
truth  can  only  be  certified  by  internal  evidence. 
The  word  was  first  applied  to  those  fables  of 
the  Pagan  gods  which  have  descended  from 
the  remotest  antiquity,  and  in  all  of  which 
there  prevails  a  symbolic  idea,  not  always, 
however,  capable  of  a  positive  interpretation. 
As  applied  to  Freemasonry,  the  words  myth 
and  legend  are  synonymous. 
:  From  this  definition  it  will  appear  that  the 
myth  is  really  only  the  interpretation  of  an 
idea.  But  how  we  are  to  read  these  myths 
will  best  appear  from  these  noble  words  of 
Max  Miiller  (.Science  of  Lang,,  2dSer.,  p.  578): 
"Everything  is  true,  natural,  significant,  if  we 
enter  with  a  reverent  spirit  into  the  meaning 
of  ancient  art  and  ancient  language.  Every- 
thing becomes  false,  miraculous,  and  unmean- 
ing, if  we  interpret  the  deep  and  mighty  words 
of  the  seers  or  old  in  the  shallow  and  feeble 
Sense  of  modern' chroniclers." 

A  fertile  source  of  instruction  in  Masonry  is 
to  be  found  in  its  traditions  and  mythical 
legends;  not  only  those  which  are  incorpo- 
rated into  its  ritual  and  are  exemplified  in  its 
ceremonies,  but  those  also  which,  although 
forming  no  part  of  the  Lodge  lectures,  have 
been  orally  transmitted  as  portions  of  its  his- 
tory, and  which,  only  within  a  comparatively 
recent  period,  have  been  committed  to  writ- 
ing. But  for  the  proper  appreciation  of  these 
traditions  some  preparatory  knowledge  of 
the  general  character  of  Masonic  myths  is 
necessary.   If  all  the  details  of  these  tradi- 

MYTH  501 

tions  be  considered  as  asserted  historical  facts, 
seeking  to  convey  nothing  more  nor  less  than 
historical  information,  then  the  improbabili- 
ties and  anachronisms,  and  other  violations 
of  historical  truth  which  distinguish  many  of 
them,  must  cause  them  to  be  rejected  by  the 
scholar  as  absurd  impostures.  But  there  is 
another  and  a  more  advantageous  view  in 
which  these  traditions  are  to  be  considered. 
Freemasonry  is  a  symbolic  institution— «very- 
thing  in  and  about  it  is  symbolic — and  nothing 
more  eminently  so  than  its  traditions.  Al- 
though some  of  them — as,  for  instance,  the 
legend  of  the  Third  Degree— have  in  all 

frobability  a  deep  substratum  of  truth  lying 
eneath,  over  this  there  is  superposed  a  beauti- 
ful structure  of  symbolism.  History  has,  per- 
haps, first  suggested  the  tradition;  but  then 
the  legend,  like  the  myths  of  the  ancient  poets, 
becomes  a  symbol,  which  is  to  enunciate  some 
sublime  philosophical  or  religious  truth.  Read 
in  this  way,  and  in  this  way  only,  the  myths 
or  legends  and  traditions  of  Freemasonry  will 
become  interesting  and  instructive.  (See 

Myth,  Historical.  An  historical  myth  is  a 
myth  that  has  a  known  and  recognized  foun- 
dation in  historical  truth,  but  with  the  admix- 
ture of  a  preponderating  amount  of  fiction  in 
the  introduction  of  personages  and  circum- 
stances. Between  the  historical  myth  and 
the  mythical  history,  the  distinction  cannot 
always  be  preserved,  because  we  are  not  al- 
ways able  to  determine  whether  there  is  a  pre- 
ponderance of  truth  or  of  fiction  in  the  legend 
or  narrative  under  examination. 

Mythical  History'  A  myth  or  legend,  in 
which  the  historical  and  truthf ul  greatly  pre- 
ponderate over  the  inventions  of  fiction,  may 
be  called  a  mythical  history.  Certain  por- 
tions of  the  legend  of  the  Third  Degree  have 
such  a  foundation  in  fact  that  they  consti- 
tute a  mythical  history,  while  other  portions, 
added  evidently  for  the  purposesof  symbolism, 
are  simply  an  historical  myth. 

Mythology.  Literally,  the  science  of 
myths;  and  this  is  a  very  appropriate  defini- 
tion, for  mythology  is  the  science  which  treats 
of  the  religion  of  the  ancient  Pagans,  which 
was  almost  altogether  founded  on  myths  or 

Eopular  traditions  and  legendary  tales;  and 
ence  Keightly  {Mythol.  of  Ancient  Greece  and 
Italy,  p.  2jsays  that  "mythology  may  be  re- 
garded as  the  repository  of  the  early  religion 
of  "the  people."  Its  interest  to  a  Masonic 
student  arises  from  the  constant  antagonism 
that  existed  between  its  doctrines  ana  those 
of  the  Primitive  Freemasonry  of  antiquity  and 
the  light  that  the  mythological  mysteries 
throw  upon  the  ancient  organisation  of  Spec- 
ulative Masonry. 

Myth,  Philosophical.  This  is  a  myth  or 
legend  that  is  almost  wholly  unhistorical,  and 
which  has  been  invented  only  for  the  purpose 
of  enunciating  and  illustrating  a  particular 
thought  or  dogma.  The  legend  of  Euclid  is 
clearly  a  philosophical  myth. 





N.  (Heb.  3.)  The  fourteenth  letter  in  the 
English  and  Hebrew  alphabets;  its  numerical 
value  is  50,  and  its  definition,  fish.  As  a  final, 
Nun  is  written  ),  and  then  is  of  the  value  of 
700.  The  Hebrew  Divine  appellation  is 
or  Formiddtriiis. 

Naamah.  The  daughter  of  Lamech.  To 
her  the  "Legend  of  the  Craft"  attributes  the 
invention  of  the  art  of  weaving,  and  she  is 
united  with  her  three  brothers,  by  the  same 
legend,  in  the  task  of  inscribing  the  several 
sciences  on  two  pillars,  that  the  knowledge  of 
them  might  be  preserved  after  the  flood. 

JTabsum.  See  Schools  of  the  Prophets. 

Naharda,  Brotherhood  of.  After  the 
destruction  of  the  Solomonial  Temple,  the 
captives  formed  an  association  while  slaves  at 
Naharda,  on  the  Euphrates,  and  are  there  said 
to  have  preserved  the  secret  mysteries. 

Naked.  In  Scriptural  symbology,  naked- 
ness denoted  sin,  and  clothing,  protection. 
But  the  symbolism  of  Masonry  on  this  sub- 
ject is  different.  There,  to  be  ''neither  naked 
nor  clothed"  is  to  make  no  claim  through 
worldly  wealth  or  honors  to  preferment  in 
Masonry,  where  nothing  but  internal  merit, 
which  is  unaffected  by  the  outward  appear- 
ance of  the  body,  is  received  as  a  reeom 
mendation  for  admission. 

Name  of  God.  A  reverential  allusion  to 
the  name  of  God,  in  some  especial  and  peculiar 
form,  is  to  be  found  in  the  doctrines  and  cere- 
monies of  almost  all  nations.  This  unutter- 
able name  was  respected  by  the  Jews  under  the 
sacred  form  of  the  word  Jehovah.  Among  the 
Druids,  the  three  letters  I.  O.  W.  constituted 
the  name  of  Deity.  They  were  never  pro- 
nounced, says  Giraldus  Cambrensis,  but  an- 
other and  less  sacred  name  was  substituted  for 
them.  Each  letter  was  a  name  in  itself.  The 
first  is  the  Word,  at  the  utterance  of  which  in 
the  beginning  the  world  burst  into  existence; 
the  second  is  the  Word,  whose  sound  still  con- 
tinues, and  by  which  all  things  remain  in  exist- 
ence; the  third  is  the  Word,  by  the  utterance 
of  which  all  things  will  be  consummated  in 
happiness,  forever  approaching  to  the  imme- 
diate presence  of  the  Deity.  The  analogy  be- 
tween this  and  the  past,  present,  and  future 
significations  contained  in  the  Jewish  Tetra- 
grammaton  will  be  evident. 

Among  the  Mohammedans  there  is,  a  science 
called  ISM  ALLAH,  or  the  science  of  the 
name  of  God.  "They  pretend,"  says  Nie- 
buhr,  "that  God  is  the  lock  of  this  science, 
and  Mohammed  the  key;  that,  consequently, 
none  but  Mohammedans  can  attain  it;  that 
it  discovers  what  passes  in  different  countries; 
that  it  familiarizes  the  possessors  with  the 
genii,  who  are  at  the  command  of  the  initiated, 
and  who  instruct  them;  that  it  places  the 
winds  and  the  seasons  at  their  disposal,  and 
heals  the  bites  of  serpents,  the  lame,  the 
maimed,  and  the  blind. 

In  the  chapter  of  the  Koran  entitled  Araaf, 
it  is  written :  ' '  God  has  many  excellent  names. 

Invoke  him  by  these  names,  and  separate 
yourselves  from  them  who  give  him  false 
names."  The  Mohammedans  believe  that 
God  has  ninety-nine  names,  which,  with  that 
of  Allah,  make  one  hundred;  and,  therefore, 
their  chaplets  or  rosaries  are  composed  of  one 
hundred  beads,  at  each  of  which  they  invoke 
one  of  these  names;  and  there  is  a  tradition, 
that  whoever  frequently  makes  this  invoca- 
tion will  find  the  gates  of  Paradise  open  to 
him.  With  them  ALLAH  is  the  Ism  al  adhem, 
the  Great  Name,  and  they  bestow  upon  it  all 
the  miraculous  virtues  which  the  Jews  give  to 
the  Tetragrammaton.  This,  they  say,  is  the 
name  that  was  engraven  on  the  stone  which 
Japheth  gave  to  his  children  to  bring  down 
ram  from  heaven;  and  it  was  by  virtue  of  this 
name  that  Noah  made  the  ark  float  on  the 
waters,  and  governed  it  at  will,  without  the 
aid  of  oars  or  rudder. 

Among  the  Hindus  there  was  the  same  ven- 
eration of  the  name  of  God,  as  is  evinced  in 
their  treatment  of  the  mystical  name  AUM. 
The  "Institutes  of  Menu"  continually  refer 
to  the  peculiar  efficacy  of  this  word,  of  which  it 
is  said,  "All  rites  ordained  in  the  Veda,  obla- 
tions to  fire,  and  solemn  sacrifices  pass  away; 
but  that  which  passes  not  away  is  the  syllable 
AUM,  thence  called  aishara,  since  it  is  a  sym- 
bol of  God,  the  Lord  qf  created  beings." 

There  was  in  every  ancient  nation  a  sacred 
name  given  to  the  highest  god  of  its  religious 
faith,  besides  the  epithets  of  the  other  and 
subordinate  deities.  The  old  Aryans,  the 
founders  of  our  race,  called  their  chief  god 
DYAUS,  and  in  the  Vedas  we  have  the  invo- 
cation to  Dyaus  Pitar,  which  is  the  same  as 
the  Greek  Z«u  mtrrip,  and  the  Latin,  Jupiter, 
all  meaning  the  Heaven-Father,  and  at.  once 
reminding  us  of  the  Christian  invocation  to 
"Our  Father  which  art  in  heaven." 

There  is  one  incident  in  the  Hindu  mythol- 
ogy which  shows  how  much  the  old  Indian 
heart  yearned  after  this  expression  of  the 
nature  of  Deity  by  a  name.  There  was  a  name- 
less god,  to  whom,  as  the  "source  of  golden 
light,"  there  was  a  worship.  This  is  expressed 
in  one  of  the  Veda  hymns,  where  the  invoca- 
tion in  every  stanza  closes  with  the  exclama- 
tion, "Who  is  the  god  to  whom  we  shall  offer 
our  sacrifice?"  Now,  says  Bunsen  (God  in 
History,  i.,  302);  "the  Brahmanic  expositors 
must  needs  find  in  every  hymn  the  name  of  a 
god  who  is  invoked  in  it,  and  so,  in  this  case, 
they  have  actually  invented  a  grammatical 
divinity,  the  god  Who."  What  more  preg- 
nant testimony  could  we  have  of  the  tend- 
ency of  man  to  seek  a  knowledge  of  the  Di- 
vine nature  in  the  expression  of  a  name? 

The  Assyrians  worshiped  Assur,  or  Asarac, 
as  their  chief  god.  On  an  obelisk,  taken  from 
the  palace  of  Nimrod,  we  find  the  inscription, 
"to  Asarac,  the  Great  Lord,  the  King  of  all 
the  great  gods." 

Of  the  veneration  of  the  Egyptians  for  the 
name  of  their  supreme  god,  we  have  a  striking 


evidence  in  the  writings  of  Herodotus,  the 
Father  of  History,  as  he  has  been  called,  who 
during  a  visit  to  Egypt  was  initiated  into  the 
Osirian  mysteries.  Speaking  of  these  initia- 
tions, he  says  (B.  ii.,  c.  171),  "the  Egyptians 
represent  by  night  his  sufferings,  whose  name 
I  refrain  from  mentioning."  It  was  no  more 
lawful  among  the  Egyptians  than  it  was 
among  the  Jews,  to  give  utterance  aloud  to 
that  Holy  Name. 

At  Byblos  the  Phoenicians  worshiped  EUun, 
the  Most  High  God.  From  him  was  de- 
scended^, whom  Philo  identifies  with  Saturn, 
and  to  whom  he  traces  the  Hebrew  Elohim. 
Of  this  EL,  Max  Miiller  says  that  there  was 
undeniably  a  primitive  religion  of  the  whole 
Semitic  race,  and  that  the  Strong  One  in 
Heaven  was  invoked  under  this  name  by  the 
ancestors  of  the  Semitic  races,  before  there 
were  Babylonians  in  Babylonia,  Phoenicians 
in  Sidon  and  Tyre,  or  Jews  in  Mesopotamia 
and  Jerusalem.  If  so,  then  the  Mosaic  adop- 
tion of  Jehovah,  with  its  more  precise  teach- 
ing of  the  Divine  essence,  was  a  step  in  the 
rjrogress  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Divine 

In  China  there  is  an  infinite  variety  of 
names  of  elemental  powers,  and  even  of  an- 
cestral spirits,who  are  worshiped  as  subordi- 
nate deities:  but  the  ineffable  name  is  TIEN, 
compounded  of  the  two  signs  for  great  and  one, 
and  which  the  Imperial  Dictionary  tells  us 
signifies  "The  Great  One — He  that  dwells  on 
high,  and  regulates  all  below." 

Drummond  (Origines)  says  that  ABAUE 
was  the  name  of  the  Supreme  Deity  among 
the  ancient  Chaldeans.  It  is  evidently  the 
Hebrew  118  28,  and  signifies  "The  Father  of 

The  Scandinavians  had  twelve  subordinate 
gods,  but  their  chief  or  Bupreme  deity  was 
Al-Fathr,  or  the  AU  Father. 

Even  among  the  red  men  of  America  we 
find  the  idea  of  an  invisible  deity,  whose  name 
was  to  be  venerated.  Garcilasso  de  la  Vega 
tells  us  that  while  the  Peruvians  paid  public 
worship  to  the  sun,  it  was  but  as  a  symbol  of 
the  Supreme  Being,  whom  they  called  Pach- 
acamac,  a  word  meaning  "the  soul  of  the 
world,  and  which  was  so  sacred  that  it  was 
spoken  only  with  extreme  dread. 

The  Jews  had,  besides  the  Tetragramma- 
ton  or  four-lettered  name,  two  others:  one 
consisting  of  twelve  and  the  other  of  forty- 
two  letters.  But  Maimonides,  in  his  More 
Nevochim  (p.  i.,  clxii.),  remarks  that  it  is 
impossible  to  suppose  that  either  of  these 
constituted  a  single  name,  but  that  each 
must  have  been  composed  of  several  words, 
which  must,  however,  have  been  significant 
in  making  man  approximate  to  a  knowledge 
of  the  true  essence  of  God.  The  Kabbalis- 
tical  book  called  the  Sohar  confirms  this 
when  it  tells  us  that  there  are  ten  names  of 
God  mentioned  in  the  Bible,  and  that  when 
these  ten  names  are  combined  into  one  word, 
the  number  of  the  letters  amounts  to  forty- 
two.  But  the  Talmudists,  although  they  did 
not  throw  around  the  forty-two-lettered  name 

NAME  503 

the  sanctity  of  the  Tetragrammaton,  pre- 
scribed that  it  should  be  communicated  only 
to  men  of  middle  age  and  of  virtuous  habits, 
and  that  its  knowledge  would  confirm  them  as 
heirs  of  the  future  as  well  as  the  present  life. 
The  twelve-lettered  name,  although  once 
common,  became  afterward  occult;  and 
when,  on  the  death  of  Simon  I.,  the  priests 
ceased  to  use  the  Tetragrammaton,  they 
were  accustomed  to  bless  the  people  with 
the  name  of  twelve  letters.  Maimonides  very 
wisely  rejects  the  idea,  that  any  power  was 
derived  from  these  letters  or  their  pronunci- 
ation, and  claims  that  the  only  virtue  of  the 
names  consisted  in  the  holy  ideas  expressed 
by  the  words  of  which  they  were  composed. 

The  following  are  the  ten  Kabbalistic 
names  of  God,  corresponding  to  the  ten 
Sephiroth:  1.  Eheyeh:  2.  Jah;  3.  Jehovah: 
4.  El;  5.  Eloah;  6.  Elohim:  7.  Jehovah  Sa- 
baoth;  8.  Elohim  Sabaoth;  9.  Elhi;  10. 

Lanzi  extends  his  list  of  Divine  names  to 
twenty-six,  which,  with  their  signification, 
are  as  follows: 

I.  At  The  Aleph  and  Tau,  that  is,  Alpha 
and  Omega.  A  name  figurative  of  the  Tetra- 

2.  Ihoh.  The  eternal,  absolute  principle  of 
creation,  and 

3.  Hoh.  Destruction,  the  male  and  fe- 
male principle,  the  author  and  regulator  of 
time  and  motion. 

4.  Jah.   The  Lord  and  Remunerator. 

5.  Oh.   The  severe  and  punisher. 

6.  J ao.   The  author  of  life  . 

7.  Azazel.   The  author  of  death. 

8.  Jao-Sabaoth.  God  of  the  coordinations 
of  loves  and  hatreds.  Lord  of  the  solstices 
and  the  equinoxes. 

9.  Ehie.   The  Being;  the  Ens. 

10.  El.  The  first  cause.  The  principle 
or  beginning  of  all  things. 

II.  Elo-hi.   The  good  principle. 

12.  Elo-ho.   The  evil  principle. 

13.  El-raccum.   The  succoring  principle. 

14.  El-cannum.   The  abhorring  principle. 

15.  EU.   The  most  luminous. 

16.  II.   The  omnipotent. 

17.  Ellohim.  The  omnipotent  and  benefi- 

18.  Elohim.   The  most  beneficent. 

19.  Elo.   The  Sovereign,  the  Excelsus. 

20.  Adon.   The  Lord,  the  Dominator. 

21.  Eloi.  The  illuminator,  the  most  ef- 

22.  Adonai.    The  most  firm,  the  strongest. 

23.  Elian.    The  most  high. 

24.  Shaddai.   The  most  victorious. 

25.  Yeshurun.    The  most  generous. 

26.  Noil.   The  most  sublime. 

Like  the  Mohammedan  Ism  Allah,  Free- 
masonry presents  us  as  its  most  important 
feature  with  this  science  of  the  names  of 
God.  But  here  it  elevates  itself  above  Tal- 
mudical  and  Rabbinical  reveries,  and  be- 
comes a  symbol  of  Divine  Truth.  The 
names  of  God,  were  undoubtedly  intended 
originally  to  be  a  means  of  communicating 

504  NAMES 

the  knowledge  of  God  himself.  The  n*me 
was,  from  its  construction  and  its  literal 
powers,  used  to  give  some  idea,  however 
scanty,  in  early  times,  of  the  true  nature 
and  essence  of  the  Deity.  The  ineffable 
name  was  the  symbol  of  the  unutterable 
sublimity  and  perfection  of  truth  which 
emanate  from  the  Supreme  God,  while  the 
subordinate  names  were  symbols  of  the 
subordinate  manifestations  of  truth.  Free- 
masonry has  availed  itself  of  this  system, 
and,  in  its  reverence  for  the  Divine  Name, 
indicates  its  desire  to  attain  to  that  truth 
as  the  ultimate  object  of  all  its  labor.  The 
significant  words  of  the  Masonic  system, 
which  describe  the  names  of  God  wherever 
they  are  found,  are  not  intended  merely  as 
words  of  recognition,  but  as  indices,  point- 
ing— like  the  symbolic  ladder  of  Jacob  of 
the  First  Degree,  or  the  winding  stairs  of 
the  Second,  or  the  three  gates  of  the  Third 
— the  way  of  progress  from  darkness  to 
light,  from  ignorance  to  knowledge,  from 
the  lowest  to  the  highest  conceptions  of  Di- 
vine Truth.  And  this  is,  after  all,  the  real 
object  of  all  Masonic  science. 

Names  of  Lodges.  The  precedency  of 
Lodges  does  not  depend  on  their  names, 
but  on  their  numbers.  The  rule  declaring 
that  "the  precedency  of  Lodges  is  grounded 
on  the  seniority  of  their  Constitution"  was 
adopted  on  the  27th  of  December,  1727, 
(Constitutions,  1738,  p.  154.)  The  number 
of  the  Lodge,  therefore,  by  which  its  prece- 
dency is  established,  is  always  to  be  given  by 
the  Grand  Lodge. 

In  England,  Lodges  do  not  appear  to  have 
received  distinctive  names  before  the  latter 
part  of  the  last  century.  Up  to  that  period 
the  Lodges  were  distinguished  simply  by 
their  numbers.  Thus,  in  the  first  edition 
of  the  Book  of  Comtitutions,  published  in 
1723,  we  find  a  list  of  twenty  Lodges,  reg- 
istered by  their  numbers,  from  "No.  1"  to 
"No.  20,"  inclusive.  Subsequently,  they 
were  further  designated  by  the  name  of 
the  tavern  at  which  they  held  their  meetings. 
Thus,  in  the  second  edition  of  the  same  work, 
published  in  1738,  we  meet  with  a  list  of  one 
hundred  and  six  Lodges,  designated  some- 
times, singularly  enough,  as  Lodge  No.  6,  at 
the  Rummer  Tavern,  in  Queen  Street;  No.  84, 
at  the  Black  Dog,  in  Castle  Street:  or  No.  98, 
at  the  Bacchus  Tavern,  in  Little  Bush  Lane. 
With  such  names  and  localities,  we  are  not  to 
wonder  that  the  "three  small  glasses  of 
punch,"  of  which  Dr.  Oliver  so  feelingly 
speaks  in  his  Book  of  the  Lodge,  were  duly 
appreciated;  nor,  as  he  admits,  that  "there 
were  some  brethren  who  displayed  an  anxiety 
to  have  the  allowance  increased." 

In  1766  we  read  of  four  Lodges  that  were 
erased  from  the  Register,  under  the  similar 
designations  of  the  Globe,  Fleet  Street; 
the  Red  Cross  Inn,  Southwark;  No.  85,  at 
the  George,  Ironmongers'  Lane;  and  the 
Mercers'  Arms,  Mercers'  Street.  To  only 
one  of  these,  it  will  be  perceived,  was  a 
number  annexed.   The  name  and  locality 


of  the  tavern  was  presumed  to  be  a  sufficient 
distinction.  It  was  not  until  about  the 
close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  as  has 
been  already  observed,  that  we  find  distinc- 
tive names  beginning  to  be  given  to  the 
Lodges;  for  in  1793  we  hear  of  the  Shak- 
speare  Lodge,  at  Stratford-on- Avon;  the  Royal 
Brunswick,  at  Sheffield;  and  the  Lodge  of 
Apotto,  at  Alcester.  From  that  time  it 
became  a  usage  among  our  English  brethren, 
from  which  they  have  never  since  departed. 

But  a  better  taste  began  to  prevail  at  a 
much  earlier  period  in  ScotlandT,  as  well  as 
in  the  continental  and  colonial  Lodges.  In 
Scotland,  especially,  distinctive  names  ap- 
pear to  have  been  used  from  a  very  early 
period,  for  in  the  very  old  charter  granting 
the  office  of  Hereditary  Grand  Masters  to 
the  Barons  of  Rosslyn,  of  which  the  date  can- 
not be  more  recent  than  1600,  we  find  among 
the  signatures  the  names  of  the  officers  of 
the  Lodge  of  Dunfermline  and  the  Lodge  of 
St.  Andrew's.  Among  the  names  in  the  list 
of  the  Scotch  Lodges,  in  1736  are  those  of 
St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Kilwinning,  Aberdeen,  etc. 
These  names  were  undoubtedly  borrowed 
from  localities}  but  in  1763{  while  the  English 
Lodges  were  still  content  with  their  numerical 
arrangement  only,  we  find  in  Edinburgh  such 
designations  as  St.  Luke's,  St.  Giles's,  and 
St.  David's  Lodges. 

The  Lodges  on  the  Continent;  it  is  true, 
at  first  adopted  the  English  method  of 
borrowing  a  tavern  sign  for  their  appella- 
tion; whence  we  find  the  Lodge  at  the  Golden 
Lion,  in  Holland,  in  1734,  and  before  that 
the  Lodge  at  Hure's  Tavern,  in  Paris;  in  1725. 
But  they  soon  abandoned  this  inefficient 
and  inelegant  mode  of  nomenclature;  and 
accordingly,  in  1739,  a  Lodge  was  organized 
in  Switzerland  under  the  appropriate  name  of 
Stranger's  Perfect  Union.  Tasteful  names, 
more  or  less  significant,  began  thenceforth 
to  be  adopted  by  the  continental  Lodges. 
Among  them  we  may  meet  with  the  Lodge 
of  the  Three  Globes,  at  Berlin,  in  1740;  the 
Minerva  Lodge,  at  Leipsic,  in  1741;  Absalom 
Lodge,  at  Hamburg,  in  1742:  St.  George's 
Lodge,  at  the  same  place,  in  1743;  the  Lodge 
of  the  Crowned  Column,  at  Brunswick,  m 
1745;  and  an  abundance  of  others,  all  with 
distinctive  names,  selected  sometimes  with 
much  and  sometimes  with  but  little  taste. 
But  the  worst  of  them  was  undoubtedly 
better  than  the  Lodge  at  the  Goose  and  Grid- 
iron, which  met  in  London  in  1717. 

In  America,  from  the  very  introduction 
of  Masonry  into  the  continent,  significant 
names  were  selected  for  the  Lodges:  and 
hence  we  have,  in  1734,  St.  John's  Lodge,  at 
Boston;  a  Solomon's  Lodge,  in  1735,  at  both 
Charleston  and  Savannah;  and  a  Union  Kil- 
winning, in  1754,  at  the  former  place. 

This  brief  historical  digression  will  serve 
as  an  examination  of  the  rules  which  should 
govern  all  founders  in  the  choice  of  Lodge 
names.  The  first  and  most  important  rule 
is  that  the  name  of  a  Lodge  should  be  tech- 
nically significant;  that  is,  it  must  allude 


td  some  Masonic  fact  or  characteristic;  in 
other  words,  there  must  be  something 
Masonic  about  it.  Under  this  rule,  all  names 
derived  from  obscure  or  unmasonic  localities 
should  be  rejected  as  unmeaning  and  in- 
appropriate. Dr.  Oliver,  it  is  true,  thinks 
otherwise,  and  says  that  "the  name  of  a 
hundred,  or  wahpentake,  in  which  the  Lodge 
is  situated,  or  of  a  navigable  river,  which 
confers  wealth  and  dignity  on  the  town, 
axe  proper  titles  for  a  Lodge."  But  a 
name  should  always  convey  an  idea,  and 
there  can  be  conceived  no  idea  worth  treas- 
uring in  a  Mason's  mind  to  be  deduced 
from  bestowing  such  names  as  New  York, 
Philadelphia,  or'  Baltimore,  on  a  Lodge. 
The  selection  of  such  a  name  shows  but 
little  originality  in  the  chooser;  and,  be- 
sides, if  there  be  two  Lodges  in  a  town, 
each  is  equally  entitled  to  the  appellation; 
and  if  there  be  but  one,  the  appropriation 
of  it  would  seem  to  indicate  an  intention 
to  have  no  competition  in  the  future. 

Yet,  barren  of  Masonic  meaning  as  are 
such  geographical  names,  the  adoption  of 
them  is  one  of  the  most  common  faults  in 
American  Masonic  nomenclature.  The  ex- 
amination of  a  very  few  Registers,  taken  at 
random,  will  readily  evince  this  fact.  Thus, 
eighty-eight,  out  of  one  hundred  and  sixty 
Lodges  in  Wisconsin,  are  named  after  towns 
or  counties;  of  four  hundred  and  thirty- 
seven  Lodges  in  Indiana,  two  hundred  and 
fifty-one  have  names  derived  from  the 
same  source;  geographical  names  are  found 
in  one  hundred  and  eighty-one  out  of  four 
hundred  and  three  Lodges  in  Ohio,  and  in 
twenty  out  of  thirty-eight  in  Oregon.  But, 
to  compensate  for  this,  we  have  seventy-one 
Lodges  in  New  Hampshire,  and  only  two 
local  geographical  appellations  in  the  list. 

There  are,  however,  some  geographical 
names  which  are  admissible,  and,  indeed, 
highly  appropriate.  These  are  the  names 
of  places  celebrated  in  Masonic  history. 
Such  titles  for  Lodges  as  Jerusalem,  Tyre, 
Lebanon,  and  Joppa  are  unexceptionable. 
Patmos,  which  is  the  name  of  a  Lodge  in 
Maryland,  seems,  as  the  long  residence  of 
one  of  the  patrons  of  the  Order,  to  be  un- 
objectionable. So,  too.  Bethel,  because  it 
signifies  "the  house  of  God";  Mount  Mo- 
riah,  the  site  of  the  ancient  Temple;  Cal- 
vary, the  small  hill  on  which  the  sprig  of 
acacia  was  found:  Mount  Ararat,  where  the 
ark  of  our  father  Noah  rested;  Ophir,  whence 
Solomon  brought  the  gold  and  precious 
stones  with  which  he  adorned  the  Temple; 
Tadmor,  because  it  was  a  city  built  by  King 
Solomon;  and  Salem  and  Jebus,  because  they 
are  synonyms  of  Jerusalem,  and  because  the 
latter  is  especially  concerned  with  Oman 
the  Jebusite,  on  whose  "threshing-floor" 
the  Temple  was  subsequently  built—are  all 
excellent  and  appropriate  names  for  Lodges. 
But  all  Scriptural  names  are  not  equally 
admissible.  Cabul,  for  instance,  must  be 
rejected,  because  it  was  the  subject  of  con- 
tention between  Solomon  and  Hiram  of  Tyre; 

NAMES  505 

and  Babylon,  because  it  was  the  place  where 
"language  was  confounded  and  Masonry 
lost,"  and  the  scene  of  the  subsequent  cap- 
tivity of  our  ancient  brethren;  Jerieho,  be- 
cause it  was  under  a  curse;  and  Misgab  and 
Tophet,  because  they  were  places  of  idol 
worship.  In  short,  it  may  be  adopted  as  a 
rule,  that  no  name  should  be  adopted  whose 
antecedents  are  in  opposition  to  the  prin- 
ciples of  Masonry. 

The  ancient  patrons  and  worthies  of  Free- 
masonry furnish  a  very  fertile  source  of 
Masonic  nomenclature,  and  have  been  very 
liberally  used  in  the  selection  of  names  of 
Lodges.  Among  the  most  important  may 
be  mentioned  St.  John,  Solomon,  Hiram, 
King  David,  Adoniram,  Enoch,  Archimedes, 
and  Pythagoras.  The  Widow's  Son  Lodge, 
of  which  there  are  several  instances  in  the 
United  States,  is  an  affecting  and  significant 
title,  which  can  hardly  be  too  often  used. 

Recourse  is  also  to  be  had  to  the  names 
of  modern  distinguished  men  who  have 
honored  the  Institution  by  their  adherence 
to  it,  or  who,  by  their  learning  in  Masonry, 
and  by  their  services  to  the  Order,  have 
merited  some  marks  of  approbation.  And 
hence  we  meet,  in  England,  as  the  names 
of  Lodges,  with  Sussex,  Moira,  Frederick, 
Zetland,  and  Robert  Burns;  and  in  this 
country  with  Washington,  Lafayette,  Clinton, 
Franklin,  and  Clay.  Care  must,  however,  be 
taken  that  no  name  be  selected  except  of 
one  who  was  both  a  Mason  and  had  distin- 
guished himself,  either  by  services  to  his 
country,  to  the  world,  or  to  the  Order. 
Oliver  says  that  "the  most  appropriate  titles 
are  those  which  are  assumed  from  the  name 
of  some  ancient  benefactor  or  meritorious 
individual  who  was  a  native  of  the  place 
where  the  Lodge  is  held;  as,  in  a  city,  the 
builder  of  the  cathedral  church."  In  this 
country  we  are,  it  is  true,  precluded  from  a 
selection  from  such  a  source;  but  there  are 
to  be  found  some  of  those  old  benefactors 
of  Freemasonry,  who,  like  Shakespeare  and 
Milton,  or  Homer  and  Virgil,  have  ceased 
to  belong  to  any  particular  country,  and 
have  now  become  the  common  property  of 
the  world-wide  Craft.  There  are,  for  instance, 
Carausius,  the  first  royal  patron  of  Masonry 
in  England;  and  St.  Alban,  the  first  Grand 
Master;  and  Athelstan  and  Prince  Edwin, 
both  active  encouragers  of  the  art  in  the  same 
kingdom.  There  are  Wykeham,  Cundulph, 
Qiffard,  Langham,  Yevele  (called,  in  the  old 
records,  the  King's  Freemason),  and  Chicheley, 
Jermyn,s.nd  Wren,  all  illustrious  Grand  Mas- 
ters of  .England,  each  of  whom  would  be  well 
entitled  to  the  honor  of  giving  name  to  a 
Lodge,  and  any  one  of  whom  would  be  better, 
more  euphonious,  and  more  spirit-stirring 
than  the  unmeaning,  and  oftentimes  crabbed, 
name  of  some  obscure  village  or  post-office, 
from  which  too  many  of  our  Lodges  derive 
their  titles.  . 

And,  then,  again,  among  the  great  bene- 
factors to  Masonic  literature  ana  laborers 
in  Masonic  science  there  are  such  names  as 

506  NAMES 

Anderson,  Dunckerley,  Preston,  Hutchinson, 
Town,  Webb,  and  a  host  of  others,  who, 
though  dead,  still  live  by  their  writings  in  our 
memories.  . 

The  virtues  and  tenets— ;the  inculcation 
and  practise  of  which  constitute  an  impor- 
tant part  of  the  Masonic  system— form  very 
excellent  and  appropriate  names  for  Lodges, 
and  have  always  been  popular  among  correct 
Masonic  nomenclators.  Thus  we  every- 
where find  such  names  as  Charity,  Concord, 
Equality,  Faith,  Fellowship,  Harmony,  Hope, 
Humility,  Mystic  Tie,  Relief,  Truth,  Union, 
and  Virtue.  Frequently,  by  a  transposition 
of  the  word  "Lodge"  and  the  distinctive 
appellation,  with  the  interposition  of  the 
preposition  "of"  a  more  sonorous  and 
emphatic  name  is  given  by  our  English  and 
European  brethren,  although  the  custom  is 
but  rarely  followed  in  this  country.  Thus 
we  have  by  this  method  the  Lodge  of  Regu- 
larity, the  Lodge  of  Fidelity,  the  Lodge  of 
Industry,  and  the  Lodge  of  Prudent  Brethren, 
in  England;  and  in  France,  the  Lodge  of 
Benevolent  Friends,  the  Lodge  of  Perfect  Union, 
the  Lodge  of  the  Friends  of  Peace,  and  the  cele- 
brated Lodge  of  the  Nine  Sisters. 

As  the  names  of  illustrious  men  will  some- 
times stimulate  the  members  of  the  Lodges 
which  bear  them  to  an  emulation  of  their 
characters,  so  the  names  of  the  Masonic 
virtues  may  serve  to  incite  the  brethren  to 
their  practise,  lest  the  inconsistency  of  their 
names  and  their  conduct  should  excite  the 
ridicule  of  the  world. 

Another  fertile  and  appropriate  source  of 
names  for  Lodges  is  to  be  found  in  the  sym- 
bols and  implements  of  the  Order.  Hence, 
we  frequently  meet  with  such  titles  as  Level, 
Trowel,  Rising  Star,  Rising  Sun,  Olive  Branch, 
Evergreen,  Doric,  Corinthian,  Delta,  and  Cor- 
ner-Stone  Lodges.  Acacia  is  one  of  the  most 
common,  and  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most 
beautiful,  of  these  symbolic  names;  but,_  un- 
fortunately, through  gross  ignorance,  it  is 
often  corrupted  into  Cassia — an  insignificant 
plant,  which  has  no  Masonic  or  symbolic 

An  important  rule  in  the  nomenclature  of 
Lodges,  and  one  which  must  at  once  recom- 
mend itself  to  every  person  of  taste,  is  that 
the  name  should  be  euphonious.  This  prin- 
ciple of  euphony  has  been  too  little  attended 
to  in  the  selection  of  even  geographical  names 
in  this  country,  where  names  with  imprac- 
ticable sounds,  or  with  ludicrous  associations, 
are  often  affixed  to  our  towns  and  rivers. 
Speaking  of  a  certain  island,  with  the  un- 
pronounceable name  of  "Srh,"  Lieber  says, 
"If  Homer  himself  were  born  on  such  an 
island,  it  could  not  become  immortal,  for  the 
best-disposed  scholar  would  be  unable  to 
remember  the  name";  and  he  thinks  that  it 
was  no  trifling  obstacle  to  the  fame  of  many 
Polish  heroes  in  the  revolution  of  that  country, 
that  they  had  names  which  left  upon  the 
mind,  of  foreigners  no  effect  but  that  of  utter 
confusion.  An  error  like  this  must  always 
be  avoided  in  bestowing  a  name  upon  a  Lodge. 


The  word  selected  should  be  soft,  vocal — 
not  too  long  nor  too  short — and,  above  all, 
be  accompanied  in  its  sound  or  meaning  by 
no  low,  indecorous,  or  ludicrous  association. 
For  tins  reason  such  names  of  Lodges  should 
be  rejected  as  Sheboygan  and  Oconomowoc 
from  the  registry  of  Wisconsin,  because  of 
the  uncouthness  of  the  sound;  and  Rough  and 
Ready  and  Indian  Diggings  from  that  -  of 
California,  on  account  of  the  ludicrous 
associations  which  these  names  convey. 
Again,  Pythagoras  Lodge  is  preferable  to 
Pythagorean,  and  Archimedes  is  better  than 
Archimedean,  because  the  noun  is  more  eu- 
phonious and  more  easily  pronounced  than 
the  adjective.  But  this  rule  is  difficult  to 
illustrate  or  enforce;  for,  after  all,  this  thing 
of  euphony  is  a  mere  matter  of  taste,  and  we 
all  know  the  adage,  "de  gustibus." 

A  few  negative  rules,  which  are,  however, 
easily  deduced  from  the  affirmative  ones 
already  given,  will  complete  the  topic. 

No  name  of  a  Lodge  should  be  adopted 
which  is  not,  in  some  reputable  way,  con- 
nected with  Masonry.  Everybody  will  ac- 
knowledge that  Morgan  Lodge  would  be  an 
anomaly,  and  that  Cowan  Lodge  would,  if 
possible,  be  worse.  But  there  are  some 
names  which,  although  not  quite  as  bad  as 
these,  are  on  principle  equally  as  objection- 
able. Why  should  any  of  our  Lodges,  for 
instance,  assume,  as  many  of  them  have, 
the  names  of  Madison,  Jefferson,  or  Taylor, 
since  none  of  these  distinguished  men  were 
Masons  or  patrons  of  the  Craft? 

The  indiscriminate,  use  of  the  names  of 
saints  unconnected  with  Masonry  is  for  a 
similar  reason  objectionable.  Beside  our 
patrons  St.  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  John 
the  Evangelist,  but  three  other  saints  can 
lay  any  claims  to  Masonic  honors,  and  these 
are  St.  Alban,  who  introduced,  or  is  said  to 
have  introduced,  the ,  Order  into  England, 
and  has  been  liberallv  complimented  in  the 
nomenclature  of  Lodges;  and  St.  Swithin, 
who  was  at  the  head  of  the  Craft  in  the 
reign  of  Ethelwolf;  and  St.  Benedict,  who 
was  the  founder  of  the  Masonic  fraternity 
of  Bridge  Builders.  But  St.  Mark,  St. 
Luke,  St.  Andrew,  all  of  whom  have  given 
names  to  numerous  Lodges,  can  have  no 
pretensions  to  assist  as  sponsors  in  these 
Masonic  baptisms,  since  they  were  not  at 
all  connected  with  the  Craft. 

To  the  Indian  names  of  Lodges  there  is 
a  radical  objection.  It  is  true  that  their 
names  are  often  very  euphonious  and  al- 
ways significant,  for  the  red  men  of  our 
continent  are  tasteful  and  ingenious  in  their 
selection  of  names — much  more  so,  indeed, 
than  the  whites,  who  borrow  from  them; 
but  their  significance  has  nothing  to  do 
with  Masonry. 

What  has  been  said  of  Lodges  may  with 
equal  propriety  be  said,  mutatis  mutandis, 
of  Chapters,  Councils,  and  Commanderies. 

Namur.  A  city  of  Belgium,  where  the 
Primitive  Scottish  Rite  was  first  established; 
hence  sometimes  called  the  Bite  of  Namur. 


a  TI?e  ^  of  the  Egyptian  gods. 

A  chest  or  structure  with  more  height  than 
depth,  and  thereby  unlike  the  Israelitish 
Ark  of  the  Covenant.  The  winged  figures 
embraced  the  lower  part  of  the  Naos,  ^-hile 
the  cherubim  of  the  Ark  of  Yahvei  were 
pCj  a£ove  lts  M-  Yahveh  took  up  his 
abode  above  the  propitiatory  or  covering 
between  the  wings  of  the  cherubim,  exte- 
riorly, while  the  gods  of  Egypt  were  reputed 
as  hidden  in  the  mterior  of  the  Naos  of  the 
sacred  barks,  behind  hermetically  closed  doors. 
(See  Cherubim.) 

Naphtall.  The  territory  of  the  tribe  of 
Naphtah  adjoined,  on  its  western  border,  to 
Phoenicia,  and  there  must,  therefore,  have 
been  frequent  and  easy  communication 
between  the  Phoenicians  and  the  Naphtal- 
ltes,  resulting  sometimes  in  intermarriage. 
This  will  explain  the  fact  that  Hiram  the 
Builder  was  the  son  of  a  widow  of  Naphtali 
and  a  man  of  Tyre. 

Naples.   Freemasonry  must  have  been 
practised  in  Naples  before  1751,  for  in  that 
year  King  Charles  issued  an  edict  forbidding 
.  it  in  his  dominions.   The  author  of  Antt 
baint  Nicaise  says  that  there  was  a  Grand 
Lodge  at  Naples,  in  1756.  which  was  in 
correspondence  with  the  Lodges  of  Germany. 
But  its  meetings  were  suspended  by  a  royal 
edict  in  September,  1775.    In  1777  this  edict 
was  repealed  at  the  instigation  of  the  Queen, 
and  Masonry  was  again  tolerated.  This 
toleration  lasted,  however,  only  for  a  brief 
period.   In  1781  Ferdinand  IV.  renewed  the 
edict  of  suppression,  and  from  that  time  until 
the_  end  of  the  century  Freemasonry  was 
subjected  in  Italy  to  the  combined  persecu- 
tions of  the  Church  and  State,  and  the  Masons 
of  Naples  met  only  in  secret.    In  1793,  after 
the  French  Revolution,  many  Lodges  were 
openly  organized.   A  Supreme  Council  of  the 
Scottish  Site  was  established  on  the  11th  of 
June,  1809,  of  which  King  Joachim  was 
elected  Grand  Master,  and  the  Grand  Orient 
of  Naples  on  the  24th  of  the  same  month. 
The  fact  that  the  Grand  Orient  worked 
according  to  the  French  Rite,  and  the  Supreme 
Council  according  to  the  Scottish,  caused 
dissensions  between  the  two  bodies,  which, 
however,  were  finally  healed.   And  on  the 
23d  of  May,  1811,  a  Concordat  was  estab- 
lished between  the  Supreme  Council  and  the 
Grand  Orient,  by  which  the  latter  took  the 
supervision  of  the  degrees  up  to  the  Eight- 
eenth, and  the  former  of  those  from  the 
Eighteenth  to  the  Thirty-third.    In  October, 
1812,  King  Joachim  accepted  the  presi- 
dency of  the  Supreme  Council  as  its  Grand 
Commander.    Both  bodies  became  extinct 
in  1815,  on  the  accession  of  the  Bourbons. 

Napoleon  I.  It  has  been  claimed,  and 
with  much  just  reason,  as  shown  in  his  course 
of  life,  that  Napoleon  the  Great  was  a 
member  of  the  Brotherhood,  and  it  is  said 
was  initiated  at  Malta,  between  June  12  and 
July  19,  1798.  The  Abeille  Maconnique  of 
1829,  and  Clavel,  in  1830,  allege  that  he 
Visited  a  Lodge  incognito  in  Paris.   His  life 


indicated  favor  to  the  Fraternity,  and  in  1804 
he  appointed  Joseph  Buonaparte  G.  Master 
of  the  Grand  Orient.  Lucien  and  Lonfa 
Buonaparte  were  of  the  Fraternity,  asttao 
Jerome.  Louis  Napoleon  III.  was  a  member 
Supreme  Council  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite  of 

Napoleonic  Masonry.  An  Order  under 
this  name,  called  also  the  French  Order  of 
JNoachites,  was  established  at  Paris,  in  1816, 
by  some  of  the  adherents  of  the  Emperor 
Napoleon.    It  was  divided  into  three  degrees: 
™    i  gi  'j     Comniander;  3.  Grand  Elect. 
1  he  last  degree  was  subdivided  into  three 
points:  i.  Secret  Judge;  n.  Perfect  Initiate: 
ill.  Knight  of  the  Crown  of  Oak.   The  mys- 
tical ladder  m  this  Rite  consisted  of  eight 
steps  or  stages,  whose  names  were  Adam, 
j  '  X?-   '  L,aPech>  Naamah,  Peleg,  Oubal 
and  Orient.  The  initials  of  these  words 
properly  transposed,  compose  the  word  Na- 
poleon, and  this  is  enough  to  show  the  char- 
acter of  the  system.    General  Bertrand  was 
elected  Grand  Master  but,  as  he  was  then 
m  the  island  of  St.  Helena,  the  Order  was 
directed  by  a  Supreme  Commander  and  two 
lieutenants.   It  was  Masonic  in  form  only, 
and  lasted  but  for  a  few  years. 
Narbonne,  Bite  of.    See  Primitive  Rite. 
National  Grand  Lodge  of  Germany. 
The  Royal  Mother  Lodge  of  the  Three 
Globes,  which  had  been  established  at  Berlin 
in  1740,  and  recognized  as  a  Grand  Lodge 
by  Frederick  the  Great  in  1744,  renounced 
the  Rite  of  Strict  Observance  in  1771,  and, 
declaring  itself  free  and  independent,  assumed 
the  title  of  "The  Grand  National  Mother 
Lodge  of  the  Three  Globes,"  by  which  appella- 
tion it  is  still  known. 

The  Grand  Orient  of  France,  among  its 
first  acts,  established,  as  an  integral  part 
of  itself,  a  National  Grand  Lodge  of  France, 
which  was  to  take  the  place  of  the  old  Grand 
Lodge,  which,  it  declared,  had  ceased  to 
exist.  But  the  year  after,  in  1773,  the  Na- 
tional Grand  Lodge  was  suppressed  by  the 
power  which  had  given  it  birth;  and  no  such 
power  is  now  recognized  in  French  Masonry. 

Narmus  Grecus.  The  Grand  Lodge, 
£*o.  1.,  MS.  contains  the  following  passage: 
Y*  befell  that  their  was  on'  curious  Masson 
that  height  [was  called]  Naymus  Grecus 
mat  had  byn  at  the  making  of  Sallomon's 
Temple,  and  he  came  into  ffraunce,  and  there 
he  taught  the  science  of  Massonrey  to  men  of 
ffraunce."  Who  was  this  "Naymus  Grecus"? 
The  writers  of  these  old  records  of  Masonry 
are  notorious  for  the  way  in  which  they 
mangle  all  names  and  words  that  are  in  a 
foreign  tongue.  Hence  it  is  impossible  to 
say  who  or  what  is  meant  by  this  word.  It  is 
differently  spelled  in  the  various  manuscripts: 
Nomas  Grecious  in  the  Lansdowne,  Naymus 
Gmctts  in  the  Sloane,  Grecus  alone  in  the 
Edinburgh-Kilwinning,  and  Maymus  Grecus 
m  the  Dowland.*  Anderson,  in  the  second 

*  For  a  table  of  the  various  spellings,  see  Ars 
Quatuor  Coronatorum,  iii.,  163. 



edition  of  his  Constitutions  (1738,  p.  16), 
--         NoWj  jt  would  not  be 

calls  him  Ninus.   , 

an  altogether  wild  conjecture  to  sup 
pose  that  some  confused  idea  of  Mfgna 
Grascia  was  floating  m  the  minds,  of  these 
unlettered  Masons,  especially  since  ^tte 
Leland  Manuscript  records  that  in  Magna 
GriBcia  Pythagoras  established  his  school,  ana 
then  sent  Masons  into  France.  Between 
Magna  Gratia  and  Maynus  Greens  the  bridge 
is  a  short  one,  not  greater  than  between 
Tubakwin  and  Wackan.  which  we  find  in 
a  German  Middle  Age  document.  The  one 
being  the  name  of  a  place  and  the  other  of  a 
person  would  be  no  obstacle  to  these  accom- 
modating record  writers;  nor  must  we  flinch 
at  the  anachronism  of  placing  one i  of  the 
disciples  of  Pythagoras  at  the  building  of 
the  Solomonic  Temple,  when  we  remember 
that  the  same  writers  make  Euclid  and 
Abraham  contemporaries.  .  ... 

Nazareth.  A  city  of  Galilee,  in  which 
our  Savior  spent  his  childhood  and  much 
of  his  life,  and  whence  he  is  often  called, 
in  the  New  Testament,  the  Nazarene,  or 
Jesus  of  Nazareth.  Jesus  Naiarenus  was  a 
portion  of  the  inscription  on  the  cross,  (see 
7.  N.  B.  I.)  In  the  Eose  Crop,  Nazareth 
is  a  significant  word,  and  Jesus  is  designated 
as  "our  Master  of  Nazareth,"  to  indicate 
the  origin  and  nature  of  the  new  dogmas 
on  which  the  Order  of  the  Rosy  Cross  was 
instituted.  ,     ,  .  , 

Nebraska*  Masonry  was  introduced  into 
Nebraska  in  October,  1855,  by  a  Charter 
from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Illinois  to  Nebraska 
Lodge.  Two  other  Lodges  were  subsequently 
chartered  by  the  Grand  Lodges  of  Missouri 
and  Iowa.  In  September,  1857,  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Nebraska  was  organized  by  a  con- 
vention of  delegates  from  these  three  Lodges, 
and  R.  C.  Jordan  was  elected  Grand  Master. 
The  Grand  Chapter  was  organized  March 
19,  1867.  The  Grand  Commandery  of  Ne- 
braska was  instituted  at  Omaha,  December 
28,  1871. 

Nebuchadnezzar.  About  630  years  b.  c 
the  empire  and  city  of  Babylon  were  con 
quered  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  the  long  of  the 
Chaldeans,  a  nomadic  race,  who,  descending 
from  their  homes  in  the  Caucasian  mountains, 
had  overwhelmed  the  countries  of  Southern 
Asia.  Nebuchadnezzar  was  engaged  during 
his  whole  reign  in  wars  of  conquest.  Among 
other  nations  who  fell  beneath  his  victorious 
arms  was  Judea,  whose  king,  Jeboiakim,  was 
slain  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  his  son, 
Jehoiachin,  ascended  the  Jewish  throne. 
After  a  reign  of  three  years,  he  was  deposed 
by  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  his  kingdom  given 
to  his  uncle,  Zedekiah,  a  monarch  distin- 
guished for  his  vices.  Having  repeatedly 
rebelled  against  the  Babylonian  king,  Nebu- 
chadnezzar repaired  to  Jerusalem,  and,  after 
a  siege  of  eighteen  months,  reduced  it.  The 
city  was  leveled  with  the  ground,  the  Temple 
pillaged  and  burned,  and  the  inhabitants 
carried  captive  to  Babylon.  These  events 
are  commemorated  in  the  first  seotion  of 


the  English  and  American  Royal  Arch  By* 

tern.  . 

Nebuzaradan.  A  captain,  or,  as  we 
would  now  call  him,  a  general  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who  commanded  the  Chaldean 
army  at  the  siege  of  Jerusalem,  and  who 
executed  the  orders'  of  his  sovereign  by 
the  destruction  of  the  city  and  Temple,  and 
by  carrying  the  inhabitants,  except  a  tew 
husbandmen,  as  captives  to,  B abykm  , 

Negro  Lodges.  The  subject  of  Lodges 
of  colored  persons,  commonly  called  Negro 
Lodges,"  was  for  many  years  a  source  of 
agitation  in  the  United  States,  notion  account, 
generally,  of  the  color  of  the  members  of  these 
Lodges/  but  on  account  of  the  supposed 
iUegality  of  their  Charters.  The  history  of 
then-  organization  was  thoroughly^  mvesti- 
gated,  many  years  ago.  by  Bro.  Phihp 
Tucker,  of  Vermont,  and  Charles  W.  Moore, 
of  Massachusetts,  and  the  result  is  here 
iven,  with  the  addition  of  certain  facts 
derived  from  a  statement  made  by  the  officers 
of  the  Lodge  in  1827. 

Prince  Hall  and  thirteen  other  negroes  were 
made  Masons  in  a  military  Lodge  in  the  Brit- 
ish Army  then  at  Boston,  on  March  6,  1775. 
When  the  Army  was  withdrawn  these  negroes 
applied  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  for 
a  Charter  and  on  the  20th  of  September, 
1784,  a  Charter  for  a  Master's  Lodge  was 
granted,  although  not  received  until  1787,  to 
Prince  Hall  and  others,  all  colored  men,  under 
the  authority  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England. 
The  Lodge  bore  the  name  of  "African  Lodge, 
No.  4297'  and  was  situated  in  the  city  of 
Boston.  This  Lodge  ceased  its  connection 
with  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  for  many 
years,  and  about  the  beginning  of  the  present 
century  its  registration  was  stricken  from  the 
rolls  of  the  United  Grand  Lodge  of  England, 
when  new  lists  were  made  as  were  many  other 
Lodges  in  distant  parts  of  the  world,  its  legal 
existence,  in  the  meantime,  never  having  been 
recognized  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massa- 
chusetts, to  which  body  it  had  always  refused 
to  acknowledge  allegiance. 

After  the  death  of  Hall  and  his  colleagues, 
to  Whom  the  Charter  had  been  granted,  the 
Lodge,  for  want  of  some  one  to  conduct  its 
affairs,  fell  into  abeyance,  or,  to  use  the  tech- 
nical phrase,  became  dormant.  After  some 
years  it  was  revived,  but  by  whom,  or  under 
what  process  of  Masonic  law,  is  not  stated, 
and  information  of  the  revival  given  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  England,  but  no  reply  or  rec- 
ognition wasTeceived  from  that  body.  After 
some  hesitation  as  to  what  would  be  the 
proper  course  to  pursue,  they  came  to  the  con- 
clusion, as  they  have  themselves  stated, '  that, 
with  what  knowledge  they  possessed  of  Ma- 
sonry, and  as  people  of  color  by  themselves, 
they  were,  and  ought  by  rights  to  be,  free  and 
independent  of  other  Lodges."  Accordingly, 
on  the  18th  of  June,  1827.  they  issued  aproto- 
col,  in  which  they  said:  *  We  pubHcly  declare 
ourselves  free  and  independent  of  any  Lodge 
from  this  day,  and  we  will  not  be  tributary  or 
governed  by  any  Lodge  but  that  of  our  own. 


They  soon  after  assumed  the  name  of  the 
"Prince  Hall  Grand  Lodge,"  and  issued  Char- 
ters for  the  constitution  of  subordinates,  and 
from  it  have  proceeded  all  the  Lodges  of  col- 
ored persons  now  existing  in  the  United  States. 

Admitting  even  the  legality  of  the  English 
Charter  of  1784 — it  will  be  seen  that  there  was 
already  a  Masonic  authority  in  Massachu- 
setts upon  whose  prerogatives  of  jurisdiction 
such  Charter  was  an  invasion — it  cannot  be 
denied  that  the  unrecognized  self-revival  of 
1827,  and  the  subsequent  assumption  of 
Grand  Lodge  powers,  were  illegal,  and  ren- 
dered both  the  Prince  Hall  Grand  Lodge  and 
all  the  Lodges  which  emanated  from  it  clan- 
destine. And  this  has  been  the  unanimous 
opinion  of  all  Masonic  jurists  in  America, 

[However,  Masonry  has  spread  among  the 
negroes  until  now  they  have  Lodges  and 
Grand  Lodges  in  most  of  the  States  and  in 
Canada  and  Liberia.  As  they  wear  emblems 
of  all  the  other  bodies  it  is  presumable  they 
have  them  as  well.] 

Neighbor.  All  the  Old  Constitutions  have 
the  charge  that  "every  Mason  shall  keep  true 
counsel  of  Lodge  and  Chamber."  (SloaneMS., 
No.  8848.)  This  is  enlarged  in  the  Anderson- 
ian  Charges  of  1722  thus:  "You  are  not  to  let 
your  family,  friends,  and  neighbours  know  the 
concerns  of  the  Lodge."  (Constitutions,  1723, 
p.  55.)  However  loquacious  a  Mason  may  be 
in  the  natural  confidence  of  neighborhood  in- 
tercourse, he  must  be  reserved  In  all  that  re- 
lates to  the  esoteric  concerns  of  Masonry. 

Nelth.  The  Egyptian  synonym  of  the 
Greek  Athene1  or  Minerva. 

Nekam.  Dpi.  But  properly  according  to 
the  Masoretic  pointing,  NAKAM.  A  Hebrew 
word  signifying  Vengeance,  and  a  significant 
word  in  the  high  degrees.    (See  Vengeance.) 

Nekamah.  rropj.  Hebrew,  signifying 
Vengeance,  and,  luce  Nakam,  a  significant 
word  in  the  high  degrees. 

Nembroth.  A  corruption  of  Nimrod,  fre- 
quently used  in  the  Old  Records. 

Nemesis.  According  to  Hesiod,  the  daugh- 
ter of  Night,  originally  the  personification  of  the 
moral  feeling  of  right  and  a  just  fear  of  crimi- 
nal actions;  m  other  words,  Conscience.  A  tem- 
ple was  erected  to  Nemesis  at  Attica.  She  was 
at  times  called  Adrastea  and  Rhamnusia,  and 
represented  in  the  earliest  days  a  young  virgin 
like  unto  Venus:  at  a  later  period,  as  older 
and  holding  a  helm  and  wheel.  At  Rhamnus 
there  was  a  statue  of  Nemesis  of  Parian  marble 
executed  by  Phidias.  The  festival  in  Greece 
held  in  her  honor  was  called  Nemefiia. 

Neocorus.  A  name  of  the  guardian  of  the 

Neophyte.  Greek,  vtofvru,  newly  planted. 
In  the  primitive  church,  it  signified  one  who 
had  recently  abandoned  Judaism  or  Pagan- 
ism and  embraced  Christianity  ;  and  in  the 
Roman  Church  those  recently  admitted  into 
its  communion  are  still  so  called.'  Hence  it 
has  also  been  applied  to  the  young  disciple  of 
any  art  or  science.  Thus  Ben  Jonson  calls  a 
young  actor,  at  his  first  entrance  "on  the 


boards,"  a  neophyte  player.  In  Freemasonry 
the  newly  initiated  and  uninstruoted  candi- 
date is  sometimes  so  designated. 

Neopiatooism.  A  philosophical  school, 
founded  at  Alexandria  in  Egypt,  which  added 
to  the  theosophic  theories  oFPlato  many  mys- 
tical doctrines  borrowed  from  the  East.  The 
principal  disciples  of  this  school  were  Philo- 
Judceus,  Plotinus,  Porphyry,  Jamblichus, 
Proclus,  and  Julian  the  Apostate^  Much 
of  the  symbolic  teaching  of  the  higher  de- 
grees of  Masonry  has  been  derived  from  the 
school  of  the  Neoplatonists,  especially  from 
the  writings  of  Jamblichus  and  Philo-Judaeus. 

NephsUa.  Festivals,  without  wine,  cele- 
brated in  honor  of  the  lesser  deities. 

Nergal.  (Heb.  bail)  The  synonym  of 
misfortune  and  ill-luck.  The  Hebrew  name 
for  Mars;  and  in  astrology  the  lesser  Malefic. 
The  word  in  Sanskrit  is  Nrigal. 

Ne  plus  Ultra.  Latin.  Nothing  more  be- 
yond. The  motto  adopted  for  the  degree  of 
Kadosh  by  its  founders,  when  it  was  sup- 
posed to  be  the  summit  of  Masonry,  beyond 
which  there  was  nothing  more  to  be  sought. 
And,  although  higher  degrees  have  been  since 
added,  the  motto  is  still  retained. 

Netherlands.  Speculative  Masonry  was 
first  introduced  in  the  Netherlands  by  the 
opening  at  The  Hague,  in  1731,  of  an  occa- 
sional Lodge  under  a  Deputation  granted  by 
Lord  Lovel,  G.  M.  of  England,  of  which  Dr. 
Desaguliers  was  Master,  tor  the  purpose  of 
conferring  the  -Fust  and  Second  degrees  on 
the  Duke  of  Lorraine,  afterward  the  Em- 
peror Francis  I.  He  received  the  Third  De- 
gree subsequently  in  England.  But  it  was 
not  until  September  30,  1734,  that  a  regular 
Lodge  was  opened  by  Bro.  Vincent  da  la 
Chapelle,  as  Grand  Master  of  the  United 
Provinces,  who  may  therefore  be  regarded  as 
the  originator  of  Masonry  in  the  Netherlands. 
In  1735,  this  Lodge  received  a  Patent  or  Dep- 
utation from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England. 
John  Cornelius  Rademaker  being  appointed 
Provincial  Grand  Master,  and  several  daugh- 
ter Lodges  were  established  by  it.  In  the 
same  year  the  States  General  prohibited  all 
Masonic  meetings  by  an  edict  issued  Novem- 
ber 30, 1735.  The  Roman  clergy  actively  per- 
secuted the  Masons,  which  seems  to  have  pro- 
duced a  reaction,  for  in  1737  the  magistrates 
repealed  the  edict  of  suppression,  and  forbade 
the  clergy  from  any  interference  with  the 
Order,  after  which  Masonry  flourished  in  the 
United  Provinces.  The  Masonic  innovations 
and  controversies  that  had  affected  the  rest 
of  the  continent  never  successfully  obtruded 
on  the  Dutch  Masons,  who  practised  with 
great  fidelity  the  simple  rite  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England,  although  an  attempt  had 
been  made  in  1757  to  introduce  them.  In 
1798,  the  Grand  Lodge  adopted  a  Book  of 
Statutes,  by  which  it  accepted  the  three  Sym- 
bolic degrees,  and  referred  the  four  high 
degrees  of  the  French  Rite  to  a  Grand  Chap- 
ter. In  1816,  Prince  Frederick  attempted  a 
reform  in  the  degrees,  which  was,  however, 
only  partially  successful.   The  Grand  Lodge 



of  the  Netherlands,  whose  Orient  is  at  The 
Hague,  tolerates  the  high  degrees  without  ac- 
tually recognizing  them.  Most  of  the  Lodges 
confine  themselves  to  the  Symbolic  degrees 
of  St.  John's  Masonry,  while,  a  few  practise 
the  reformed  system  of  Prince  Frederick. 

Network.  One  of  the  decorations  of  the 
pillars  at  the  porch  of  the  Temple.  (See  Pil- 
lars of  the  Porch.) 

Nevada.  Nevada  was  originally  a  part  of 
California,  and  when  separated  from  it  in 
1865,  there  were  eight  Lodges  in  it  working 
under  Charters  from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Cal- 
ifornia. These  Lodges  in  that  year  held  a 
convention  at  Virginia,  and  organized  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Nevada. 

Ne  Varietur.  Latin.  Lest  it  should  be 
changed.  These  words  refer  to  the  Masonic 
usage  of  requiring  a  Brother,  when  he  receives 
a  certificate  from  a  Lodge,  to  affix  his  name, 
in  his  own  handwriting,  in  the  margin,  as  a 
precautionary  measure,  which  enables  distant 
brethren,  by  a  comparison  of  the  handwriting, 
to  recognize  the  true  and  original  owner  of  the 
certificate,  and  to  detect  any  impostor  who 
may  surreptitiously  have  obtained  one. 

New  Brunswick.  Freemasonry  was  in- 
troduced into  this  province  about  the  middle 
of  the  last  century  by  both  the  Grand  Lodges 
of  Scotland  and  England,  and  afterward  by 
that  of  Ireland.  The  former  two  bodies  ap- 
pointed, at  a  later  period,  Provincial  Grand 
Masters,  and  in  1844  the  Provincial  Grand 
Lodge  of  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick 
was  organized  on  the  registry  of  Scotland. 
The  province  of  New  Brunswick  becoming  an 
independent  portion  of  the  Dominion  of  Can- 
ada, a  Grand  Lodge  was  established  in  Oc- 
tober, 1867,  by  a  majority  of  the  Lodges  of 
the  territory,  and  B.  Lester  Peters  was  elected 
Grand  Master.  Capitular,  Cryptic,  and  Tem- 
plar Masonry  each  have  bodies  in  the  Province. 

Newfoundland.  The  Ancient  Colony  of 
Newfoundland  still  remains  without  the  Con- 
federation of  the  Canadian  Provinces.  Ma- 
sonry in  this  island  dates  back  to  1746,  the 
first  Warrant  being  granted  by  the  Provincial 
Grand  Lodge  at  Boston.  Bro.  J.  Lane's  list 
gives  six  Lodges  warranted  in  the  eighteenth 
century.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  the  Ancients 
(England)  is  credited  with  four — one  in  1774 
and  three  in  1788— and  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
England  (Moderns)  with  two — one  each  in 
1784  and  1785.  Nine  others  were  chartered 
by  the  present  Grand  Lodge  of  England  up 
to  1881,  a  number  still  remaining  active. 

New  Hampshire.  Freemasonry  was  in- 
troduced into  New  Hampshire  in  June,  1734, 
by  the  constitution  of  St.  John's  Lodge  at 
Portsmouth,  under  a  Charter  from  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Massachusetts.  Several  other  Lodges 
were  subsequently  constituted  by  the  same  au- 
thority. In  1789  a  convention  of  these  Lodges 
was  neldat  Dartmouth,  and  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  New  Hampshire  organized,  and  John  Sulli- 
van, the  President  of  the  State,  was  elected 
Grand  Master.  A  Grand  Chapter  was  or- 
ganized in  1819,  and  a  Grand  Commandery  in 

New  Jersey.  The  history  of  Freemasonry 
in  New  Jersey  prior  to  the  establishment  of 
the  Grand  Lodge  m  a.d.  1786,  was  involved 
in  such  obscurity  that  only  by  the  diligence 
and  perseverance  of  the  late  Grand  Secretary 
Joseph  H.  Hough,  and  the  cooperation  of  an 
intelligent  historical  committee,  has  it  been 
possible  to  ascertain  and  collate  the  fragmen- 
tary and  scanty  data  into  a  sequent,  albeit 
incomplete,  narrative. 

The  general  upturning  due  to  the  Revolu- 
tionary War,  the  unsettled  conditions  which 
prevailed  for  many  years,  and  the  infrequency 
of  opportunity  for  Masonic  meetings,  must 
account  for  the  dispersion  of  such  records  as 
were  kept,  and  suggest  why  it  was  that  the 
information  contained  in  the  earlier  works 
purporting  to  be  Masonic  history  was  so  brief 
and  unsatisfactory  as  to  appear  to  be  tradi- 
tional rather  than  authentic.  The  researches 
of  this  committee  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  New 
Jersey  have  removed  much  of  the  obscurity 
surrounding  the  few  obtainable  facts. 

It  proved  the  issue  of  the  first  deputation 
by  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  then  Grand  Master 
of  England,  to  Daniel  Coxe,  on  June  5, 
1730,  empowering  the  latter  as  "Provincial 
Grand  Master  of  the  Provinces  of  New  York, 
New  Jersey  and  Pensilvania,  in  America." 
Diligent  search  in  the  archives  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England,  and  thorough  inquiry  for 
the  letters  and  papers  bearing  upon  the  sub- 
ject among  the  descendants  of  Bro.  Coxe, 
failed  to  disclose  any  testimony  whatever  of 
the  exercise  by  him,  or  by  anyone  acting 
under  his  authority,  of  the  prerogatives  con- 
tained in  that  deputation.  The  chronological 
fact  remains,  however,  that  Daniel  Coxe  was 
the  first  appointed  Provincial  Grand  Master 
of  Masons  in  the  new  world. 

The  establishment  of  the  first  Lodges  in 
New  Jersey  appears  to  be  recorded  as  follows: 
The  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  New  York, 
George  Harrison,  issued  a  warrant  erecting  a 
Lodge  m  the  city  of  Newark,  dated  May  13, 
1761,  and  although  the  minutes  of  this  Lodge 
are  not  continuous,  and  the  meetings  were 
intermitted,  once,  apparently  for  sixteen 
years,  yet  it  survives,  venerated  and  held  in 
high  regard  for  its  honorable  history,  as  St. 
John  s  Lodge,  No.  1,  upon  the  present  register. 

A  year  later  Provincial  Grand  Master  Jer- 
emy Gndley  of  Massachusetts  procured  the 
issue  of  a  deputation  to  erect  Temple  Lodge, 
No.  r  in  Elizabethtown,  dated  June  24,  1762, 
and  on  December  27,  1763,  the  same  Grand 
Lodge  granted  a  petition  for  the  erection  of  a 
Lodge  by  the  name  of  St.  John's,  at  Prince- 
ton. No  record  of  the  actual  transactions  of 
these  two  Lodges  has  been  discovered,  but 
the  late  Recording  Grand  Secretary  of  Massa- 
chusetts, was  the  sufficient  authority  for  the 
averment  that  both  Lodges  had  been  duly  or- 
ganized, and  did  Masonic  work,  evidenced  by 
documents  regarding  them,  which  were  sub- 
sequently destroyed  in  the  burning  of  the 
Masonic  Temple  in  Boston  in  1865.  After 
an  interval  of  three  years,  Provincial  Grand 
Master  Ball  of  Pennsylvania  warranted  a 


Lodge  at  Baskingridge,  N.  J,,  as  No.  10,  on 
the  register  of  Pennsylvania,  another  was 
warranted  in  1779  at  Middletown,  and  in  1781 
Burlington  Lodge,  No.  32,  was  given  existence. 

A  word  as  to  the  organization  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  New  Jersey.  A  convention  of  Free 
and  Accepted  Masons  was  held  pursuant  to 
notice  in  the  city  of  New  Brunswick  on  De- 
cember 18,  1786.  and  "being  Master  Masons, 
as  every  one  of  them  find  upon  strict  trial  and 
due  examination,  and  residing  in  the  state  of 
New  Jersey,  taking  into  consideration  the  pro- 
priety and  necessity  of  forming  a  Grand 
Lodge  of  F.  &  A.  M.  of  the  state  of  New  Jer- 
sey, do  hereby  unanimously  nominate  and 
elect  the  following  Master  Masons  to  the  sev- 
eral offices  following,  to  wit." 

The  civic  titles  of  the  respective  officers  fol- 
low: Chief  Justice,  Vice  President  of  New 
Jersey,  late  High  Sheriff,  Representative  in 
the  Assembly,  late  Colonel  in  the  Army  of 
the  U.  S.,  Clerk  of  the  General  Assembly  and 
another  High  Sheriff. 

Individual  Masons  therefore,  not  Lodges, 
had  the  honor  of  establishing  this  Grand 
Lodge,  the  complete  records  of  which,  care- 
fully preserved,  are  in  print  and  available  for 
information  respecting  the  growth  of  the  Fra- 
ternity in  New  Jersey. 

The  Grand  Chapter  was  organized  at  Bur- 
lington, December  30, 1856;  the  Grand  Coun- 
cil, November  26, 1860;  and  the  Grand  Com- 
mandery,  February  14,  i860;      {R.  A.  S.] 

New  Mexico.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  Mis- 
souri issued  warrants  to  the  following  Lodges 
in  New  Mexico,  viz.:  Aztec  Lodge,  No.  108; 
Chapman  Lodge,  No.  95;  and  Montezuma 
Lodge,  No.  109. 

These  Lodges  met  in  convention,  August  6, 
1877,  at  Santa  F6,  for  the  purpose  of  discussing 
the  question  of  forming  a  Grand  Lodge. 
Bro.  Simon  B.  Newcomb  presided.  The 
committee  on  credentials  found  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  three  above-mentioned 
Lodges  to  be  present. 

The  next  day  a  Constitution  and  By-Laws 
were  adopted,  the  Grand  Officers  were  elected 
and  installed,  Bro.  Wm.  W.  Griffin  being 
M.  W.  Grand  Master,  and  David  J.  Miller 
R.  W.  Grand  Secretary. 

New  Templars.  An  Order  of  five  degrees 
instituted  in  France  in  the  early  part  of  this 
century.  The  degrees  were  termed — Initiati; 
Intimi  Initiati;  Adepti;  Orientates  Adepti; 
and  Magnse  aquilse  nigra  sancti  Johannes 
Apostoli  Adepti. 

New  York.  The  first  Deputation  for  the 
American  Colonies  was  that  of  Daniel  Coxe  by 
the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  tor  the  Provinces  of 
New  York,  New  Jerseyand  Pennsylvania,  and 
was  for  two  years.  There  are  no  authentic 
records  that  he  exercised  his  authority.  Rich- 
ard Riggs  was  appointed  by  the  Earl  of  Darn- 
ley,  November  15, 1737,  but,  as  with  his  pred- 
ecessor, there  are  no  records  extant  except 
newspaper  notices  of  meetings  of  "the 
Lodge."  Francis  Goelet  was  appointed  by 
Lord  Byron  in  1751,  and  was  succeeded  by 
George  Harrison,  appointed  June  9,  1753,  by 


Lord  Carysfort.  Harrison  chartered  Lodges 
in  New  York,  New  Jersey,  Connecticut,  and 
Michigan.  Sir  John  Johnson  was  appointed 
by  Lord  Blany  in  1767,  but  did  not  assume 
office  until  1771,  and  was  the  last  of  the  "  Mod- 
ern" Provincial  Grand  Masters.  The  pres- 
ent Grand  Lodge  was  organized  December  15, 
1782,  under  a  Provincial  Grand  Warrant  from 
the  "Atholl"  Grand  Lodge,  dated  September 
5,  1781,  declared  its  independence  June  6, 
1787,  and  assumed  the  title  of  the  "Grand 
Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  of  the 
State  of  New  York."  There  have  been  four 
schisms,  all  of  which  were  creditably  adjusted. 
A  Grand  Chapter  was  organized  in  1783,  which 
had  but  a  short  existence  and  was  succeeded 
by  the  present  Grand  Chapter  March  4,  1798. 
The  Grand  Commandery  was  organized  June 
18,  1814,  and  the  Grand  Council  Royal  and 
Select  Masters  January  25,  1823.  The  Su- 
preme Council,  Northern  Jurisdiction,  A.  A. 
S.  R.  was  organized  by  Emmanuel  De  La 
Motta  in  New  York  City  in  1813,  but  was  pre- 
ceded by  a  Lodge  of  Perfection  at  Albany. 
N.  Y.,  in  1767.  [W.  J.  A.] 

Nick.  (Danish,  Nikken.)  The  spirit  of  the 
waters,  an  enemy  of  man,  the  devil,  or  in  the 
vulgate  "Old  Nick." 

Nicolal,  Christoph  Friedrich.  Chris- 
topher Frederick  Nicolai.  author  of  a  very  in- 
teresting essay  on  the  origin  of  the  Society  of 
Freemasons,  was  a  bookseller  of  Berlin,  and 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  German 
savants  of  that  Augustan  age  of  German  liter- 
ature in  which  he  lived.  He  was  born  at  Ber- 
lin on  the  18th  of  March,  1733,  and  died  in  the 
same  city  on  the  8th  of  January,  1811.  He 
was  the  editor  of,  and  an  industrious  con- 
tributor to,  two  German  periodicals  of  high 
literary  character,  a  learned  writer  on  various 
subjects  of  science  and  philosophy,  and  the 
intimate  friend  of  Lessing,  whose  works  he 
edited,  and  of  the  illustrious  Mendelssohn. 

In  1782-3,  he  published  a  work  with  the  fol- 
lowing title:  Versuch  uber  die  Beschuldigun- 
gen  welehe  dem  Tempelherrnorden  gemacht 
worden  und  fiber  dessen  Geheimniss;  nebst 
einem  Anhange  Uber  das  Entstehen  der  Freir 
maurergesellschaft;  i.  e.,  "An  Essay  on  the 
accusations  made  against  the  Order  of  Knights 
Templars  and  their  mystery;  with  an  Appen- 
dix on  the  origin  of  the  Fraternity  of  Free- 
masons." In  this  work  Nicolai  advanced  his 
peculiar  theory  on  the  origin  of  Freemasonry, 
which  is  substantially  as  follows: 

Lord  Bacon,  taking  certain  hints  from  the 
writings  of  Andrea,  the  founder  of  Rosicru- 
cianism  and  his  English  disciple,  Fludd,  on 
the  subject  of  the  regeneration  of  the  world, 
proposed  to  accomplish  the  same  object,  but 
by  a  different  and  entirely  opposite  method. 
For,  whereas,  they  explained  everything  eso- 
terically,  Bacon's  plan  was  to  abolish  all  dis- 
tinction between  the  esoteric  and  the  exoteric, 
and  to  demonstrate  everything  by  proofs 
from  nature.  This  idea  he  first  promulgated 
in  his  Instauratio  Magna,  but  afterward  more 
fully  developed  in  his  New  Atlantis.  In  this 
latter  work,  he  introduced  his  beautiful  apo- 


logue,  abounding  in  Masonic  ideas,  in  which  he 
described  the  unknown  island  of  Bensalem, 
where  a  king  had  built  a  large  edifice,  called 
after  himself,  Solomon's  House.  Charles  L> 
it  is  said,  had  been  much  attracted  by  this 
idea,  and  had  intended  to  found  something  of 
the  kind  upon  the  plan  of  Solomon's  Temple, 
but  the  occurrence  of  the  Civil  War  prevented 
the  execution  of  the  project. 

The  idea  lay  for  Some  time  dormant,  but 
was  subsequently  revived,  in  1646,  by  Watts, 
Wilkins,  and  several  other  learned  men,  who 
established  the  Royal  Society  for  the  purpose 
of  carrying  out  Bacon's  plan  Of  communicating 
to  the  world  scientific  and  philosophical  truths. 
About  the  same  time  another  society  was 
formed  by  other  learned  men,  who  sought  to 
arrive  at  truth  by  the  investigations  of  al- 
chemy and  astrology.   To  this  society  such 
men  as  Ashmole  ana  Lily  were  attached,  and 
they  resolved  to  construct  a  House  of  Solo- 
mon in  the  island  of  Bensalem,  where  they 
might  communicate  their  instructions  by 
means  of  secret  symbols.   To  cover  then" 
mysterious  designs,  they  got  themselves  ad- 
mitted into  the  Masons'  Company,  and  hew 
their  meetings  at  Masons'  Hall,  in  Masons' 
Alley,  Basinghail  Street.   As  freemen  of 
London,  they  took  the  name  of  Freemasons, 
and  naturally  adopted  the  Masonic  imple- 
ments as  symbols.   Although  this  association, 
like  the  Royal  Society,  sought,  but  by  a  differ- 
ent method,  to  inculcate  the  principles  of  nat- 
ural science  and  philosophy,  it  subsequently 
took  a  political  direction.    Most  of  its  mem- 
bers were  strongly  opposed  to  the  puritanism 
of  the  dominant  party  and  were  in  favor  of 
the  royal  cause,  and  hence  their  meetings, 
ostensibly  held  for  the  purpose  of  scientific 
investigation,  were  really  used  to  conceal  their 
secret  political  efforts  to  restore  the  exiled 
house  of  Stuart.    From  this  society,  which 
subsequently  underwent  a  decadence,  sprang 
the  revival  in  1717,  which  culminated  in  the 
establishment  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England. 

Such  was  the  theory  of  Nicolai.  Few  will 
be  found  at  the  present  day  to  conour  in  all  his 
views,  yet  none  can  refuse  to  award  tohim  the 
praise  of  independence  of  opinion,  originality 
of  thought,  and  an  entire  avoidance  of  the 
beaten  paths  of  hearsay  testimony  and  unsup- 
ported tradition.  His  results  may  be  rejected, 
but  his  method  of  attaining  them  must  be 

Kicotlates,  Order  of.  A  secret  order 
mentioned  by  Clavel,  teaching  the  doctrines 
of  Pythagoras. 

Night.  Lodges,  all  over  the  world,  meet, 
except  on  special  occasions,  at  night.  In.  this 
selection  of  the  hours  of  night  and  darkness  for 
initiation,  the  usual  coincidence  will  be  found 
between  the  ceremonies  of  Freemasonry  and 
those  of  the  Ancient  Mysteries,  showing  then- 
evident  derivation  from  a  common  origin. 
Justin  says  that  at  Eleusis,  Triptoleraus  in- 
vented the  art  of  sowing  corn,  and  that,  in 
honor  of  this  invention,  the  nights  were  con- 
secrated to  initiation.  The  application  is, 
however,  rather  abstruse. 


In  the  Bacchoe  of  Euripides,  that  author  in- 
troduces the  god  Bacchus,  the  supposed  in- 
ventor of  the  Dionysian  mysteries,  as  replying 
to  the  question  of  King  Pentheua  in  the  fol- 
lowing words: 

HEN.    Ti  S'ltfttL  mfcrop,  $  uttt  ij/xipor  rrAett ; 
A0I.     Ni/trtop  T«  iroAAa  v*p.v6fn)T  o\€t  okoTik. 

Eurip.  Bacch.  Act  II.,  1.  485. 

"PenCkeux. — By  night  or  day,  these  sacred  rites 
perform'st  thou? 
Bacchus. — Mostly  by  night,  for  venerable  is 

and  in  all  the  other  mysteries  the  same  reason 
was  assigned  for  nocturnal  celebrations,  since 
night  and  darkness  have  something  solemn 
and  august  in  them  which  is  disposed  to  fill 
the  mind  with  sacred  awe.  And  nence  black, 
as  an  emblem  of  darkness  and  night,  was  con- 
sidered as  the  color  appropriate  to  the  myster- 

In  the  mysteries  of  Hindustan,  the  candi- 
date for  initiation,  having  been  duly  prepared 
by  previous  purifications,  was  led  at  the  dead 
of  night  to  the  gloomy  cavern,  in  which  the 
mystic  rites  were  performed. 

The  same  period  of  darkness  was  adopted 
for  the  celebration  of  the  mysteries  of  Mithras, 
in  Persia.  Among  the  Druids  of  Britain  and 
Gaul,  tide  principal  annual  initiation  com- 
menced at  "low  twelve,"  or  midnight  of  the 
eve  of  May-day.  In  short,  it  is  indisputable 
that  the  initiations  in  all  the  Ancient  Mys- 
teries were  nocturnal  in  their  character. 

The  reason  given  by  the  ancients  for  this 
selection  of  night  as  the  time  for  initiation,  is 
equally  applicable  to  the  system  of  Freema- 
sonry. "Darkness,"  says  Oliver,  "was  an 
emblem  of  death,  and  death  was  a  prelude  to 
resurrection.  It  will  be  at  once  seen,  there- 
fore, in  what  manner  the  doctrine  of  the  res- 
urrection was  inculcated  and  exemplified  in 
these  remarkable  institutions." 

Death  and  the  resurrection  were  the  doc- 
trines taught  in  the  Ancient  Mysteries;  and 
night  and  darkness  were  necessary  to  add  to 
the  sacred  awe  and  reverence  which  these  doc- 
trines ought  always  to  inspire  in  the  rational 
and  contemplative  mind.  The  same  doc- 
trines form  the  very  groundwork  of  Free- 
masonry; and  as  the  Master  Mason,  to  use 
the  language  of  Hutchinson,  "represents  a 
man  saved  from  the  grave  of  imquity  and 
raised  to  the  faith  of  salvation,"  darkness  and 
night  are  the  appropriate  accompaniments  to 
the  solemn  ceremonies  which  demonstrate 
this  profession. 

Nfhongl.  ("Chronicles  of  Nihon.")  The 
companion  of  the  Kojiki;  the  two  works  to- 
gether forming  the  doctrinal  and  historic  basis 
of  Sintonism.  The  Japanese  adherents  of 
Sinsyn  are  termed  Sintus,  or  Sintoos,  who 
worship  the  gods,  the  chief  of  which  is  Ten-sio- 
dai-yin.  The  Nihongi  was  composed  about 
720  a.d.,  with  the  evident  design  of  giving_  a 
Chinese  coloring  to  the  subject-matter  of  the 
Kojiki,  upon  which  it  is  founded. 

Nile.  There  is  a  tradition  in  the  old  Ma- 
sonic Records  that  the  inundations  of  the  river 


Nile,  in  Egypt,  continually  destroying  the 
perishable  landmarks  by  which  one  man  could 
distinguish  his  possessions  from  those  of  an- 
other, Euclid  instructed  the  people  in  the  art 
of  geometry,  by  which  they  might  measure 
their  lands;  and  then  taught  them  to  bound 
them  with  walls  and  ditches,  so  that  after  an 
inundation  each  man  could  identify  his  own 

The  tradition  is  given  in  the  Cooke  MS. 
thus:  "Euclyde  was  one  of  the  first  founders 
of  Geometry,  and  he  gave  hit  name,  for  in 
his  tyme  there  was  a  water  in  that  lond  of 
Egypt  that  is  called  Nilo,  and  hit  flowid  so 
f  erre  into  the  londe  that  men  myght  not  dwelle 
therein.  Then  this  worthi  clerke  Enclide 
taught  hem  to  make  grete  wallys  and  diches  to 
holde  owt  the  watyr,  and  he  by  Gemetria 
mesured  the  londe  and  departyd  hit  in  divers 
partys,  and  made  every  man  to  close  his  owne 
parte  with  walles  and  diches."  (Lines  455-472.) 
This  legend  of  the  origin  of  the  art  of  geometry 
was  borrowed  by  the  old  Operative  Masons 
from  the  Origines  of  St.  Isidore  of  Seville, 
where  a  similar  story  is  told. 

NB  nisi  elavts  deest.  Latin.  Nothing  but 
the  key  is  wanting.  A  motto  or  device  often 
attached  to  the  double  triangle  of  Royal  Arch 
Masonry.  It  is  inscribed  on  the  Royal  Arch 
badge  or  jewel  of  the  Grand  Chapter  of  Scot- 
land, the  other  devices  being  a  double  triangle 
and  a  triple  tau. 

Nimrod.  The  legend  of  the  Craft  in  the 
Old' Constitutions  refers  to  Nimrod  as  one  of 
the  founders  of  Masonry.  Thus  in  the  York 
MS.,  No.  1,  we  read :  "At  ye  makeing  of 
ye  Toure  of  Babell  there  was  Masonrie  first 
much  esteemed  of,  and  the  King  of  Babilon 
y'  was  called  Nimrod  was  A  mason  himself  e 
and  loved  well  Masons."  And  the  Cooke 
MS.  thus  repeats  the  story:  "And  this  same 
Nembroth  began  the  towre  of  babilon  and  he 
taught  to  his  werkemen  the  craft  of  Masonrie, 
and  he  had  with  him  many  Masons  more  than 
forty  thousand.  And  he  loved  and  cherished 
them  well."  (Line  343.J  The  idea  no  doubt 
sprang  out  of  the  Scriptural  teaching  that 
Nimrod  was  the  architect  of  many  cities;  a 
statement  not  so  well  expressed  in  the  author- 
ized version,  as  it  is  in  the  improved  one  of 
Bochart,  which  says:  "From  that  land  Nim- 
rod went  forth  to  Asshur,  and  builded  Nine- 
veh, and  Rehoboth  city,  and  Calah,  and  Resen 
between  Nineveh  and  Calah,  that  is  the  great 

Nine*  If  the  number  three  was  celebrated 
among  the  ancient  sages,  that  of  three  times 
three  had  no  less  celebrity;  because,  according 
to  them,  each  of  the  three  elements  which  con- 
stitute our  bodies  is  ternary:  the  water  con- 
taining earth  and  fire;  the  earth  containing 
igneous  and  aqueous  particles;  and  the  fire 
being  tempered  by  globules  of  water  and  ter- 
restrial corpuscles  which  serve  to  feed  it.  No 
one  of  the  three  elements  being  entirely  sep- 
arated from  the  others,  all  material  beings 
composed  of  these  three  elements,  whereof 
each  is  triple,  may  be  designated  by  the  fig- 
urative number  of  three  times  three,  which  has 



become  the  symbol  of  all  formations  of  bodies. 
Hence  the  name  of  ninth  envelop  given  to 
matter.  Every  material  extension,  every  cir- 
cular line,  has  for  its  representative  sign  the 
number  nine  among  the  Pythagoreans,  who, 
had  observed  the  property  which  this  number 
possesses  of  reproducing  itself  incessantly  and 
entire  in  every  multiplication;  thus  offering  to 
the  mind  a  very  striking  emblem  of  matter, 
which  is  incessantly  composed  before  our  eyes, 
after  having  undergone  a  thousand  decompo- 

The  number  nine  was  consecrated  to  the 
Spheres  and  the  Muses.  It  is  the  sign  of  every 
circumference;  because  a  circle  or  360  degrees 
is  equal  to  9,  that  is  to  say,  3+6  +  6  -  9. 
Nevertheless,  the  ancients  regarded  this  num- 
ber with  a  sort  of  terror;  they  considered  it  a 
bad  presage;  as  the  symbol  of  versatility,  of 
change,  and  the  emblem  of  the  frailty  of 
human  affairs.  Wherefore  they  avoided  all 
numbers  where  nine  appears,  and  chiefly  81, 
the  produce  of  9  multiplied  by  itself,  and  the 
addition  whereof,  8  +  1,  again  presents  the 
number  9. 

As  the  figure  of  the  number  6  was  the 
symbol  of  the  terrestrial  globe,  animated  by  a 
Divine  spirit,  the  figure  of  the  number  9  sym- 
bolised the  earth,  under  the  influence  of  the 
Evil  Principle;  and  thence  the  terror  it  in- 
spired. Nevertheless,  according  to  the  Kab- 
balists,  the  cipher  9  symbolizes  the  generative 
egg,  or  the  image  of  a  little  globular  being, 
from  whose  lower  side  seems  to  flow  its  spirit 
of  life. 

The  Ennead,  signifying  an  aggregate  of 
nine  things  or  persons,  is  the  first  square  of 
unequal  numbers. 

Everyone  is  aware  of  the  singular  properties 
of  the  number  9,  which,  multiplied  by  itself  or 
any  other  number  whatever,  gives  a  result 
whose  final  sum  is  always  9,  or  always  divis- 
ible by  9. 

9,  multiplied  by  each  of  the  ordinary  num- 
bers, produces  an  arithmetical  progression, 
each  member  whereof,  composed  of  two  fig- 
ures, presents  a  remarkable  fact;  for  exam-' 

1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9. 10 
9  .  18  .  27  .  36  .  45  .  54  .  63  .  72  .  81 .  90 

The  first  line  of  figures  gives  the  regular 
series,  from  1  to  10. 

The  second  reproduces  this  line  doubly: 
first  ascending  from  the  first  figure  of  18,  and 
then  returning  from  the  second  figure  of  81. 

In  Freemasonry,  9  derives  its  value  from  its 
being  the  product  of  3  multiplied  into  itself,  : 
and  consequently  in  Masonic  language  the 
number  9  is  always  denoted  by  the  expression 
3  times  3.  For  a  similar  reason,  27,  which  is 
3  times  9,  and  81,  which  is  9  times  9,  are  es- 
teemed as  sacred  numbers  in  the  higher  de- 

Nineveh.  The  capital  of  the  ancient  king- 
dom of  Assyria,  and  built  by  Nimrod.  The 
traditions  of  its  greatness  and  the  magnifi- 
cence of  its  buildings  were  familiar  to  the 

514  NISAN 


Arabs,  the  Greeks,  and  the  Romans.  The 
modern  discoveries  of  Rich,  of  Botta,  and 
other  explorers,  have  thrown  much  light  upon 
its  ancient  condition,  and  have  shown  that  it 
was  the  seat  of  much  architectural  splendor 
and  of  a  profoundly  symbolical  religion,  which 
had  something  of  the  characteristics  of  the 
Mithraic  worship.  In  the  mythical  relations 
of  the  Old  Constitutions,  which  make  up  the 
legend  of  the  Craft,  it  is  spoken  of  as  the  an- 
cient birthplace  of  Masonry,  where  Nimrod, 
who  was  its  builder,  and  "was  a  Mason  and 
loved  well  the  Craft,"  employed  60,000  Ma- 
sons to  build  it,  and  gave  them  a  charge  "that 
they  should  be  true,  and  this,  says  the  Har- 
leian  MS.,  No.  1942,  was  the  first  time  that 
any  Mason  had  any  charge  of  Craft. 

Nlsan.  The  seventh  month  of  th& 

Hebrew  civil  year,  and  corresponding  to  the 
months  of  March  and  April,  commencing  with 
the  new  moon  of  the  former. 

Noachldre.  The  descendants  of  Noah. 
A  term  applied  to  Freemasons  on  the  theory, 
derived  from  the  "legend  of  the  Craft,"  that 
Noah  was  the  father  and  founder  of  the 
Masonic  system  of  theology.  And  hence  the 
Freemasons  claim  to  be  his  descendant,  be- 
cause in  times  past  they  preserved  the  pure 
principles  of  his  religion  amid  the  corruptions 
of  surrounding  faiths. 

Dr.  Anderson  first  used  the  word  in  this 
sense  in  the  second  edition  of  the  Jtoofc  o/  Con- 
stitutions: "A  Mason  is  obliged  by  his  tenure 
to  observe  the  moral  law  as  a  true  Noa- 
chida."  But  he  was  not  the  inventor  of  the 
term,  for  it  occurs  in  a  letter  sent  by  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Cal- 
cutta in  1735,  which  letter  is  preserved  among 
the  Rawlinson.MSS.  in  the  Bodleian  Library, 
Oxford.   (See  Ars  Quatuor  Coronatarum,  xi., 


Noachlte,  or  Prussian  Knight.  (Moachite 
ou  Chevalier  Prussien.)  1.  The  Twenty-first 
Degree  of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scot- 
tish Rite.  The  history  as  well  as  the  charac- 
ter of  this  degree  is  a  very  singular  one.  It  is 
totally  unconnected  with  the  series  of  Masonic 
degrees  which  are  founded  upon  the  Temple  of 
Solomon,  and  is  traced  to  the  tower  of  Babel. 
Hence  the  Prussian  Knights  call  themselves 
Noachites,  or  Disciples  of  Noah,  while  they 
designate  all  other  Masons'  as  Hiramites,  or 
Disciples  of  Hiram.  The  early  French  rit- 
uals Btate  that  the  degree  was  translated  in 
1757  from  the  German  by  M.  de  Beraye, 
Knight  of  Eloquence  in  the  Lodge  of  the 
Count  St.  Gelaire,  Inspector-General  of  Prus- 
sian Lodges  in  France.  Leaning  gives  no 
credit  to  this  statement,  but  admits  that  the 
origin  of  the  degree  must  be  attributed  to 
the  year  above  named.  The  destruction  of  the 
tower  of  Babel  constitutes  the  legend  of  the 
degree,  whose  mythical  founder  is  said  to  have 
been  Peleg,  the  chief  builder  of  that  edifice. 
A  singular  regulation  is  that  there  shall  be  no 
artificial  light  in  the  Lodge  room,  and  that  the 
meetings  shall  be  held  on  the  night  of  the  full 
moon  of  each  month. 

The  degree  was  adopted  by  the  Council  of 

Emperors  of  the  East  and  West,  and  in  that 
way  became  subsequently  a  part  of  the  system 
of  the  Scottish  Rite.  But  it  is  misplaced  in 
any  series  of  degrees  supposed  to  emanate 
from  the  Solomonic  Temple.  It  is,  as  an  un- 
fitting link,  an  unsightly  .interruption  of  the  - 
chain  of  legendary  symbolism  substituting 
Noah  for  Solomon,  and  Peleg  for  Hiram  Abif. 
The  Supreme  Council  for  the  Southern  Jurist 
diction  has  abandoned  the  original  ritual  and 
made  the  degree  a  representation  of  the  Vehm- 
gericht  or  Westphalian  Franc  Judges.  But 
this  by  no  means  relieves  the  degree  of  the 
objection  of  Masonic  incompatibility.  That 
it  was  ever  adopted  into  the  Masonic  system 
is  only  to  be  attributed  to  the  passion  for  high 
degrees  which  prevailed  in  France  in  the  mid- 
dle of  the  last  century. 

In  the  modern  ritual  the  meetings  are  called 
Grand  Chapters.  The  officers  are  a  Lieuten- 
ant Commander,  two  Wardens,  an  Orator, 
Treasurer,  Secretary,  Master  of  Ceremonies, 
Warder,;  and  Standard-Bearer.  The  apron  is 
yellow,  inscribed  with  an  ami  holding*  Sword 
and  the  Egyptian  figure  of  silence.  The  order 
is  black,  and  the  jewel  a  full  moon  or  a  triangle 
traversed  by  an  arrow.  In  the  original  ritual 
there  is  a  coat  of  arms  belonging  to  the  degree, 
which  is  thus  emblazoned:  Party  per  Teas; 
in  chief,  azure,  seme  of  stars,  or  a  full  moon, 
argent;  in  base,  sable,  an  equilateral  triangle, 
having  an  arrow  suspended  from  its  upper 
point,  barb  downward,  or. 

The  legend  of  the  degree  describes  the  trav- 
els of  Peleg  from  Babel  to  the  north  of  Europe, 
and  ends  with  the  following  narrative;  "In 
trenching  the  rubbish  of  the  salt-mines  of 
Prussia  was  f  ound  in  a.  d.  553,  at  a  depth  of 
fifteen  cubits,  the  appearance  of  a  triangular 
building  in  which  was  a  column  of  white  mar- 
ble, on  which  was  written  in  Hebrew  the  whole 
history  of  the  Noachites.  At  the  side^of  this 
column  was  a  tomb  of  freestone  on  which  was 
a  piece  of  agate  inscribed  with  the  following 
epitaph:  Here  rest  the  ashes  of  Peleg,  our 
Grand  Architect  of  the  tower  of  Babel.  The 
Almighty  had  pity  on  him  because  he  became 

This  legend,  although  wholly  untenable  on 
historic  grounds,  *is  not  absolutely  puerile. 
The  dispersion  of  the  human  race  in  the  time 
of  Peleg  had  always  been  a  topic  of  discussion 
among  the  learned.  Long  dissertations  had 
been  written  to  show  that  all  the- nations  of 
the  world,  even  America,  had  been  peopled  by 
the  three  sons  of  Noah  and  their  descendants. 
The  object  of  the  legend  seems,  then,  to  have 
been  to  impress  the  idea  of  the  thorough  dis- 
persion. The  fundamental  idea  of  the  degree 
is,  under  the  symbol  of  Peleg,  to  teach  the 
crime  of  assumption  and  the  virtue  of  humil- 

2.  The  degree  was  also  adopted  into  tike 
Rite  of  Mizraim,  where  it  is  the  Thirty-fifth. 

Noachite,  Sovereign.  {Noachite Sou- 
verain.)  A  degree  contained  in  the  nomencla- 
ture of  Fustier. 

Noachites.  The  same  as  Noachida,  which 


Noah.  In  all  the  old  Masonic  manuscript 
Constitutions  that  are  extant.  Noah  and  the 
flood  play  an  important  part  in  the  "Legend 
of  the  Craft."  Hence,  as  the  Masonic  system 
became  developed,  the  Patriarch  was  looked 
upon  as  what  was  called  a  patron  of  Masonry, 
And  this  connection  of  Noah  with  the  mythic 
history  of  the  Order  was  rendered  still  closer  by 
the  influence  of  many  symbols  borrowed  from 
the  Arkite  worship,  one  of  the  most  predomi- 
nant of  the  ancient  faiths.  So  intimately  were 
incorporated  the  legends  of  Noah  with  the 
legends  of  Masonry  that  Freemasons  began, 
at  length,  to  be  called,  and  are  still  called, 
"Noachidee,"  or  the  descendants  of  Noah,  a 
term  first  applied  by  Anderson,  and  very  fre- 
quently used  at  the  present  day. 

It  is  necessary,  therefore,  that  every  scholar 
who  desires  to  investigate  the  legendary  sym- 
bolism of  Freemasonry  should  make  himself 
acquainted  with  the  Noachic  myths  upon 
which  much  of  it  is  founded.  Or.  Oliver,  it  is 
true,  accepted  them  all  with  a  childlike  faith; 
but  it  is  not  likely  that  the  skeptical  inquirers 
of  the  present  day  will  attribute  to  them  any 
character  of  authenticity.  Yet  they  are  in- 
teresting, because  they  show  us  the  growth  of 
legends  out  of  symbols,  and  they  are  instruc- 
tive because  they  are  for  the  most  part  sym- 

The  "Legend  of  the  Craft "  tells  us  that  the 
three  sons  of  Lamech  and  his  daughter, 
Naamah,  "did  know  that  God  would  take 
vengeance  for  sin,  either  by  fire  or  water; 
wherefore  they  wrote  these  sciences  which 
they  had  found  in  two  pillars  of  stone,  that 
they  might  be  found  after  the  flood."  Sub- 
sequently, this  legend  took  a  different  form, 
and  to  Enoch  was  attributed  the  precaution 
of  burying  the  stone  of  foundation  in  the 
bosom  of  Mount  Moriah,  and  of  erecting  the 
two  pillars  above  it. 

The  first  Masonic  myth  referring  to  Noah 
that  presents  itself  is  one  which  teas  us  that, 
while  he  was  piously  engaged  in  the  task  of 
exhorting  his  contemporaries  to  repentance, 
his  attention  had  often  been  directed  to  the 
pillars  which  Enoch  had  erected  on  Mount 
Moriah.  By  diligent  search  he  at  length  de- 
tected the  entrance  to  the  subterranean  vault, 
and,  on  pursuing  his  inquiries,  discovered  the 
stone  of  foundation,  although  he  was  unable 
to  comprehend  the  mystical  characters  there 
deposited.  Leaving  these,  therefore,  where 
he  had  found  them,  he  simply  took  away  the 
stone  of  foundation  on  which  they  had  been 
deposited,  and  placed  it  in  the  ark  as  a  con- 
venient altar. 

Another  myth,  preserved  in  one  of  the  inef- 
fable degrees,  informs  us  that  the  ark  was 
built  of  cedars  which  grew  upon  Mount  Leb- 
anon, and  that  Noah  employed  the  Sidonians 
to  cut  them  down,  under  the' superintendence 
of  Jspheth.  The  successors  of  these  Sidoni- 
ans, m  after  times,  according  to  the  same  tra- 
dition, were  employed  by  King  Solomon  to 
fell  and  prepare  cedars  on  the  same  mountain 
for  his  stupendous  Temple. 

The  record  of  Genesis  lays  the  foundation 

NOAH  515 

for  another  series  of  symbolic  myths  con- 
nected with  the  dove,  which  has  thus  been  in- 
troduced into  Masonry. 

.After  forty  days,  when  Noah  opened  the 
window  of  the  ark  that  he  might  learn  if  the 
waters  had  subsided,  he  despatched  a  raven, 
Which,  returning,  gave  him  no  satisfactory  in- 
formation. He  then  sent  forth  a  dove  three 
several  times,  at  an  interval  of  seven  days 
between  each  excursion.  The  first  time,  the 
dove,  finding  no  resting-place,  quickly  re- 
turned; the  second  time  she  came  back  in 
the  evening,  bringing  in  her  mouth  an  olive- 
leaf,  which  showed  that  the  waters  must  have 
sufficiently  abated  to  have  exposed  the  tops 
of  the  trees;  but  on  the  third  departure,  the 
dry  land  being  entirely  uncovered,  she  re- 
turned no  more. 

In  the  Arkite  rites,  which  arose  after  the 
dispersion  of  Babel,  the  dove  was  always  con- 
sidered as  a  sacred  bird,  in  commemoration  of 
its  having  been  the  first  discoverer  of  land.  Its 
name,  which  in  Hebrew  is  ionak,  was  given  to 
one  of  the  earliest  nations  of  the  earth;  and, 
as  the  emblem  of  peace  and  good  fortune,  it 
became  the  bird  of  Venus.  Modern  Masons 
have  commemorated  the  messenger  of  Noah 
in  the  honorary  degree  of  "Ark  and  Dove," 
which  is  sometimes  conferred  on  Royal  Arch 

On  the  27th  day  of  the  second  month,  equiva- 
lent to  the  12th  of  November,  in  the  year  of 
the  world  1657,  Noah,  with  his  family,  left  the 
ark.  It  was  exactly  one  year  of  368  days,  or 
just  one  revolution  of  the  sun,  that  the  patri- 
arch was  enclosed  in  the  ark.  This  was  not 
unobserved  by  the  descendants  of  Noah,  and 
hence,  in  consequence  of  Enoch's  life  of  365 
days,  and  Noah's  residence  in  the  ark  for  the 
same  apparently  mystic  period,  the  Noachites 
confounded  the  worship  of  the  solar  orb  with 
the  idolatrous  adoration  which  they  paid  to 
the  patriarchs  who  were  saved  from  the  del- 
uge. They  were  led  to  this,  too,  from  an  ad- 
ditional reason,  that  Noah,  as  the  restorer 
of  the  human  race,  seemed,  in  some  sort,  to 
be  a  type  of  the  regenerating  powers  of  the 

So  important  an  event  as  the  deluge,  must 
have  produced  a  most  impressive  effect  upon 
the  religious  dogmas  and  rites  of  the  nations 
which  succeeded  it.  Consequently,  we  shall 
find  some  allusion  to  it  in  the  annals  of  every 
people  and  some  memorial  of  the  principal 
circumstances  connected  with  it,  in  their 
religious  observances.  At  first,  it  is  to  be  sup- 
posed that  a  veneration  for  the  character  of 
the  second  parent  of  the  human  race  must 
have  been  long  preserved  by  his  descendants. 
Nor  would  they  have  been  unmindful  of  the 
proper  reverence  due  to  that  sacred  vessel — 
sacred  in  their  eyes — which  had  preserved 
their  great  progenitor  from  the  fury  of  the 
waters.  "They  would  long  cherish,"  says 
Alwood  (Lit.  Antig.  of  Greece,  p.  182),  "the 
memory  of  those  worthies  who  were  rescued 
from  the  common  lot  of  utter  ruin;  they 
would  call  to  mind,  with  an  extravagance  ot 
admiration,  the  means  adopted  for  their  pres- 

516  NOAH 

ervation;  they  would  adore  the  wisdom  which 
contrived,  and  the  goodness  which  prompted 
to,  the  execution  of  such  a  plan."  So  pious 
a  feeling  would  exist,  and  be  circumscribed 
within  its  proper  limits  of  reverential  grati- 
tude, while  the  legends  of  the  deluge  continued 
to  be  preserved  in  their  purity,  and  while 
the  Divine  preserver  of  Noah  was  remembered 
as  the  one  god  of  his  posterity.  But  when, 
by  the  confusion  and  dispersion  at  Babel,  the 
true  teachings  of  Enoch  and  Noah  were  lost, 
and  idolatry  or  polytheism  was  substituted 
for  the  ancient  faith,  then  Noah  became  a 
god,  worshiped  under  different  names  in  dif- 
ferent countries,  and  the  ark  was  transformed 
into  the  temple  of  the  Deity.  Hence  arose 
those  peculiar  systems  of  initiations  which, 
known  under  the  name  of  the  "  Arkite  rites," 
formed  a  part  of  the  worship  of  the  ancient 
world,  and  traces  of  which  are  to  be  found 
in  almost  all  the  old  systems  of  religion. 

It  was  in  the  six  hundredth  year  of  his  age, 
that  Noah,  with  his  family,  was  released  from 
the  ark.  Grateful  for  his  preservation,  he 
erected  an  altar  and  prepared  a  sacrifice  of 
thank-offerings  to  the  Deity.  A  Masonic 
tradition  says,  that  for  this  purpose  he  made 
use  of  that  stone  of  foundation  which  he  had 
discovered  in  the  subterranean  vault  of  Enoch, 
and  which  he  had  carried  with  him  into  the 
ark.  It  was  at  this  time  that  God  made  his 
covenant  with  Noah,  and  promised  him  that 
the  earth  should  never  again  be  destroyed  by  a 
flood.  Here,  too,  he  received  those  command- 
ments for  the  government  of  himself  and  his 
posterity  which  have  been  called  "the  seven 
precepts  of  the  Noachidas." 

It  is  to  be  supposed  that  Noah  and  his  im- 
mediate descendants  continued  to  live  for 
many  years  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  moun- 
tain upon  which  the  ark  had  been  thrown 
by  the  subsidence  of  the  waters.  #  There  is 
indeed  no  evidence  that  the  patriarch  ever 
removed  from  it.  In  the  nine  hundred  and 
fiftieth  year  of  his  age  he  died,  and,  according 
to  the  tradition  of  the  Orientalists,  was  buried 
in  the  land  of  Mesopotamia.  During  that 
period  of  his  life  which  was  subsequent  to  the 
deluge,  he  continued  to  instruct  his  children 
in  the  great  truths  of  religion.  Hence,  Ma- 
sons are  sometimes  called  Noachidee,  or  the 
sons  of  Noah,  to  designate  them,  in  a  pecu- 
liar manner,  as  the  preservers  of  the  sacred 
deposit  of  Masonic  truth  bequeathed  to  them 
by  their  great  ancestor;  and  circumstances 
intimately  connected  with  the  transactions  of 
the  immediate  descendants  of  the  patriarch 
are  recorded  in  a  degree  which  has  been 
adopted  by  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scot- 
tish Rite  under  the  name  of  "Patriarch 

The  primitive  teachings  of  the  patriarch, 
which  were  simple  but  comprehensive,  con- 
tinued to  be  preserved  in  the  line  of  the  patri- 
archs and  the  prophets  to  the  days  of  Solo- 
mon, but  were  soon  lost  to  the  other  descend- 
ants of  Noah,  by  a  circumstance  to  which  we 
must  now  refer.  After  the  death  of  Noah, 
his  sons  removed  from  the  region  of  Mount 


Ararat,  where,  until  then,  they  had  resided, 
and  "travelling  from  the  East,  found  a  plain 
in  the  land  of  Shinar,  and  dwelt  there."  Here 
they  commenced  the  building  of  a  lofty  tower. 
This  act  seems  to  have  been  displeasing  to 
God,  for  in  consequence  of  it,  he  confounded 
their  language,  so  that  one  could  not  under- 
stand what  another  said:  the  result  of  which 
was  that  they  separated  and  dispersed  over 
the  face  of  the  earth  in  search  of  different 
dwelling-places.  With  the  loss  of  the  original 
language,  the  great  truths  which  that  language 
had  conveyed,  disappeared  from  their  minds. 
The  worship  of  the  one  true  God  was  aban- 
doned. A  multitude  of  deities  began  to  be 
adored.  Idolatry  took  the  place  of  pure  the- 
ism. And  then  arose  the  Arkite  rites,  or  the 
worship  of  Noah  and  the  Ark,  Sabaism,  or  the 
adoration  of  the  stars,  and  other  superstitious 
observances,  in  all  of  which,  however,  the 
priesthood,  by  their  mysteries  or  initiations 
into  a  kind  of  Spurious  Freemasonry,  pre- 
served, among  a  multitude  of  errors,  some 
faint  allusions  to  the  truth,  and  retained  just 
so  much  light  as  to  make  their  "darkness  vis- 

Such  are  the  Noachic  traditions  of  Ma- 
sonry, which,  though  if  considered  as  ma- 
terials of  history,  would  be  worth  but  little, 
vet  have  furnished  valuable  sources  of  sym- 
bolism, and  in  that  way  are  full  of  wise  in- 

Noah,  Precepts  of.  The  precepts  of  the 
patriarch  Noah,  which  were  preserved  as  the 
Constitutions  of  our  ancient  brethren,  are 
seven  in  number,  and  are  as  follows: 

1.  Renounce  all  idols. 

2.  Worship  the  only  true  God. 

3.  Commit  no  murder. 

4.  Be  not  denied  by  incest. 

5.  Do  not  steal. 

6.  Be  just. 

7.  Eat  no  flesh  with  blood  in  it. 

The  "proselytes  of  the  gate,"  as  the  Jews 
termed  those  who  lived  among  them  without 
undergoing  circumcision  or  observing  the  cere- 
monial law,  were  bound  to  obey  the  seven  pre- 
cepts of  Noah.  The  Talmud  says  that  the 
first  six  of  these  precepts  were  given  originally 
by  God  to  Adam,  and  the  seventh  afterward 
to  Noah.  These  precepts  were  designed  to 
"be  obligatory  on  all  the  Noachidae,  or  de- 
scendants of  Noah,  and  consequently,  from 
the  time  of  Moses,  the  Jews  would  not  suffer 
a  stranger  to  live  among  them  unless  he  ob- 
served these  precepts,  and  never  gave  quarter 
in  battle  to  an  enemy  who  was  ignorant  of 

Noffodel.  The  name  of  this  person  is  dif- 
ferently spelled  by  different  writers.  Villani, 
and  after  him  Burnes,  call  him  Noffo  Dei, 
Reghellini  Neffodei,  and  Addison  Nosso  de 
Florentin;  but  the  more  usual  spelling  is  Nof- 
fodei.  He  and  Squin  de  Flexian  were  the  first 
to  make  those  false  accusations  against  the 
Knights  Templars  which  led  to  the  downfall  of 
the  Order.  Naffodei,  who  was  a  Florentine, 
is  asserted  by  some  writers  to  have  been  an 
apostate  Templar,  who  had  been  condemned 


by  the  Preceptor  and  Chapter  of  Prance 
to_  perpetual  imprisonment  for  impiety  and 
crime.  But  Dupui  denies  this,  and  says  that 
he  never  was  a  Templar,  but  that,  having  been 
banished  from  his  native  country,  he  had  been 
condemned  to  rigorous  penalties  by  the  Pre- 
vost  of  Paris  for  his  crimes.  For  a  history  of 
bis  treachery  to  the  Templars,  see  Squin  de 

Nomenclature.  There  are  several  Ma- 
sonic works,  printed  or  in  manuscript^  which 
.  contain  lists  of  the  names  of  degrees  in  Ma- 
sonry. Such  a  list  is  called  by  the  French 
writers  a  nomenclature.  The  most  important 
of  these  nomenclatures  are  those  of  Peuvret, 
Fustier,  Pyron,  and  Lemanceau.  Ragon  has 
a  nomenclature  of  degrees  in  his  Tuileur  G&n- 
irale.  And  Thory  has  an  exhaustive  and  de- 
scriptive one  in  his  Acta  Latomorum.  Oliver 
also  gives  a  nomenclature,  but  an  imperfect 
one,  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  degrees  in  bis 
Historical  Landmarks, 

Nomination.  It  is  the  custom  in  some 
Grand  Lodges  and  Lodges  to  nominate  candi- 
dates for  election  to  office,  and  in  others  this 
custom  is  not  adopted.  But  the  practise  of 
nomination  has  the  sanction  of  ancient  usage. 
Thus  the  records  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng- 
land, under  date  of  June  24, 1717,  tell  us  that 
I' before  dinner  the  oldest  Master  Mason  .  .  . 
in  the  chair  proposed  a  list  of  proper  candi- 
dates, and  the  Drethren,  by  a  majority  of 
hands,  elected  Mr.  Anthony  Sayer,Gentleman, 
Grand  Master  of  Masons."  (Constitutions, 
1738,  p.  109.)  And  the  present  Consti- 
tution of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  re- 
quires that  the  Grand  Master  shall  be  nom- 
inated in  December,  and  the  Grand  Treasurer 
in  September,  but  that  the  election  shall  not 
take  place  until  the  following  March.  Nomi- 
nations appear,  therefore,  to  be  the  correct  Ma- 
sonic practise;  yet,  if  a  member  be  elected  to 
any  office  to  which  he  had  not  previously  been 
nominated,  the  election  will  be  valid,  for  a 
nomination  is  not  essential. 

Non-Afflllation.  The  state  of  being  un- 
connected by  membership  with  a  Lodge. 
(See  Unaffiliated  Mason.) 

Nonesynches.  In  the  Old  Constitutions 
known  as  the  Dowland  MS.  is  found  the 
following  passage:  "St.  Albones  loved  well 
Masons  and  cherished  them  much.  And  he 
made  their  paie  right  good,  ...  for  he  gave 
them  ijs-vjd,  a  weeke,  and  iijd:  to  their  non- 
esynches." This  word,  which  cannot,  in  this 
precise  form,  be  found  in  any  archaic  diction- 
ary, evidently  means  food  or  refreshment,  for 
in  the  parallel  passage  in  other  Constitutions 
the  word  used  is  cheer,  which  has  the  same 
meaning.  The  old  English  word  from  which 
we  get  our  luncheon  is  noonshun,  which  is 
defined  to  be  the  refreshment  taken  at 
noon,  when  laborers  desist  from  work  to  shun 
the  heat.  Of  this,  nonesynches  is  a  corrupt 

Nonls.  A  significant  word  in  the  Thirty- 
second  Degree  of  the  Scottish  Bite.  The 
original  old  French  rituals  endeavor  to  ex- 
plain it,  and  say  that  it  and  two  other  words 

NORNJE  517 

in  conjunction  are  formed  out  of  the  initials 
of  the  words  of  a  particular  aphorism  which 
has  reference  to  the  secret  arcana  and  "sacred 
treasure"  of  Masonry.  Out  of  several  inter- 
pretations, no  one  can  be  positively  asserted 
as  the  original,  although  the  intent  is  apparent 
to  him  to  whom  the  same  may  lawfully  belong. 
(See  Salix  and  Tengu.) 

Non  nobis.  It  is  prescribed  that  the  motto 
beneath  the  Passion  Cross  on  the  Grand 
Standard  of  a  Commandery  of  Knights  Tem- 
plar shall  be  "Non  nobis  Domine !  non  nobis, 
sed  nomini  tuo  da  Gloriam."  That  is,  Not 
unto  us,  O  Lord!  not  unto  us,  but  unto  Thy 
name  give  Glory.  It  is  the  commencement 
of  the  115th  Psalm,  which  is  sung  in  the 
Christian  church  on  occasions  of  thanks- 
giving. It  was  the  ancient  Templar's  shout 
of  victory. 

Non-Resident.  The  members  of  a  Lodge 
who  do  not  reside  in  the  locality  of  a  Lodge, 
but  live  at  a  great  distance  from  it  in  another 
State,  or,  perhaps,  country,  but  still  continue 
members  of  it,  and  contribute  to  its  support 
by  the  payment  of  Lodge  dues,  are  called 
"non-resident  members."  Many  Lodges,  in 
view  of  the  fact  that  such  members  enjoy 
none  of  the  local  privileges  of  their  Lodges, 
require  from  them  a  less  amount  of  annual 
payment  than  they  do  from  their  resident 

Noorthouck,  John.  The  editor  of  the 
fifth,  and  by  far  the  best,  edition  of  the  Book 
of  Constitutions,  which  was  published  in  1784. 
He  was  the  son  of  Herman  Noorthouck,  a 
bookseller,  and  was  born  in  London  about  the 
year  1746.  Oliver  describes  him  as  "a  clever 
and  intelligent  man,  and  an  expert  Mason." 
His  literary  pretensions  were,  however,  greater 
than  this  modest  encomium  would  indicate. 
He  was  patronized  by  the  celebrated  printer, 
William  Strahan,  and  passed  nearly  the  whole 
of  his  life  in  the  occupations  of  an  author,  an 
index  maker,  and  a  corrector  of  the  press. 
He  was,  besides  his  edition  of  the  Book  of 
Constitutions,  the  writer  of  a  History  of  Lon- 
don, 4to,  published  in  1773,  and  an  Historical 
and  Classical  Dictionary,  2  vols.,  8vo,  pub- 
lished in  1778.  To  him  also,  as  well  as  to 
some  others,  has  been  attributed  the  author- 
ship of  a  Once  popular  book  entitled  The 
Man  after  God's  own  Heart.  In  1852,  J.  R. 
Smith,  a  bookseller  of  London,  advertised 
for  sale  "the  original  autograph  manuscript 
of  the  life  of  John  Noorthouck."  He  calls 
this  "a  very  interesting  piece  of  autobiog- 
raphy, containing  many  curious  literary 
anecdotes  of  the  last  century,  and  deserving 
to  be  printed."  Noorthouck  died  in  1816, 
aged  about  seventy  years. 

Normal.  A  perpendicular  to  a  curve;  and 
included  between  the  curve  and  the  axis  of 
the  abscissas.  Sometimes  a  square,  used  by 
Operative  Masons,  for  proving  angles. 

Nornse.  In  the  Scandinavian  Mysteries 
these  were  three  maidens,  known  as  Urd, 
Verdandi,  and  Skuld,  signifying  Past,  Present, 
and  Future.  Their  position  is  seated  near  the 
Urdar-wells  under  the  world-tree  Yggdrasil, 

518  NORTH 

and  there  they  determine  the  fate  of  both 
gods  and  men.  They  daily  draw  water  from 
the  spring,  and  with  it  and  the  surrounding 
clay  sprinkle  the  ash-tree  Yggdrasil,  that  the 
branches  may  not  wither  and  decay. 

North.  The  north  is  Masonically  called 
a  place  of  darkness.  The  sun  in  his  progress 
through  the  ecliptic  never  reaches  farther 
than  23°  28'  north  of  the  equator.  A  wall 
being  erected  on  any  part  of  the  earth  farther 
north  than  that,  will  therefore,  at  meridian, 
receive  the  rays  of  the  sun  only  on  its  south 
side.  While  the  north  will  be  entirely  in 
shadow  at  the  hour  of  meridian.  The  use  of 
the  north  as  a  symbol  of  darkness  is  found, 
with  the  present  interpretation,  in  the  early 
rituals  of  the  last  century.  It  is  a  portion  of 
the  old  sun  worship,  of  which  we  find  so  many 
relics  in  Gnosticism,  in  Hermetic  philosophy, 
and  in  Freemasonry.  The  east  was  the  place 
of  the  sun's  daily  birth,  and  hence  highly 
revered;  the  north  the  place  of  his  annual 
death,  to  which  he  approached  only  to  lose 
his  vivific  heat,  and  to  clothe  the  earth  in  the 
darkness  of  long  nights  and  the  dreariness 
of  winter. 

However,  this  point  of  the  compass,  or 
place  of  Masonic  darkness,  must  not  be  con- 
strued as  implying  that  in  the  Temple  of  Sol- 
omon no  light  or  ventilation  was  had  from 
this  direction.  The  Talmud,  and  as  well 
Josephus.  allude  to  an  extensive  opening 
toward  the  North,  framed  with  costly  mag- 
nificence, and  known  as  the  great  "Golden 
Window."  There  were  as  many  openings 
in  the  outer  wall  on  the  north  as  on  the  south 
side.  There  were  three  entrances  through 
the  "  Chel"  on  the  north  and  six  on  the  south. 
(See  Temple.) 

While  once  within  the  walls  and  Chel  of 
the  Temple  all  advances  were  made  from 
east  to  west,  yet  the  north  side  was  mainly 
used  for  stabling,  slaughtering,  cleansing, 
etc.,  and  contained  the  chambers  of  broken 
knives,  defiled  stones,  of  the  house  of  burn- 
ing, and  of  sheep.  The  Masonic  symbol- 
ism of  the  entrance  of  an  initiate  from  the 
north,  or  more  practically  from  the  north- 
west, and  advancing  toward  the  position 
occupied  by  the  corner-stone  in  the  north- 
east, forcibly  calls  to  mind  the  triplet  of 

"Two  marble  doors  unfold  on  either  side; 
Sacred  the  South  by  which  the  gods  descend; 
But  mortals  enter  on  the  Northern  end." 

So  in  the  Mysteries  of  Dionysos,  the  gate 
of  entrance  for  the  aspirant  was  from  the 
north;  but  when  purged  from  his  corrup- 
tions, he  was  termed  indifferently  new-born 
or  immortal,  and  the  sacred  south  door  was 
thence  accessible  to  his  steps. 

In  the  Middle  Ages,  below  and  to  the 
right  of  the  judges  stood  the  accuser,  facing 
north;  to  the  left  was  the  defendant,  in  the 
north  facing  south.  Bro.  George  F.  Fort, 
in  his  Antiquities  of  Freemasonry,  says:  "In 
the  centre  of  the  court,  directly  before  the 
judge,  stood  an  altar  piece  or  shrine,  upon 


which  an  open  Bible  was  displayed.  The 
south,  to  the  right  of  the  Justiciaries,  was 
deemed  honorable  and  worthy  for  a  plaintiff: 
but  the  north  was  typical  of  a  frightful  and 
diabolical  sombreness. '  Thus,  when  a  solemn 
oath  of  purgation  was  taken  in  grievous 
criminal  accusations,  the  accused  turned 
toward  the  north.  "The  judicial  headsman, 
in  executing  the  extreme  penalty  of  out- 
raged justice,  turned  the  convict's  face 
northward,  or  towards  the  place  whence  em- 
anated the  earnest  dismal  shades  of  night. 
When  Earl  Hakon  bowed  a  tremulous  knee 
before  the  deadly  powers  of  Paganism, 
and  sacrificed  his  seven-year-old  child,  he 
gased  out  upon  the  far-off,  gloomy  north. 

"In  Nastrond,  or  shores  of  death,  stood 
a  revolting  halL  whose  portals  opened  toward 
the  north — the  regions  of  night.  North, 
by  the  Jutes,  was  denominated  black  or 
sombre:  the  Frisians  called  it  fear  corner. 
The  gallows  faced  the  north,  and  from  these 
hyperborean  shores  everything  base  and 
terrible  proceeded.  In  consequence  of  this 
belief,  it  was  ordered  that,  in  the  adjudica- 
tion of  a  crime,  the  accused  should  be  on 
the  north  side  of  the  court  enclosure.  And 
in  harmony  with  the  Scandinavian  super- 
stition, no  Lodge  of  Masons  illumines  the 
darkened  north  with  a  symbolic  light,  whose 
brightness  would  be  unable  to  dissipate  the 
gloom  of  that  cardinal  point  with  which  was 
associated  all  that  was  sinstrous  and  dire- 
ful."  (P.  292.) 

North  Carolina.  The  early  history  of 
Masonry  in  no  State  is  more  uncertain  than 
in  that  of  North  Carolina,  in  consequence 
of  the  carelessness  of  the  authorities  who  have 
attempted  to  write  its  early  annals.  Thus, 
Eobert  Williams,  the  Grand  Secretary,  in  a 
letter  written  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Ken- 
tucky in  1808,  said  that  "the  Grand  Lodge 
of  North  Carolina  was  constituted  by  Charter 
issued  from  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland  in 
the  year  1761,  signed  by  Henry  Somerset. 
Duke  of  Beaufort  .  .  .  as  Grand  Master;  and 
attested  by  George  John  Spencer,  Earl  of 
Spencer ...  as  Grand  Secretary."  Now  this 
statement  contains  on  its  face  the  evidences 
of  flagrant  error.  1.  The  Duke  of  Beaufort 
never  was  Grand  Master  of  Scotland.  2. 
The  Grand  Master  of  Scotland  in  1761  was 
the  Earl  of  Elgin.  3.  The  Earl  of  Spencer 
never  was  Grand  Secretary  either  of  England 
or  Scotland,  but  Samuel  Spencer  was  Grand 
Secretary  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  from 
1757  to  1767,  and  died  in  1768.  4.  The  Duke 
of  Beaufort  was  not  Grand  Master  of  Eng- 
land in  1761,  but  held  that  office  from  1767 
to  1771.  There  is  no  mention  in  the  printed 
records  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  of 
a  Charter  at  any  time  granted  for  a  Pro- 
vincial Grand  Lodge  in  North  Carolina. 
But  in  two  lists  of  Lodges  chartered  by  that 
body,  we  find  that  on  August  21,  1767,  a 
Warrant  was  granted  for  the  establishment 
of  "Royal  White  Hart  Lodge,"  at  Halifax, 
in  North  Carolina.  Probably  this  is  the 
true  date  of  the  introduction  of  Masonry 


into  that  State.  A  record  in  the  transactions 
of  the  St.  John's  Grand  Lodge  of  Massachu- 
setts says  that  on  October  2,  1767,  that 
body  granted  a  deputation  to  Thomas  Cooper, 
Master  of  Pitt  County  Lodge,  as  Deputy 
Grand  Master  of  the  province;  but  there  is 
no  evidence  that  he  ever  exereised  the  pre- 
rogatives of  the  office.  Judge  Martin,  in  a 
discourse  delivered  on  June  24,  1789,  says 
that  Joseph  Montford  was  appointed,  toward 
the  year  1769,  as  Provincial  Grand  Master 
by  the  Duke  of  Beaufort,  and  that  in  1771 
he  constituted  St.  John's  Lodge  at  Newbern. 
This  was  probably  the  true  date  of  the 
Provincial  Grand  Lodge  of. North  Carolina, 
for  in  1787  we  find  nine  Lodges  in  the  terri- 
tory, five  of  which,  at  least,  had  the  provin- 
cial numbers  2,  3,  4,  5,  and  8,  while  the  Royal 
Hart  Lodge  retained  its  number  on  the 
English  Register  as  403,  a  number  which 
agrees  with  that  of  the  English  lists  in  my 
possession.  On  December  16;  1787,  a  con- 
vention of  Lodges  met  at  Tarborough  and 
organized  the  Grand  Lodge  of  the  State 
of  North  Carolina,"  electing  Hon.  Samuel 
Johnston  Grand  Master. 

There  was  a  Grand  Chapter  in  North 
Carolina  at  an  early  period  in  the  present 
century,  which  ceased  to  exist  about  the 
year  f827;  but  Royal  Arch  Masonry  was 
cultivated  by  four  Chapters,  instituted  by 
the  General  Grand  Chapter.  On  June  28, 
1847,  the  Grand  Chapter  was  reorganized. 

The  Grand  Council  was  organized  in 
June,  1860,  by  Councils  which  had  been 
established  by  Dr.  Mackey,  under  the  au- 
thority of  the  Supreme  Council  of  the  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite. 

North  Dakota.  As  soon  as  it  was  deter- 
mined by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Dakota,  at  its 
session,  held  June  11-13,  1889,  that  there 
should  be  a  division  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Dakota  to  correspond  with  the  political 
division  of  the  Territory  into  North  and  South 
Dakota,  a  convention  was  held  June  12, 1889, 
at  the  City  of  Mitchell,  where  the  Grand  Lodge 
Was  in  session,  and  the  following  Lodges  of 
North  Dakota  were  represented,  viz.: 

Shiloh,  No.  8;  Pembina,  No.  10;  Casselton, 
No.  12;  Acacia,  No.  15;  Bismarck,  No.  16; 
Jamestown,  No.  19;  Valley  City,  No.  21; 
Mandan,  No.  23;  Cereal,  No.  29;  Hillsboro, 
No.  32;  Crescent,  No.  36;  Cheyenne  Valley, 
No,  41;  Ellendale,  No.  49;  Sanborn,  No.  51; 
Wahpeton,  No.  58;  North  Star,  No.  59; 
Minto,  No.  60;  Mackey,  No.  63;  Goase  River, 
No.  64;  Hiram,  No.  74;  Minnewaukan,  No. 
75;  Tongue  River,  No.  78;  Bathgate,  No.  80; 
Euclid,  No.  84;  Anchor,  No.  88;  Golden  Val- 
ley, No.  90;  Occidental,  No.  99. 

The  convention  resolved  that  it  was  expe- 
dient to  organize  a  Grand  Lodge  for  North 
.Dakota.  A  constitution  and  by-laws  were 

On  June  13th,  the  first  session  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  was  held  in  the  city  of  Mitchell.  The 
elected  and  appointed  officers  were  present 
and  representatives  of  the  above  twenty 

NOVA  519 

North  Star.  This  star  is  frequently  used 
as  a  Masonic  symbol,  as  are  the  morning 
star,  the  day  star,  the  seven  stars.  Thus, 
the  morning  star  is  the  forerunner  of  the 
Great  Light  that  is  about  to  break  upon  the 
Lodge;  or,  as  in  the  grade  of  G.  Master 
Architect,  twelfth  of  the  Scottish  system, 
the  initiate  is  received  at  the  hour  "when 
the  day  star  has  risen  in  the  east,  and  the 
north  star  looked  down  upon  the  seven  stars 
that  circle  round  him.  The  symbolism 
is  truth;  thus,  the  North  star  is  the  pole 
star,  the  Polaris  of  the  mariner,  the  Cyno- 
Bura,  that  guides  Masons  over  the  stormy 
seas  of  time.  The  seven  stars  are  the  sym- 
bol of  right  and  justice  to  the  order  and  the 

Northeast  Corner.  In  the  "Institutes 
of  Menu,"  the  sacred  book  of  the  Brahmans, 
it  is  said:  "If  any  one  has  an  incurable 
disease,  let  him  advance  in  a  straight  path 
towards  the  invincible  northeast  point,  feeding 
on  water  and  air  till  his  mortal  frame  totally 
decays,  and  his  soul  becomes  united  with 
the  supreme." 

It  is  at  the  same  northeast  point  that 
those  first  instructions  begin  in  Masonry 
which  enable  the  true  Mason  to  commence 
the  erection  of  that  spiritual  temple  in 
which,  after  the  decay  of  his  mortal  frame, 
"Ms  soul  becomes  united  with  the  su- 

In  the  important  ceremony  which  refers 
to  the  northeast  corner  of  the  Lodge,  the 
candidate  becomes  as  one  who  is,  to  all 
outward  appearance,  a  perfect  and  upright 
man  and  Mason,  the  representative  of  a 
spiritual  comer-stone,  on  which  he  is  to  erect 
his  future  moral  and  Masonic  edifice. 

This  symbolic  reference  of  the  corner-stone 
of  a  material  edifice  to  a  Mason  when;  at 
his  first  initiation,  he  commences  the  moral 
and  intellectual  task  of  erecting  a  spiritual 
temple  in  his  heart,  is  beautifully  sustained 
when  we  look  at  all  the  qualities  that  are 
required  to  constitute  a  "well-tried,  true, 
and  trusty"  comer-stone.  The  squareness 
of  its  surface,  emblematic  of  morality — its 
cubical  form,  emblematic  of  firmness  and 
stability  of  character — and  the  peculiar  finish 
and  fineness  of  the  material,  emblematic  of 
virtue  and  holiness—show  that  the  ceremony 
of  the  northeast  comer  of  the  Lodge  was  un- 
doubtedly intended  to  portray,  in  the  conse- 
crated language  of  symbolism,  the  necessity 
of  integrity  and  stability  of  conduct,  of  truth- 
fulness and  uprightness  of  character,  and  of 
purity  and  holiness  of  life,  which,  iust  at  that 
time  and  in  that  place,  the  candidate  is  most 
impressively  charged  to  maintain. 

Notuma.  A  significant  word  in  some  of 
the  high  degrees  of  the  Templar  system. 
It  is  the  anagram  of  Atjmont,  who  is  said  to 
have  been  the  first  Grand  Master  of  the 
Templars  in  Scotland,  and  the  restorer  of 
the  Order  after  the  death  of  De  Molay. 

Nova  Scotia.  The  first  Lodge  established 
in  Nova  Scotia  was  at  Annapolis  and  under 
authority  from  Boston  by  the  St.  John's 


Grand  Lodge  of  Massachusetts.  Under  date 
of  1740  the  minutes  read:  "The  Rt.  Worsh'l 
Grand  Master  granted  a  Deputation  at  the 
Petition  of  sundry  Brethren  for  holding  a 
lodge  at  Annapolis  in  Nova  Scotia,  and 
appointed  the  Right  Worshipful  Erasmus 
James  Phillips,  D.G.M.,  there,  who  after- 
ward erected  a  Lodge  at  Halifax  and  appointed 
His  Excellency  Edward  Cornwallis  their  first 
Master."  For  the  next  hundred  years, 
Lodges  were  instituted  and  Provincial  Mas- 
ters appointed  by  England  and  Scotland,  and 
Lodges  alone  without  superior  provincial 
authority  by  Ireland.  In  June,  1866,  an 
independent  Grand  Lodge  was  instituted  and 
recognized  by  most  of  the  Masonic  powers 
of  the  United  States.  But  as  none  of  the 
Lodges  holding  Warrants  from  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Scotland  would  recognize  it,  a 
subsequent  and  more  satisfactory  arrange- 
ment took  place,  and  on  June  24, 1869,  a  Grand 
Lodge  was  organized  by  the  union  of  all  the 
subordinate  Lodges  and  Alexander  Keith 
was  elected  Grand  Master. 

Novice.  1.  The  Second  Degree  of  the 
Uluminati  of  Bavaria.  2.  The  Fifth  Degree 
of  the  Rite  of  Strict  Observance. 

Novice,  Maconne.  That  is  to  say,  a 
female  Mason  who  is  a  Novice.  It  is  the 
First  Degree  of  the  Moral  Order  of  the 
Dames  of  Mount  Tabor.  . 

Norlce,  Mythological.  (Novice  Mytho- 
logi^ue.)  The  First  Degree  of  the  Historical 
Order  of  the  Dames  of  Mount  Tabor. 

Novice,  Scottish.  (Novice  Ecossaise.) 
The  First  Degree  of  initiation  in  the  Order  of 
Mount  Tabor. 

Novitiate.  The  time  of  probation,  as 
well  as  of  preparatory  training,  which,  in  all 
religious  orders,  precedes  the  solemn  pro- 
fession at  least  one  year.  By  dispensation 
only<  can  the  period  of  time  be  reduced. 
Novices  are  immediately  subject  to  a  superior 
called  Master  of  Novices,  and  their  time 
must  be  devoted  to  prayer  and  to  liturgical 

Nuk-pe-nuk.  The  Egyptian  equivalent 
for  the  expression  "I  am  that  I  am." 

Numbers.  The  symbolism  which  is  de- 
rived from  numbers  was  common  to  the 
Pythagoreans,  the  Kabbalists,  the  Gnostics, 
and  all  mystical  associations.  Of  all  super- 
stitions, it  is  the  oldest  and  the  most  gen- 
erally diffused.  Allusions  are  to  be  found 
to  it  in  all  systems  of  religion;  the  Jewish 
Scriptures,  for  instance,  abound  in  it,  and 
the  Christian  shows  a  share  of  its  influence. 
It  is  not,  therefore,  surprising  that  the  most 
predominant  of  all  symbolism  in  Freemasonry 
is  that  of  numbers. 

The  doctrine  of  numbers  as  symbols  is 
most  familiar  to  us  because  it  formed  the 
fundamental  idea  of  the  philosophy  of 
Pythagoras.  Yet  it  was  not  original  with 
him,  since  he  brought  his  theories  from 
Egypt  and  the  East,  where  this  numerical 
symbolism  had  always  prevailed.  Jambli- 
•hus  tells  us  (Vit.  Pyth.,  c.  28)  thatPythago- 
raa  himself  admitted  that  he  had  received 


the  doctrine  of  numbers  from  Orpheus, 
who  taught  that  numbers  were  the  most 
provident  beginning  of  all  things  in  heaven, 
earth,  and  the  intermediate  space,  and  the 
root  of  the  perpetuity  of  Divine  beings,  of 
the  gods  and  of  demons.  From  the  disciples 
of  Pythagoras  we  learn  (for  he  himself 
taught  only  orally,  and  left  no  writings)  that 
his  theory  was  that  numbers  contain  the  ele- 
ments of  all  things,,  and  even  of  the  sciences. 
Numbers  are  the  invisible  covering  of  beings 
as  the  body  is  the  visible  one.  They  are  the 
primary  causes  upon  which  the  whole  system 
of  the  universe  rests;  and  he  who  knows  these 
numbers  knows  at  the  same  time  the  laws 
through  which  nature  exists.  The  Pythago- 
reans, said  Aristotle  (Metaph.,  xiL,  8),  make 
all  things  proceed  from  numbers.  Dacier 
(Vie  de  Pyth.),  it  is  true,  denies  that  this 
was  the  doctrine  of  Pythagoras,  and  contends 
that  it  was  only  a  corruption  of  his  disciples. 
It  is  an  immaterial  point.  We  know  that 
the  symbolism  of  numbers  was  the  basis 
of  what  is  called  the  Pythagorean  philosophy. 
But  it  would  be  wrong  to  suppose  that  from  it 
the  Masons  derived  their  system,  since  the 
two  are  in  some  points  antagonistic;  the 
Masons,  for  instance,  revere  the  nine  as  a 
sacred  number  of  peculiar  significance,  while 
the  Pythagoreans  looked  upon  it  with  de- 
testation. In  the  system  of  the  Pythagoreans, 
ten  was,  of  all  numbers,  the  most  perfect, 
because  it  symbolizes  the  completion  of  things; 
but  in  Masonic  symbolism  the  number  ten 
is  unknown.  Four  is  not{  in  Masonry,  a  num- 
ber of  much  representative  importance;  but 
it  was  sacredly'  revered  by  the  Pythago- 
reans as  the  tetractys,  or  figure  derived 
from  the  Jewish  Tetragrammaton,  by  which 
they  swore. 

Plato  also  indulged  in  a  theory  of  sym- 
bolic numbers,  and  calls  him  happy  who 
understands  spiritual  numbers  and  per- 
ceives their  mighty  influences.  Numbers, 
according  to  him,  are  the  cause  of  universal 
harmony,  and  of  the  production  of  all  things. 
The  Neoplatonists  extended  and  developed 
this  theory,  and  from  them  it  passed  over 
to  the  Gnostics;  from  them  probably  to  the 
Rosicrucians,  to  the  Hermetic  philosophers, 
and  to  the  Freemasons. 

Cornelius  Agrippa  has  descanted  at  great 
length,  in.  his  Occult  Philosophy,  on  the  sub- 
ject of  numbers.  "That  there  lies,"  he 
says,  "wonderful  efficacy  and  virtue  in 
numbers,  as  well  for  good  as  for  evil,  not 
only  the  most  eminent  philosophers  teach, 
but  also  the  Catholic  Doctors."  And  he 
.quotes  St.  Hilary  as  saying  that  the  seventy 
Elders  brought  the  Psalms  into  order  by  the 
efficacy  of  numbers. 

Of  the  prevalence  of  what  are  called 
representative  numbers  in  the  Old  and  New 
Testament,  there  is  abundant  evidence. 
"However  we  may  explain  it,"  says  Dr. 
Mahan  (Palmoni,  p.  67),  "certain  numerals 
in  the  Scriptures  occur  so  often  in  connection 
with  certain  classes  of  ideas,  that  we  are 
naturally  led  to  associate  the  one  with  the 



other.  This  is  more  or  less  admitted  with 
regard  to  the  numbers  Seven,  Twelve,  Forty, 
Seventy,  and  it  may  be  a  few  more.  The 
Fathers  were  disposed  to  admit  it  with  regard 
to  many  others,  and  to  see  in  it  the  marks  of 
a  supernatural  design." 

Among  the  Greeks  and  the  Romans  there 
was  a  superstitious  veneration  for  certain 
numbers.  The  same  practise  is  found  among 
all  the  Eastern  nations;  it  entered  more  or 
less  into  all  the  ancient  systems  of  philoso- 
phy; constituted  a  part  of  all  the  old  relig- 
ions; was  accepted  to  a  great  extent  by  the 
early  Christian  Fathers;  constituted  an  im- 

gortant  part  of  the  Kabbala;  was  adopted 
y  the  Gnostics,  the  RosicrucianB,  ana  all 
the  mystical  societies  of  the  Middle  Ages; 
and  finally  has  carried  its  influence  into 

The  respect  paid  by  Freemasons  to  certain 
numbers,  all  of  which  are  odd,  is  founded 
not  on  the  belief  of  any  magical  virtue, 
but  because  they  are  assumed  to  be  the  types 
or  representatives  of  certain  ideas.  That 
is  to  say,  a  number  is  in  Masonry  a  symbol, 
and  no  more.  It  is  venerated,  not  because 
it  has  any  supernatural  efficacy,  as  thought 
the  Pythagoreans  and  others,  but  because 
it  has  concealed  within  some  allusion  to  a 
sacred  object  or  holy  thought,  which  it 
symbolizes.  The  number  three,  for  instance, 
like  the  triangle,  is  ~&  symbol;  the  number 
nine,  like  the  triple  triangle,  another.  The 
Masonic  doctrine  of  sacred  numbers  must 
not,  therefore,  be  confounded  with  the 
doctrine  of  numbers  which  prevailed  in  other 

The  most  important  symbolic  or  sacred 
numbers  in  Masonry  are  three,  five,  seven, 
nine,  twenty-seven,  and  eighty-one.  Their 
interpretation  will  be  found  under  their 
respective  titles. 

Numeration  by  Letters.  There  is  a 
Kabbalistical  process  especially  used  in  the 
Hebrew  language,  but  sometimes  applied  to 
other  languages,  for  instance,  to  the  Greek, 
by  which  a  mystical  meaning  of  a  word  is 
deduced  from  the  numerical  value  of  the 
words  of  which  it  is  composed,  each  letter 
of  the  alphabet  being  equivalent  to  a  number. 
Thus  in  Hebrew  the  name  of  God,  fl\  JAH, 
is  equivalent  to  15,  because  "'=10  and  i"l=5, 
and  15  thus  becomes  a  sacred  number.  In 
Greek,  the  Kabbalistic  word  Abraxas,  or 
afipa£as,  is  made  to  symbolize  the  solar  year 
of  365  days,  because  the  sum  of  the  value  of 
the  letters  of  the  word  is  365;  thus,  <*=1, 
0=2,  p=100,  «=1,  4=60,  «=1,  and  i=200. 
To  facilitate  these  Kabbalistic  operations, 

which  are  sometimes  used  in  the  high  and 
especially   the   Hermetical  Masonry,  the 








A,  a 

B,  /J 


A,  J 

B,  e 

H,  7 

I,  « 

K  ' 
A,  X 


0,  o 

n,  * 


T,  v 

X,  X 


D,  u 




numerical  value  of  the  Hebrew  and  Greek 
letters  is  here  given. 

Nun.  (Heb.  jU,  a  fish,  in  Syriac  an 
inkhorn.)  The  Chaldaio  and  hieroglyphic 
form  of  this  Hebrew  letter  was  like  Fig.  1, 
and  the  Egyptian  like  Fig.  2,  signifying 

Fig.  1. 

Fig.  2. 

fishes  in  any  of  these  forms.  Joshua  was 
the  son  of  Nun,  or  a  fish,  the  deliverer  of 
Israel.  As  narrated  of  the  Noah  in  the 
Hindu  account  of  the  deluge,  whereby  the 
forewarning  of  a  fish  caused  the  construction 
of  an  ark  and  the  salvation  of  one  family  of 
the  human  race  from  the  flood  of  waters. 
(SeeHeginnings  of  History,  by  Lenormant.) 

Nursery.  The  first  of  the  three  classes 
into  which  Weishaupt  divided  his  Order  of 
Illuminati,  comprising  three  degrees.  (See 

Nyaya.  Thenameofthesecondofthethree 
great  systems  of  ancient  Hindu  philosophy. 

Nvctazontes.  An  ancient  sect  who  praised 
God  by  day,  but  rested  in  quiet  and  pre- 
sumed security  during  the  night. 





O.  The  fifteenth  letter  in  the  English 
and  in  most  of  the  Western  alphabets.  The 
corresponding  letter  in  the  Hebrew  and 
Phoenician  alphabets  was  called  Ayn,  that 
is,  eye;  the  primitive  form  of  the  Phoenician 
letter  being  the  rough  picture  of  an  eye,  or 
a  circle  with  a  dot  in  the  center.  This  dot 
will  be  observed  in  ancient  MSS., 
4  4  but  being  dropped  the  circle  forms 
/  /  the  letter  O.  The  numerical  value 
y  is  70,  and  in  Hebrew  is  formed  thus, 
/  S,  the  hieroglyphic  being  a  plant, 
as  well  as  at  times  a  circle  or  an  eye. 
Oak  Apple,  Society  of  the.  Instituted 
about  1658,  "and  lapseq  under  the  disturb- 
ances in  England  during  the  reign  of  James 
II.,  but  it  lingered  among  the  Stuart  ad- 
herents for  many  years. 
Oannes*  The  earliest  instructor  of  man 
in  letters,  sciences,  and 
arts,  especially  in  archi- 
tecture, geometry,  bot- 
any, and  agriculture,  and 
in  all  other  useful  knowl- 
edge, was  the  fish  god 
Oannes  (myth).  This 
universal  teacher,  accord- 
ing to  Berossus,  appeared 
in  the  Persian  Gulf, 
bordering  on  Babylonia, 
and,  although  an  animal, 
was  endowed  with  reason 
and  great  knowledge. 
The  usual  appearance  of 
creature  was  that  of  a  fish,  having  a 
human  head  beneath  that  of  a  fish,  and  feet 
like  unto  a  man.  This  personage  conversed 
with  men  during  the  day,  but  never  ate 
with  them.  At  Kouyunjik  there  was  a 
colossal  statue  of  the  fish-god  Oannes.  The 
following  is  from  the  Book  of  Enoeh  (vol. 
ii.,  p,  154):  "The  Masons  hold  their  grand 
festival  on  the  day  of  St.  John,  not  knowing 
that  therein  they  merely  signify  the  fish-god 
Oannes,  the  first  Hermes  and  the  first 
founder  of  the  Mysteries,  the  first  messenger 
to  whom  the  Apocalypse  was  given,  and 
whom  they  ignorantly  confound  with  the 
fabulous  author  of  the  common  Apocalypse. 
The  sun  is  then  (midsummer  day)  in  its  great- 
est altitude.  In  this  the  Naros  is  commemor- 

Oath.  In  the  year  1738,  Clement  XII., 
at  that  time  Pope  of  Rome,  issued  a  bull  of 
excommunication  against  the  Freemasons, 
and  assigned,  as  the  reason  of  his  condem- 
nation, that  the  Institution  confederated 
persons  of  all  religions  and  sects  in  a  mys- 
terious bond  of  union,  and  compelled  them  to 
secrecy  by  an  oath  taken  on  the  Bible,  accom- 
panied by  certain  ceremonies,  and  the  im- 
precation of  heavy  punishments. 

This  persecution  of  the  Freemasons,  on 
account  of  their  having  an  obligatory  prom- 
ise of  secrecy  among  their  ceremonies,  has 
not  been  confined  to  the  Papal  see.  We 


shall  find  it  existing  in  a  sect  which  we 

should  suppose,  of  aff  others,  the  least  likely 
to  follow  in  the  footsteps  of  a  Roman  pontiff. 
In  1757,  the  Associate  Synod  of  Seeeders 
of  Scotland  adopted  an  act,  concerning  what 
they  called  "the  Mason  oath/'  in  which  it  is 
declared  that  all  persons  who  shall  refuse  to 
make  such  revelations  as  the  Kirk  Sessions 
may  require,  and  to  promise  to  abstain  from 
all  future  connection  with  the  Order,  "shall 
be  reputed  under  scandal  and  incapable  of 
admission  to  sealing  ordinances,"  or  as  Pope 
Clement  expressed  it,  be  "ipso  facto  ex- 

In  the  preamble  to  the  act,  the  Synod 
assign  the  reasons  for  their  objections  to 
this  oath,  and  for  their  ecclesiastical  censure 
of  all  who  contract  it.  These  reasons  are: 
"That  there  were  very  strong  presumptions, 
that,  among  Masons,  an  oath  of  secrecy  is 
administered  to  entrants  into  their  society, 
even  under  a  capital  penalty,  and  before 
any  of  those  things,  which  they  swear  to 
keep  secret,  be  revealed  to  them;  and  that 
they  pretend  to  take  some  of  these  secrets 
from  the  Bible;  besides  other  tilings  which 
are  ground  of  scruple  in  the  manner  of  swear- 
ing^ the  said  oath." 

These  have,  from  that  day  to  this,  consti- 
tuted the  sum  and  substance  of  the  objec- 
tions to  the  obligation  of  Masonic  secrecy, 
and,  for  the  purpose  of  brief  examination, 
they  may  be  classed  under  the  following 

First.   It  is  an  oath. 

Secondly.  It  is  administered  before  the 
secrets  are  communicated. 

Thirdly.  It  is  accompanied  by  certain 
superstitious  ceremonies. 

Fourthly.  It  is  attended  by  a  penalty. 

Fifthly.  It  is  considered,  by  Masons,  as 
paramount  to  the  obligations  of  the  laws 
of  the  land. 

,  In  replying  to  these  statements,  it  is  evi- 
dent that  the  conscientious  Freemason 
labors  under  great  disadvantage.  He  is  at 
every  step  restrained  bjr  his  honor  from 
either  the  denial  or  admission  of  his  adver- 
saries in  relation  to  the  mysteries  of  the 
Craft.  But  it  may  be  granted,  for  the  sake 
of  argument,  that  every  one  of  the  first 
four  charges  is  true,  ana  then  the  inquiry 
will  be  in  what  respect  they  are  offensive  or 

First.  The  oath  car  promise  cannot,  in 
itself,  be  sinful,  unless  there  is  something 
immoral  in  the  obligation  it  imposes.  Sim- 
ply to  promise  secrecy,  or  the  performance 
of  any 'good  action,  and  to  strengthen  this 
promise  by  the  solemnity  of  an  oath,  is 
not,  in  itself,  forbidden  by  any  Divine  or 
human  law.  Indeed,  the  infirmity  of  hu- 
man nature  demands,  in  many  instances, 
the  sacred  sanction  of  such  an  attestation; 
and  it  is  continually  exacted  in  the  transac- 
tions of  man  with  man,  without  any  notion 




of  sinfulness.  Where  the  time,  and  place, 
and  circumstances  are  unconnected  with 
levity,  or  profanity,  or  crime,  the  adminis- 
tration of  an  obligation  binding  to  secrecy, 
or  obedience,  or  veracity,  or  any  other  virtue, 
and  the  invocation  of  Deity  to  witness,  and 
to  strengthen  that  obligation,  or  to  punish 
its  violation,  is  incapable,  by  any  perversion 
of  Scripture,  of  being  considered  a  criminal 

Secondly.  The  objection  that  the  oath 
is  administered  before  the  secrets  are  made 
known,  is  sufficiently  absurd  to  provoke  a 
smile.  The  purposes  of  such  an  oath  would 
be  completely  frustrated,  by  revealing  the 
thing  to  be  concealed  before  the  promise 
of  concealment  was  made.  In  that  case,  it 
would  be  optional  with  the  candidate  to 

five  the  obligation,  or  to  withhold  it,  as 
est  suited  his  inclinations.  If  it  be  con- 
ceded that  the  exaction  of  a  solemn  promise 
of  secrecy  is  not,  in  itself,  improper,  then 
certainly  the  time  of  exacting  it  is  before 
and  not  after  the  revelation. 

Dr.  Harris  (Masonic  Discourses,  Disc. 
IX.,  p.  184)  has  met  this  objection  in  the 
following  language: 

"What  the  ignorant  call  'the  oath,'  is 
simply  an  obligation,  covenant,  and  prom- 
ise, exacted  previously  to  the  divulging  of 
the  specialties  of  the  Order,  and  our  means 
of  recognizing  each  other;  that  they  shall 
be  kept  from  the  knowledge,  of  the  world, 
lest  their  original  intent  should  be  thwarted, 
and  their  benevolent  purport  prevented. 
Now,  pray,  what  harm  is  there  in  this?  >  Do 
you  not  all,  when  you  have  anything  of  a 
private  nature  which  you  are  willing  to 
confide  in  a  particular  friend,  before  you  teU 
him  what  it  is,  demand  a  solemn  promise  of 
secrecy?  And  is  there  not  the  utmost  pro- 
priety in  knowing  whether  your  friend  is  de- 
termined to  conceal  your  secret,  before  you 
presume  to  reveal  it?  Your  answer  confutes 
your  cavil." 

Thirdly.  The  objection  that  the  oath  is 
accompanied  by  certain  superstitious  cere- 
monies does  not  seem  to  be  entitled  to  much 
weight.  Oaths,  in  all  countries  and  at  all 
times,  have  been  accompanied  by  peculiar 
rites,  intended  to  increase  the  solemnity 
and  reverence  of  the  act.  The  ancient 
Hebrews,  when  they  took  an  oath,  placed 
the  hand  beneath  the  thigh  of  the  person 
to  whom  they  swore.  Sometimes  the  an- 
cients took  hold  of  the  horns  of  the  altar, 
and  touched  the  sacrificial  fire,  as  in  the 
league  between  Latinua  and  Maeea,  where 
the  ceremony  is  thus  described  by  Virgil: 

"Tango  aras;    mediosque  ignes,  et  numina, 

Sometimes  they  extended  the  right  hand  to 
heaven,  and  swore  by  earth,  sea,  and  stars. 
Sometimes,  as  among  the  Romans  in  pri- 
vate contracts,  the  person  swearing  laid  his 
hand  upon  the  hand  of  the  party  to  whom 
he  swore.  In  all  solemn  covenants  the  oath 
was  accompanied  by  a  sacrifice;  and  some 

of  the  hair  being  cut  from  the  victim's 
head,  a  part  of  it  was  given  to  all  present, 
that  each  one  might  take  a  share  in  the 
oath,  and  be  subject  to  the  imputation. 
Other  ceremonies  were  practised  at  various 
times  and  in  different  countries,  for  the 
purpose  of  throwing  around  the  act  of  at- 
testation an  increased  amount  of  awe  and 
respect.  The  oath  is  equally  obligatory 
without  them;  but  they  have  their  signifi- 
cance, and  there  can  be  no  reason  why  the 
Freemasons  should  not  be  allowed  to  adopt 
the  mode  most  pleasing  to  themselves  of 
exacting  their  promises  or  confirming  their 

Fourthly.  It  is  objected  that  the  oath  is 
attended  with  a  penalty  of  a  serious  or 
capital  nature.  If  this  be  the  case,  it  does 
not  appear  that  the  expression  of  a  penalty 
of  any  nature  whatever  can  affect  the  pur- 
port or  augment  the  solemnity  of  an  oath, 
which  is,  in  fact,  an  attestation  of  God  to 
the  truth  of  a  declaration,  as  a  witness  and 
avenger;  and  hence  every  oath  includes  in 
itself,  and  as  its  very  essence,  the  covenant 
of  God's  wrath,  the  heaviest  of  all  penal- 
ties, as  the  necessary  consequence  of  its  vio- 
lation. A  writer,  in  reply  to  the  Synod  of 
Scotland  (/Scot'*  Mag,,  October,  1757),  quotes 
the  opinion  of  an  eminent  jurist  to  this  effect: 

"It  seems  to  be  certain  that  every  promis- 
sory oath,  in  whatever  form  it  may  be  con- 
ceived, whether  explicitly  or  implicitly,  vir- 
tually contains  both  an  attestation  and  an 
obsecration;  for  in  an  oath  the  execration 
supposes  an  attestation  as  a  precedent,'  and 
the  attestation  infers  an  execration  as  a 
necessary  consequence. 

"Hence,  then,  to  the  believer  in  a  super- 
intending Providence,  every  oath  is  an  affir- 
mation, negation,  or  promise,  corroborated  by 
the  attestation  of  the  Divine  Being."  This 
attestation  includes  an  obsecration  of  Divine 
punishment  in  case  of  a  violation,  and  it  is, 
therefore,  a  matter  of  no  moment  whether 
this  obsecration  or  penalty  be  expressed  in 
words  or  only  implied;  its  presence  or  absence 
does  not,  in  any  degree,  alter  the  nature  of  the 
obligation.  If  in  any  promise  or  vow  made  by 
Masons,  such  a  penalty  is  inserted,  it  may 
probably  be  supposed  that  it  is  used  only  with 
a  metaphorical  and  paraphrastical  signifi- 
cation, and  for  the  purpose  of  symbolic  or  his- 
torical allusion.  Any  other  interpretation 
but  this  would  be  entirely  at  variance  with 
the  opinions  of  the  most  intelligent  Masons, 
who,  it  is  to  be  presumed,  best  know  the  intent 
and  meaning  of  thek  own  ceremonies. 

Fifthly.  The  last,  and,  indeed,  the  most 
important  objection  urged  is,  that  these  oaths 
are  construed  by  Masons  as  being  of  higher 
obligation  than  the  law  of  the  land.  It  is  in 
vain  that  this  charge  has  been  repeatedly  and 
indignantly  denied;  it  is  in  vain  that  Masons 
point  to  the  integrity  of  character  of  thou- 
sands of  eminent  men  who  have  been  mem- 
bers of  the  Fraternity;  it  is  in  vain  that  they 
recapitulate  the  order-loving  and  law-fearing 
regulations  of  the  Institution;  the  oharga  u 

524  OATH 

renewed  with  untiring  pertinacity,  and  be- 
lieved with  a  credulity  that  owes  its  birth  to 
rancorous  prejudice  alone.  To  repeat  the 
denial  is  but  to  provoke  a  repetition  of  the 
charge.  The  answer  is,  however,  made  by 
one  who,  once  a  Mason,  was  afterward  an  op- 
ponent and  an  avowed  enemy  of  the  Institu- 
tion, W.  L.  Stone  (Letters  on  Masonry  and 
Anti-Masonry,  Let.  VII.,  p.  69),  who  uses  the 
following  language: 

"Is  it,  then,  to  be  believed  that  men  of 
acknowledged  talents  and  worth  in  public 
stations,  and  of  virtuous  and,  frequently, 
religious  habits,  in  the  walks  of  private  life, 
with  the  Holy  Bible  in  their  hands — which 
they  are  solemnly  pledged  to  receive  as  the 
rule  and  guide  of  their  faith  and  practice — and 
under  the  grave  and  positive  charge  from  the 
officer  administering  the  obligation,  that  it  is 
to  be  taken  in  strict  subordination  to  the  civil 
laws — can  understand  that  obligation,  what- 
ever may  be  the  peculiarities  of  its  phrase- 
ology, as  requiring  them  to  countenance  vice 
and  criminality  even  by  silence?  Can  it  for  a 
moment  be  supposed  that  the  hundreds  of 
eminent  men,  whose  patriotism  is  unques- 
tioned, and  the  exercise  of  whose  talents  and 
virtues  has  shed  a  lustre  upon  the  church  his- 
tory of  our  country,  and  who,  by  their  walk 
and  conversation,  have,  in  their  own  lives, 
illustrated  the  beauty  of  holiness?  Is  it  to  be 
credited  that  the  tens  of  thousands  of  those 
persons,  ranking  among  the  most  intelligent 
and  virtuous  citizens  of  the  most  moral  and 
enlightened  people  on  earth — is  it,  I  ask,  pos- 
sible that  any  portion  of  this  community  can, 
on  calm  reflection,  believe  that  such  men  have 
oaths  upon  their  consciences  binding  them  to 
eternal  silence  in  regard  to  the  guilt  of  any 
man  because  he  happens  to  be  a  Freemason, 
no  matter  what  be  the  grade  of  offence, 
whether  it  be  the  picking  of  a  pocket  or  the 
shedding  of  blood?  It  does  really  seem  to  me 
impossible  that  such  an  opinion  could,  at  any 
moment,  have  prevailed,  to  any  considerable 
extent,  amongst  reflecting  and  intelligent  cit- 

Oath,  Corporal.  The  modern  form  of 
taking  an  oath  is  by  placing  the  hands  on  the 
Gospels  or  on  the  Bible.  The  corporale,  or 
corporal  cloth,  is  the  name  of  the  linen  cloth  on 
which,  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  the 
sacred  elements  consecrated  as  "the  body  of 
our  Lord"  are  placed.  Hence  the  expression 
corporal  oath  originated  in  the  ancient  custom 
of  swearing  while  touching  the  corporal  cloth. 
Relics  were  sometimes  made  use  of.  The 
laws  of  the  Allemanni  (cap.  657)  direct  that  he 
who  swears  shall  place  his  hand  upon  the 
coffer  containing  the  relics.  The  idea  being 
that  something  sacred  must  be  touched  by 
the  hand  of  the  jurator  to  give  validity  to  the 
oath,  in  time  the  custom  was  adopted  of  sub- 
stituting the  holy  Gospels  for  the  corporal 
cloth  or  the  relics,  though  the  same  title  was 
retained.  Haydn  (Diet,  of  Dates)  says  that 
the  practise  of  swearing  on  the  Gospels  pre- 
vailed in  England  as  early  as  a.d.  528.  The 
laws  of  the  Lombards  repeatedly  mention  the 


custom  of  swearing  on  the  Gospels.  The 
sanction  of  the  church  was  given  at  an  early 
period  to  the  usage.  Thus,  in  the  history  of 
the  Council  of  Constantinople  (Anno  381),  it 
is  stated  that  "George,  the  well-beloved  of 
God,  a  deacon  and  keeper  of  the  records,  hav- 
ing touched  the  Holy  Gospels  of  God,  swore 
in  this  manner,"  etc.  And  a  similar  practise 
was  adopted  at  the  Council  of  Nice,  fifty-six 
years  before.  The  custom  of  swearing  on 
the  book,  thereby  meaning  the  Gospels,  was 
adopted  by  the  Medieval  gild  of  Freemasons, 
and  allusions  to  it  are  found  in  all  the  Old  Con- 
stitutions. Thus  in  the  York  MS.,  No.  1, 
about  the  year  1600,  it  is  said,  "These 
charges  .  .  .  you  shall  well  and  truly  keep  to 
your  power:  so  help  you  God  and  by  the  con- 
tents of  that  book."  And  in  the  Grand 
Lodge  MS.,  No.  1,  in  1583  we  find  this: 
"These  charges  ye  shall  keepe,  so  healpe  you 
God,  and  your  haly  dome  and  by  this  booke 
in  your  hande  unto  your  power."  The  form 
of  the  ceremony  required  that  the  corporal 
oath  should  be  taken  with  both  hands  on  the 
book,  or  with  one  hand,  and  then  always  the 
right  hand. 

Oath  of  the  Gild.  The  oath  that  was  ad- 
ministered in  the  English  Freemasons'  gild  of 
the  Middle  Ages  is  first  met  with  in  the  Har- 
leian  MS.,  No.  1942,  written  about  the  year 
1670.  The  31st  article  prescribes :  "  That  noe 
person  shall  bee  accepted  a  Free  Mason,  or 
know  the  secrets  of  the  said  Society,  until  hee 
hath  first  taken  the  oath  of  secrecy  hereafter 

"I,  A.  B.  Doe,  in  the  presence  of  Almighty 
God  and  my  Fellowes  and  Brethren  here  pres- 
ent, promise  and  declare  that  I  will  not  at  any 
time  hereafter,  by  any  act  or  circumstance 
whatsoever,  directly  or  indirectly,  publish, 
discover,  reveale,  or  make  knowne  any  of  the 
secrets,  priviledges  or  counsells  of  the  Fra- 
ternity or  fellowship  of  Free  Masonry,  which  at 
this  time,  or  any  time  hereafter,  shall  be  made 
knowne  unto  mee :  soe  helpe  mee  God  and  the 
holy  contents  of  this  booke."  In  the  Roberts  • 
Constitutions,  published  in  1722,  this  oath, 
substantially  in  the  same  words,  is  for  the 
first  time  printed  with  the  amendment  of 
"privities"  for  "priviledges." 

Oath,  Tiler's.  Before  any  strange  and 
unknown  visitor  can  gain  admission  into  a 
Masonic  Lodge,  he  is  required  in  America  to 
take  the  following  oath: 

"I,  A.  B.,  do  hereby  and  hereon  solemnly 
and  sincerely  swear  that  I  have  been  regularly 
initiated,  passed,  and  raised  to  the  sublime 
degree  of  a  Master  Mason  in  a' just  and  legally 
constituted  Lodge  of  such;  that  I  do  not  now 
stand  suspended  or  expelled;  and  know  of  no 
reason  why  I  should  not  hold  Masonic  com- 
munication with  my  brethren." 

It  is  called  the  "Tiler's  oath,"  because  it  is 
usually  taken  in  the  Tiler's  room,  and  was 
formerly  administered  by  that  officer,  whose 
duty  it  is  to  protect  the  Lodge  from  the  ap- 
proach of  unauthorized  visitors.  It  is  now 
administered  by  the  committee  of  examina- 
tion, and  not  only  he  to  whom  it  is  adminis- 


tered,  but  he  who  administers  it,  aad  all  who 
are  present,  must  take  it  at  the  same  time.  It 
is  a  process  of  purgation,  and  each  one  present, 
the  visitor  as  well  as  the  members  of  the 
Lodge,  is  entitled  to  know  that  all  the  others 
are  legally  qualified  to  be  present  at  the  eso- 
teric examination  which  is  about  to  take 

Slace.  [This  custom  is  unknown  in  English 

OB.  A  Masonic  abbreviation  of  the  word 
Obligation,  sometimes  written  O.  B. 

Obed.  (Heb.  ~Ci2,  serving.)  One  of  nine 
favored  officials,  selected  by  Solomon  after 
the  death  of  H.  Abif . 

Obedience.  The  doctrine  of  obedience  to 
constituted  authority  is  strongly  inculcated  in 
all  the  Old  Constitutions  as  necessary  to  the 
preservation  of  the  association.  In  them  it  is 
directed  that  "every  Mason  shall  prefer  his 
elder  and  put  him  to  worship."  Thus  the 
Master  Mason  obeys  the  order  of  his  Lodge, 
the  Lodge  obeys  the  mandates  of  the  Grand 
Lodge,  and  the  Grand  Lodge  submits  to  the 
landmarks  and  the  old  regulations.  The 
doctrine  of  passive  obedience  and  non-re- 
sistance in  politics,  however  much  it  may  be 
supposed  to  be  inimical  to  the  progress  of  free 
institutions,  constitutes  undoubtedly  the  great 
principle  of  Masonic  government.  Such  a 
principle  would  undoubtedly  lead  to  an  un- 
bearable despotism,  were  it  not  admirably 
modified  and  controlled  by  the  compensating 
principle  of  appeal.  The  first  duty  of  every 
Mason  is  to  obey  the  mandate  of  the  Master. 
But  if  that  mandate  should  have  been  unlaw- 
ful or  oppressive,  he  will  find  his  redress  in  the 
Grand  Lodge,  which  will  review  the  case  and 
render  justice.  This  spirit  of  instant  obedi- 
ence and  submission  to  authority  constitutes 
the  great  safeguard  of  the  Institution.  Free- 
masonry more  resembles  a  military  than  a  po- 
litical organization.  The  order  must  at  once 
be  obeyed;  its  character  and  its  consequences 
may  be  matters  of  subsequent  inquiry.  The 
Masonic  rule  of  obedience  is  like  the  nautical, 
imperative:  "Obey  orders,  even  if  you  break 

Obedlence  of  a  Grand  Body.  Obedience, 
used  in  the  sense  of  being  under  the  jurisdic- 
tion, is  a  technicality  borrowed  only  recently 
by  Masonic  authorities  from  the  French, 
where  it  has  always  been  regularly  used.  Thus 
"  the  Grand  Lodge  has  addressed  a  letter  to  all 
the  Lodges  of  Us  obedience"  means  "to  all  the 
Lodges  under  its  jurisdiction."  In  French, 
"a  toutes  lea  Loges  de  sou  obedience."  It 
comes  originally  from  the  usage  of  the  Middle 
Ages,  in  the  Low  Latin  of  which  obedientia 
meant  the  homage  which  a  vassal  owed  to  his 
lord.  In  the  ecclesiastical  language  of  the 
same  period,  the  word  signified  the  duty  or 
office  of  a  monk  toward  his  superior. 

Obelisk.  The  obelisk  is  a  quadrangular, 
monolithic  column,  diminishing  upward,  with 
the  sides  gently  inclined,  but  not  so  as  to  ter- 
minate in  a  pointed  apex,  but  to  form  at  the 
top  a  flattish,  pyramidal  figure,  by  which  the 
whole  is  finished  off  and  brought  to  a  point. 
It  was  the  most  common  species  of  monument 


in  ancient  Egypt*  where  they  are  still  to  be 
found  in  great  numbers,  the  sides  being  cov- 
ered with  Hieroglyphic  inscriptions.  Obelisks 
were,  it  is  supposed,  originally  erected  in 
honor  of  the  sun  god.  Pliny  says  (Holland's 
trans.),  "The  kings  of  Egypt  in  times  past 
made  of  this  stone  certain  long  beams,  which 
they  called  obelisks,  and  consecrated  them 
unto  the  sun,  whom  they  honored  as  a  god: 
and,  indeed,  some  resemblance  they  carry  of 
sunbeams."  In  continental  Masonry  the 
monument  in  the  Master's  Degree  is  often 
made  in  the  form  of  an  obelisk,  with  the  letters 
M.  B.  inscribed  upon  it.  And  this  form  is 
appropriate,  because  in  Masonic,  as  in  Chris- 
tian, iconography  the  obelisk  is  a  symbol  of 
the  resurrection. 

Objections  to  Freemasonry.  The  prin- 
cipal objections  that  have  been  urged  by  its 
opponents  to  the  Institution  of  Freemasonry 
may  be  arranged  under  six  heads:  1.  Its 
secrecy;  2.  The  exclusiveness  of  its  charity; 
3.  Its  admission  of  unworthy  members;  4. 
Its  claim  to  be  a  religion;  5.  Its  ad- 
ministration of  unlawful  oaths;  and,  6.  Its 
puerility  as  a  system  of  instruction.  Each 
of  these  objections  is  replied  to  in  this  work 
under  the  respective  heads  of  the  words  which 
are  italicized  above. 

Obligated.  To  be  obligated,  in  Masonio 
language,  is  to  be  admitted  into  the  covenant 
of  Masonry.  "An  obligated  Mason  "  is  tau- 
tological, because  there  can  be  no  Mason 
who  is  not  an  obligated  one. 

Obligation.  The  solemn  promise  made  by 
a  Mason  on  his  admission  into  any  degree  is 
technically  called  his  obligation.  In  a  legal 
sense,  obligation  is  synonymous  with  duty. 
Its  derivation  shows  its  true  meaning,  for  the 
Latin  word  oUigatio  literally  signifies  a  tying 
a*  binding.  The  obligation  is  that  which  binds 
a  man  to  do  some  act,  the  doing  of  which  thus 
becomes  his  duty.  By  his  obligation,  a  Mason- 
is  bound  or  tied  to  his  Order.  Hence  the 
Romans  called  the  military  oath  which  was 
taken  by  the  soldier  his  obligation,  and, 
too,  it  is  said  that  it  is  the  obligation  that 
makes  the  Mason.  Before  that  ceremony, 
there  is  no  tie  that  binds  the  candidate  to  the 
Order  so  as  to  make  him  a  part  of  it;  after  the 
ceremony,  the  tie  has  been  completed,  and  the 
candidate  becomes  at  once  a  Mason,  entitled 
to  all  the  rights  and  privileges  and  subject  to 
all  the  duties  and  responsibilities  that  enure 
in  that  character.  The  jurists  have  divided 
obligations  into  imperfect  and  perfect,  or  nat- 
ural and  civil.  In  Masonry  there  is  no  such 
distinction.  The  Masonic  obligation  is  that 
moral  one  which,  although  it  cannot  be  en- 
forced by  the  courts  of  law,  is  binding  on  the 
party  who  makes  it,  in  conscience  and  accord- 
ing to  moral  justice.  It  varies  in  each  degree, 
but  in  each  is  perfect.  Its  different  clauses, 
in  which  different  duties  are  prescribed,  are 
called  its  points,  which  are  either  affirmative 
or  negative,  a  division  like  that  of  the  pre- 
cepts of  the  Jewish  law.  _  The  affirmative 
points  are  those  which  require  certain  acts  to 
be  performed;  the  negative  points  are  those 

526  OBLONG 

which  forbid  certain  ether  acts  to  be  done. 
The  whole  of  them  is  preceded  by  a  general 
point  of  secrecy,  common  to  all  the  degrees, 
and  this  point  is  called  the  tie. 

Oblong  Square.  A  parallelogram,  or 
four-sided  figure,  all  of  whose  angles  are  equal, 
but  two  of  whoae  sides  are  longer  than  the 
others.  [Of  course  the  term  "oblong  square" 
is  strictly  without  any  meaning,  but  it  is  used 
to  denote  two  squares  joined  together  to  form 
a  rectangle.] 

This  is  the  symbolic  form  of  a  Masonic 
Lodge,  and  it  finds  its  prototype  in  many  of 
the  structures  of  our  ancient  brethren.  The 
ark  of  Noah,  the  camp  of  the  Israelites,  the 
Ark  of  the  Covenant,  the  Tabernacle,  and, 
lastly,  the  Temple  of  Solomon,  were  all  oblong 
squares.    (See  Ground-Floor  of  the  Lodge.) 

Oboth.  Ventriloquism.  It  will  be  found 
so  denominated  in  the  Septuagint  version, 
Isaiah  xxix.  3, alsoxix.  3. 

Obrack,  Hibernug.  Grand  Master  of  the 
Order  of  the  Temple  in  1392,  according  to  the 
chronology  of  the  Strict  Observance  of i  Ger- 

Obsemnce,  Clerks  of  Strict.  See 

Clerks  of  Strict  Observance. 

Observance,  Lax.   See  Lax  Observance. 

Observance,  Relaxed.  (Observance  Re- 
lachSe.)  This  is  the  term  by  which  Ragon 
translates  the  lata  observantia  or  lax  observ- 
ance applied  by  the  disciples  of  Von  Bund  to 
the  other  Lodges  of  Germany*  Ragon  (Orih. 
Macon.,  p.  236)  calls  it  incorrectly  a  Rite,  and 
confounds  it  with  the  Clerks  of  Strict  Ob- 
servance.   (See  Lax  Observance.) 

Observance,  Strict.  See  Strict  Observance, 
Bite  of. 

Obverse.  In  numismatics  that  side  of  a 
coin  or  medal  which  contains  the  principal 
figure,  generally  a  face  in  profile  or  a  full  or 
half-length  figure,  is  called  the  obverse. 

Occasional  Lodge.  ~  A  temporary  Lodge 
convoked  by  a  Grand  Master  for  the  purpose 
of  making  Masons,  after  which  the  Lodge  is 
dissolved.  The  phrase  was  first  used  by  An- 
derson in  the  second  edition  of  the  Book  of 
Constitutions,  and  is  repeated  by  subsequent 
editors/  To  make  a  Mason  in  an  Occasional 
Lodge  is  equivalent  to  making  him  "at  sight." 
But  any  Lodge,  called  temporarily  by  the 
Grand  Master  for  a  specific  purpose  and  im- 
mediately afterward  dissolved,  is  an  Occa- 
sional Lodge.  Its  organisation  as  to  officers, 
and  its  regulations  as  to  ritual,  must  be  the 
same  as  in  a  permanent  and  properly  war- 
ranted Lodge.   (SeeSigkt,  Making  Masons  at.) 

Occult  Masonry.  Ragon,  in  his  Ortho- 
doxie  Maconnique,  proposes  the  establishment 
of  a  Masonic  system,  which  he  calls  "Oocult 
Masonry."  It  consists  of  three  degrees,  which 
are  the  same  as  those  of  Ancient  Craft  Ma- 
sonry, only  that  all  the  symbols  are  inter- 
preted after  alchemical  principles.  It  is,  in 
fact,  the  application  of  Masonic  symbolism  to 
Hermetic  symbolism — two  things  that  never 
did,  according  to  Hitchcock,  materially  differ. 

Occult  Sciences.  This  name  is  given  to 
the  sciences  of  alchemy,  magic,  and  astrology, 


wliieh  existed  in  the  Middle  Ages.  Many  of 
the  speculations  of  these  so-called  sciences 
were  in  the  eighteenth  century  made  use  of 
in  the  construction  of  the  high  degrees.  We 
have  even  a  "Hermetic  Rite"  which  is  based 
on  the  dogmas  of  alchemy. 

Occupied  Territory.  A  state  or  kingdom 
where  there  is  a  Grand  Lodge  organization 
and  subordinate  Lodges  working  under  it  is 
said  to  be  occupied  territory;  and,  by  the 
American  and  English  law,  all  other  Grand 
Lodges  are  precluded  from  entering  in  it  and 
exercising  jurisdiction.  (See  Jurisdiction  of  a 
Grand  Lodge.) 

Octagon.  The  regular  octagon  is  a  geo- 
metrical figure  of  eight  equal  sides  and  angles. 
It  is  a  favorite  form  in  Christian  ecclesiology, 
and  most  of  the  Chapter-Houses  of  the  ca- 
thedrals in  England  are  eight  sided.  It  is 
sometimes  used  in  rituals  of  Knights  of  Malta, 
and  then,  like  the  eight-pointed  cross  of  the 
same  Order,  is  referred  symbolically  to  the 
eight  beatitudes  of  our  Savior. . 

Odd  Numbers.  In  the  numerical  philos- 
ophy of  the  Pythagoreans,  odd  numbers 
were  male  and  even  numbers  female,  It  is 
wrong,  however,  to  say,  as  Oliver  and  some 
others  after  him  have,  that  odd  numbers  were 
perfect,  and  even  numbers  imperfect.  Th6 
combination  of  two  odd  numbers  would  make 
an  even  number,  which  was  the  most  perfeot. 
Hence,  in  the  Pythagorean  system,  4,  made  by 
the  combination  of  1  and  3,  and  10,  by 
the  combination  of  3  and  7,  are  the  most  per- 
fect of  all  numbers.  Herein  the  Pythagorean 
differs  from  the  Masonic  system  of  numerals. 
In  this  latter  all  the  sacred  numbers  are  odd, 
such  as  3,  5,  7*  9,  27,  and  81.  Thus  it  is  evi- 
dent that  the  Masonic  theory  of  sacred  num- 
bers was  derived,  not,as  it  has  been  supposed, 
from  the  school  of  Pythagoras,  but  from  a 
much  older  system. 

Odem.  fHeb.  BDt.)  The  carnelian  or 
agate  in  the  high  priest's  breastplate.  It,  was 
of  a  red  color,  and  claimed  to  possess  medical 

Odin.  The  chief  Scandinavian  deity  and 
father  of  Balder,  which  see.  The  counter- 
part of  Hermes  and  Mercury  in  the  Egjnjtian 
and  *  Roman  mythologies,  Odin  and  his 
brothers  Vili  and  Ve,  the  sons  of  Boer,  or  the 
first-born,  slew  Ymir  or  Chaos,  and  from  Ins 
body  created  the  world.  As  ruler  of  heaven, 
he  sends  daily  his  two  black  ravens,  Thought 
and  Memory,  to  gather  tidings  of  all  that  is 
being  done  throughout  the  world. 
Offenses,  Masonic.  See  Crimea,  Masonic. 
Offerings,  The  Three  Grand.  See  Ground 
Floor  of  the  Lodge. 

Officers:  The  officers  of  a  Grand  Lodge, 
Grand  Chapter,  or  other  Supreme  body  in 
Masonry,  are  divided  into  Grand  and  Subor- 
dinate; the  former,  who  are  the  Grand  and 
Deputy  Grand  Master,  the  Grand  Wardens 
and  Grand  Treasurer,  Secretary,  and  Chap- 
Iain,  are  also  sometimes  called  the  Digni- 
taries. The  officers  of  a  Lodge  or  Chapter  are 
divided  into  the  Elected  and  the  Appointed, 
the  former  in  America  being  the  Master, 


Wardens,  Treasurer,  and  Secretary ,  while  in 
England  only  the  Master  and  Treasurer  are 

Officers' Jewels.  Bee  Jewels,  Official. 

Office,  Tenure  of.  In  Masonry  the  ten- 
ure of  every  office  is  not  only  for  the  time  for 
which  the  incumbent  was  elected  or  appointed, 
but  extends  to  the  day  on  which  his  successor 
is  installed.  During  the  period  which,  elapses 
from  the  election  of  that  successor  until  his 
installation,  the  old  officer  is  technically  said 
to  "hold  over." 

Ocmliu.  The  Druidical  name  for  Her- 
cules, who  is  represented  with  numberless  fine 
chains  proceeding  from  the  mouth  to  the  ears 
of  other  people,  hence  possessing  the  powers  of 
eloquence  and  persuasion. 

Ohek  «3o*k.  rvb*  3HK.  Love  of  God.  This 
and  Obkb  Kjlbobo,  Love  of  our  Neighbor,  are 
the  names  of  the  two  supports  of  the  Ladder 
of  Kadosh.  Collectively,  they  allude  to  that 
Divine  passage,  "Thou  shalt  love  the  Lord  thy 
God  with  all  thy  heart,  and  with  all  thy  soul, 
and  with  all  thy  mind.  This  is  the  first  and 
great  commandment.  And  the  second  is  like 
unto  it,  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbor  as  thy- 
self. On  these  two  commandments  hang  all 
the  law  and  the  prophets."  Hence  the  Lad- 
der of  Kadosh  is  supported  by  these  two 
Christian  commandments. 

OheHKatofco.  See  Oheb  Bloah. 

OMo.  Freemasonry  was  introduced  into 
Ohio  early  in  the  present  century.  On  Jan- 
uary 4,  1808,  a  convention  of-  delegates  from 
the  five  Lodges  then  in  the  State  met  at  Chilli- 
cotbe,  andon  January  7th  organized  a  Grand 
Lodge,  electing  Rufus  Putnam  first  Grand 
Master.  The  Grand  Chapter  of  Ohio  was 
organised  in  1816,  the  Grand  Council  in  1829, 
and  the  Grand  Commandery  in  1843. 

Oklahoma.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  Okla- 
homa was  organised  at  a  convention  of  ten 
Lodges,  holding  warrants  from  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Indian  Territory,  held  at  Oklahoma 
City,  November  10, 1892,  when  after  electing 
Grand  Officers,  who  were  installed  at  a  special 
communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Indian 
Territory,  the  Grand  Lodge  was  opened  and 
a  constitution  adopted.  The  first  annual 
communication  was  held  at  £1  Reno,  February 
14,  1893.  February  10,  1909,  the  Grand 
Lodges  of  Oklahoma  and  Indian  Territory 
were  merged  together  under  the  title  of 
"The  Grand  Lodge  of  Ancient  Free  and  Ac- 
cepted Masons  of  the  State  of  Oklahoma." 

[W.  J.  A.] 

Oil.  The  Hebrews  anointed  their  kings, 
prophets,  and  high  priests  with  oil  mingled 
with  the  richest  spices.  They  also  anointed 
themselves  with  oil  on  all  festive  occasions, 
whence  the  expression  in  Psalm  xlv.  7,  "God 
hath  anointed  thee  with  the  oil  of  gladness." 
(See  Corn,  Wine  and  OH.) 

Old  Charges.   See  Manuscripts,  Old. 

OM  Man.  Old  men  in  their  dotage  are  by 
the  laws  of  Masonry  disqualified  for  initiation . 
For  the  reason  of  this  law,  see  Dotage. 

Old  Regulations.  The  regulations  for  the 
government  of  the  Craft,  which  were  first  com- 

OLIVER  527 

piled  by  Grand  Master  Payne  in  1720,  and  ap- 

S roved  by  the  Grand  Lodge  in  1721  were  pub- 
shed  by  Anderson  in  1723,  in  the  first  edition 
of  the  Book  of  Constitutions,  under  the  name  of 
General  Regulations.  In  1738  Anderson  pub- 
lished a  second  edition  of  the  Book  of  Constiho- 
tions,  and  inserted  these  regulations  under  the 
name  of  Old  Regulations,  placing  in  an  oppo- 
site column  the  alterations  which  had  been 
made  in  them  by  the  Grand  Lodge  at  different 
times  between  1723  and  1737,  and  called  these 
New  Regulations.  When  Dermott  published 
his  A  himan  Rezon,  or  Book  of  Constitutions  of 
the  rival  Grand  Lodge,  he  adopted  Anderson's 
plan,  publishing  in  two  columns  the  Old  and 
the  New  Regulations.  But  he  made  some  im- 
portant changes  in  the  latter  to  accommodate 
the  policy  of  his  own  Grand  Lodge.  The  Old 
Regulations,  more  properly  known  as  the 
"General  Regulations  of  1722,"  are  recog- 
nized as  the  better  authority  in  questions  of 
Masonic  law. 

Olive.  In  a  secondary  sense,  the  olive 
plant  is  a  symbol  of  peace  and  victory;  but  in 
its  primary  sense,  like  all  the  other  sacred 
plants  of  antiquity,  it  was  a  symbol  of  resur- 
rection and  immortality.  Hence  in  the  An- 
cient Mysteries  it  was  the  analogue  of  the 
Acacia  of  Freemasonry. 

Olive-Branch  In  the  East,' Brotherhood 
of  the.  A  new  Order,  which  was  proposed  at 
Bombay,  in  1845,  by  Dr.  James  Burnes,  the 
author  of  a  History  of  the  Knights  Templar, 
who  was  then  the  Provincial  Grand  Master  of 
India  for  Scotland.  It  was  intended  to  pro- 
vide a  substitute  for  native  Masons  for  the 
chiyalric  degrees,  from  which,  on  account  of 
their  religious  faith,  they  were  excluded.  It 
consisted  of  three  classes,  Novice,  Companion, 
and  Officer.  For  the  first,  it  was  requisite 
that  the  candidate  should  have  been  initiated 
into  Masonry;  for  the  second,  that  he  should 
be  a  Master  Mason;  and  for  the  third  it  was 
recommended,  but  not  imperatively  required, 
that  he  should  have  attained  the  Royal  Arch 
Degree.  _  The  badge  of  the  Order  was  a  dove 
descending  with  a  green  olive-branch  in  its 
mouth.  The  new  Order  was  received  with 
much  enthusiasm  by  the  most  distinguished 
Masons  of  India,  but  it  did  not  secure  a  per- 
manent existence. 

Oliver,  George.  The  Rev.  George  Oliver, 
D.D.,  one  of  the  most  distinguished  and 
learned  of  English  Masons,  was  descended 
from  an  ancient  Scottish  family  of  that  name, 
some  of  whom  came  into  England  in  the  time 
of  James  I.,  and  settled  at  Clipstone  Park, 
Nottinghamshire.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Oliver,  rector  of  Lambley, 
Nottinghamshire,  and  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
George  Whitehead,  Esq.  He  was  born  at 
Pepplewick,  November  5,  1782,  and  received 
a  liberal  education  at  Nottingham.  In  1803, 
when  but  twenty-one  years  of  age,  he  was 
elected  second  master  of  the  grammar  school 
at  Caiston,  Lincoln.  In  1809  he  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  head  mastership  of  King  Ed- 
ward's Grammar  School  at  Great  Grimsby. 
In  1813  he  entered  holy  orders  in  the  Church 

528  OLIVER 

of  England,  and  was  ordained  a  deacon.  The 
subsequent  year  he  was  made  a  priest.  In  the 
spring  of  1815,  Bishop  Tomline  collated  him  to 
the  living  of  Clee,  his  name  being  at  the  time 

E laced  on  the  boards  of  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
ridge,  as  a  ten-year  man  by  Dr.  Bayley,  Sub- 
dean  of  Lincoln  and  examining  Chaplain  to 
the  Bishop.  In  the  same  year  he  was  ad- 
mitted as  Surrogate  and  a  Steward  of  the  Cleri- 
cal Fund.  In  1831,  Bishop  Kaye  gave  him 
the  living  of  Scopwick,  which  he  held  to  the 
time  of  his  death.  He  graduated  as  Doctor  of 
Divinity  in  1836,  being  then  rector  of  Wolver- 
hampton, and  a  prebendary  of  the  collegiate 
church  at  that  place,  both  of  which  positions 
had  been  presented  to  him  by  Dr.  Hobart, 
Dean  of  Westminster.  In  1846  the  Lord 
Chancellor  conferred  on  him  the  rectory  of 
South  Hvkeham,  which  vacated  the  incum- 
bency of  Wolverhampton.  At  the  age  of 
seventy-two  Dr.  Oliver's  physical  powers 
began  to  fail,  and  he  was  obliged  to  confine 
the  charge  of  his  parishes  to  the  care  of  cur- 
ates, and  he  passed  the  remaining  years  of  his 
life  m  retirement  at  Lincoln.  In  1805  he  had 
married  Mary  Ann,  the  youngest  daughter  of 
Thomas  Beverley,  Esq.,  by  whom  he  left  five 
children.  He  died  March  3,  1867,  at  East- 
gate,  Lincoln. 

To  the  literary  world  Dr.  Oliver  was  well 
known  as  a  laborious  antiquary,  and  his  works 
on  ecclesiastical  antiquities  during  fifty 
years  of  his  life,  from  fifty-five,  earned  for 
him  a  high  reputation.  Of  these  works  the 
most  ,  important  were.  History  and  Antiquities 
of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  Beverley,  History  and 
Antiquities  of  the  Collegiate  Church  of  Wolver- 
hampton, History  of  the  Conventual  Church  of 
Grimsby,  Monumental  Antiquities  of  Grimsby  ± 
History  of  the  Gild  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Slea- 
ford,  Letters  on  the  Druidical  Remains  near 
Lincoln,  Guide  to  the  Druidical  Temple  at  Not- 
tingham and  Remains  of  Ancient  Britons  be- 
tween Lincoln  and  Sleaford. 

But  it  is  as  the  most  learned  Mason  and  the 
most  indefatigable  and  copious  Masonic  au- 
thor of  his  age  that  Dr.  Oliver  principally 
claims  our  attention.  He  had  inherited  a  love 
of  Freemasonry  from  his  father,  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Oliver,  who  was  an  expert  Master  of 
the  work,  the  Chaplain  of  his  Lodge,  and  who 
contributed  during  a  whole  year,  from  1797 
to  1798,  an  original  Masonic  song  to  be  sung 
on  every  Lodge  night.  His  son  has  repeatedly 
acknowledged  his  indebtedness  to  him  for 
valuable  information  in  relation  to  Masonic 

Dr.  Oliver  was  initiated  by  his  father,  in  the 
year  1801,  in  St.  Peter's  Lodge,  in  the  city  of 
Peterborough.  He  was  at  that  time  but 
nineteen  years  of  age,  and  was  admitted  by 
dispensation  during  his  minority,  according 
to  the  practise  then  prevailing,  as  a  lewis,  or 
the  son  of  a  Mason. 

Under  the  tuition  of  his  father,  he  made 
much  progress  in  the  rites  and  ceremonies 
then  in  use  among  the  Lodges.  He  read  with 
great  attention  every  Masonic  book  within 
Bis  reach,  and  began  to  collect  that  store  of 


knowledge  which  he  afterward  used  with  so 
much  advantage  to  the  Craft. 

Soon  after  his  appointment  as  head  mas- 
ter of  King  Edward's  Grammar  School  at 
Grimsby,  he  established  a  Lodge  in  the  bor- 
ough, the  chair  of  which  he  occupied  for  four- 
teen years.  So  strenuous  were  his  exertions 
for  the  advancement  of  Masonry,  that  in  1812 
he  Was  enabled  to  lay  the  first  stone  of  a  Ma- 
sonic hall  in  the  town,  where,  three  years  be- 
fore, there  had  been  scarcely  a  Mason  residing. 

About  this  time  he  was  exalted  as  a  Royal 
Arch  Mason  in  the  Chapter  attached  to  the 
Rodney  Lodge  at  Kingston-on-Hull.  In  Chap- 
ters and  Consistories  Connected  with  the 
same  Lodge  he  also  received  the  high  degrees 
and  those  of  Masonic  Knighthood.  In  1813, 
he  was  appointed  a  Provincial  Grand  Steward; 
in  1816,  Provincial  Grand  Chaplain;  and  in 
1832,  Provincial  Deputy  Grand  Master  of  the 
Province  of  Lincolnshire.  These  are  all  the 
official  honors  that  he  received,  except  that  of 
Past  Deputy  Grand  Master,  conferred,  as  an 
honorary  title,  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Massa- 
chusetts. In  the  year  1840,  Dr.  Crucefix  had 
undeservedly  incurred  the  displeasure  of  the 
Grand  Master,  the  Duke  of  Sussex.  Dr. 
Oliver,  between  whom  and  Dr.  Crucefix  there 
had  always  been  a  warm  personal  friendship, 
assisted  in  a  public  demonstration  of  the  Fra- 
ternity in  honor  of  his  friend  and  brother. 
This  involved  him  in  the  odium,  and  caused 
the  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  Lincolnshire, 
Bro.  Charles  Tennyson  D'Eyncourt,  to  re- 
quest the  resignation  of  Dr.  Oliver  as  his 
Deputy.  He  complied  with  the  resignation, 
ana  after  that  time  withdrew  from  all  active 
participation  in  the  labors  of  the  Lodge.  The 
transaction  was  not  considered  by  any  means 
as  creditable  to  the  independence  of  character 
or  sense  of  justice  of  the  Provincial  Grand 
Master,  and  the  Craft  very  generally  ex- 

Eressed  their  indignation  of  the  course  which 
e  had  pursued,  and  their  warm  appreciation 
of  the  Masonic  services  of  Dr.  Oliver.  In 
1844,  this  appreciation  was  marked  by  the 

Eresentation  of  an  offering  of  plate,  which  had 
een  very  generally  subscribed  for  by  the 
Craft  throughout  the  kingdom. 

Dr.  Oliver's  first  contribution  to  the  litera- 
ture of  Freemasonry,  except  a  few  Masonic 
sermons,  was  a  work  entitled  The  Antiquities 
of  Freemasonry,  comprising  illustrations  of  the 
ftoe  Grand  Periods  of  Masonry,  from  the  Crea- 
tion of  the  World  to  the  Dedication  of  King  Sol- 
omons Temple,  which  was  published  in  1823. 
His  next  production  was  a  Bttle  work  entitled 
The  Star  in  the  East,  intended  to  show,  from 
the  testimony  of  Masonic  writers,  the  con- 
nection between  Freemasonry  and  religion. 
In  1841  he  published  twelve  lectures  on  the 
Signs  and  Symbols  of  Freemasonry,  in  which 
he  went  into  a  learned  detail  of  the  history 
and  signification  of  all  the  recognized  symbols 
of  the  Order.  His  next  important  contribu- 
tion to  Freemasonry  was  The  History  of  Initi- 
ation in  twelve  lectures;  comprising  a  detailed 
account  of  the  Rites  and  Ceremonies,  Doctrines 
and  Discipline,  of  all  the  Secret  and  Mysterious 


Institutions  of  the  Ancient  World,  published  in 
1840.  The  professed  object  of  the  author  was 
to  show  the  resemblances  between  these  an- 
cient systems  of  initiation  and  the  Masonic, 
and  to  trace  them  to  a  common  origin:  a 
theory  which,  under  some  modification,  has 
been  very  generally  accepted  by  Masonic 

Following  this  was  The  Theocratic  Philoso- 
phy of  Freemasonry,  a  highly  interesting  work, 
in  which  he  discusses  the  speculative  charac- 
ter of  the  Institution.  A  History  of  Freema- 
sonry from  1889  to  1840  has  proved  a  valuable 
appendix  to  the  work  of  Preston,  an  edition 
of  which  he  had  edited  in  the  former  year. 
His  next  and  most  important,  most  inter- 
esting, and  most  learned  production  was  his 
Historical  Landmarks  and  other  Evidences  of 
Freemasonry  Explained.  No  work  with  such 
an  amount  of  facts  in  reference  to  the  Masonic 
system  had  ever  before  been  published  by  any 
author.  It  will  forever  remain  as  a  monument 
of  his  vast  research  and  his  extensive  read- 
ing. But  it  would  be  no  brief  task  to  enumer- 
ate merely  the  titles  of  the  many  works  which 
he  produced  for  the  instruction  of  the  Craft. 
A  few  of  them  must  suffice.  These  are  the 
Revelations  of  a  Square,  a  sort  of  Masonic  ro- 
mance, detailing,  in  a  fictitious  form,  many  of 
the  usages  of  the  last  centuries,  with  anecdotes 
of  the  principal  Masons  of  that  period;  The 
Golden  Remains  of  the  Early  Masonic  Writers, 
in  5  volumes,  each  of  which  contains  an  inter- 
esting introduction  by  the  editor:  The  Book  of 
the  Lodge,  a  useful  manual,  intended  as  a  guide 
to  the  ceremonies  of  the  Order;  The  Symbol  of 
Glory,  intended  to  show  the  object  and  end  of 
Freemasonry:  A  Mirror  for  the  Johannite 
Masons,  in  which  he  discusses  the  question  of 
the  dedication  of  Lodges  to  the  two  Saints 
John;  The  Origin  and  Insignia  of  the  Royal 
Arch  Degree,  a  title  which  explains  itself;  A 
Dictionary  of  Symbolic  Masonry,  by  no  means 
the  best  of  his  works.  Almost  his  last  contri- 
bution to  Masonry  was  his  Institutes  of  Ma- 
sonic Jurisprudence,  a  book  in  which  he  ex- 
pressed views  of  law  that  did  not  meet  with 
the  universal  concurrence  of  his  English  read- 
ers. Besides  these  elaborate  works,  Dr. 
Oliver  was  a  constant  contributor  to  the  early 
volumes  of  the  London  Freemasons'  Quarterly 
Review,  and  published  a  valuable  article,  "On 
the  Gothic  Constitutions,"  in  the  American 
Quarterly  Review  of  Freemasonry. 

The  great  error  of  Dr.  Oliver,  as  a  Masonic 
teacher,  was  a  too  easy  credulity  or  a  too  great 
warmth  of  imagination,  which  led  him  to  ac- 
cept without  hesitation  the  crude  theories  of 
previous  writers,  and  to  recognize  documents 
and  legends  as  unquestionably  authentic 
whose  truthfulness  subsequent  researches 
have  led  most  Masonic  scholars  to  doubt  or  to 
deny.  Bis  statements,  therefore,  as  to  the 
origin  or  the  history  of  the  Order,  have  to  be 
received  with  many  grains  of  allowance.  Yet 
it  must  be  acknowledged  that  no  writer  in  the 
English  language  has  ever  done  so  much  to 
elevate  the  scientific  character  of  Freema- 


ON  529 

Dr.  Oliver  was  in  fact  the  founder  of  what 
may  be  called  the  literary  school  of  Masonry. 
Bringing  to  the  study  of  the  Institution  an 
amount  of  archeological  learning  but  seldom 
surpassed,  an  inexhaustible  fund  of  mul- 
tifarious reading,  and  all  the  laborious  re- 
searches of  a  genuine  scholar,  he  gave  to  Free- 
masonry a  literary  and  philosophic  character 
which  has  induced  many  succeeding  scholars 
to  devote  themselves  to  those  studies  which 
he  had  made  so  attractive.  While  his  errone- 
ous theories  and  his  fanciful  speculations  will 
be  rejected,  the  form  and  direction  that  he  has 
given  to  Masonic  speculations  will  remain, 
and  to  him  must  be  accredited  the  enviable 
title  of  the  Father  of  Anglo-Saxon  Masonic  Lit- 

In  reference  to  the  personal  character  of  Dr. 
Oliver,  a  contemporary  journalist  (Stanford 
Mercury)  has  said  that  he  was  of  a  kind  and 
genial  disposition,  charitable  in  the  highest 
sense  of  the  word,  courteous,  affable,  self- 
denying,  and  beneficent;  humble,  unassum- 
ing, ana  unaffected;  ever  ready  to  oblige,  easy 
of  approach,  and  amiable,  yet  firm  in  the  right. 

Dr.  Oliver's  theory  of  the  system  of  Free- 
masonry may  be  briefly  stated  m  these  words: 
He  believed  that  the  Order  was  to  be  found 
in  the  earliest  periods  of  recorded  history.  It 
wag  taught  by  Seth  to  his  descendants,  and 
practised  by  them  under  the  name  of  Primi- 
tive or  Pure  Freemasonry.  It  passed  over  to 
Noah,  and  at  the  dispersion  of  mankind  suf- 
fered a  division  into  Pure  and  Spurious.  Pure 
Freemasonry  descended  through  the  Patri- 
archs to  Solomon,  and  thence  on  to  the  present 
day.  The  Pagans,  although  they  had  slight 
glimmerings  of  the  Masonic  truths  which  had 
been  taught  by  Noah,  greatly  corrupted  them, 
and  presented  in  their  mysteries  a  system  oi 
initiation  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  the 
Spurious  Freemasonry  of  Antiquity.  These 
views  he  had  developed  and  enlarged  and 
adorned  out  of  the  similar  but  less  definitely 
expressed  teachings  of  Hutchinson.  Like 
that  writer  also,  while  freely  admitting  the 
principle  of  religious  tolerance,  he  contended 
for  the  strictly  Christian  character  of  the  In- 
stitution, and  that,  too,  in  the  narrowest  sec- 
tarian view,  since  he  believed  that  the  earliest 
symbols  taught  the  dogma  of  the  Trinity,  and 
that  Christ  was  meant  by  the  Masonic  refer- 
ence to  the  Deity  under  the  title  of  Great 
Architect  of  the  Universe. 

Omega.   See  Alpha  and  Omega. 

Omniflc  Word.  The  Tetragrammaton  is 
so  called  because  of  the  omnifio  powers  attrib- 
uted by  the  Kabbalists  to  its  possession  and 
true  pronunciation.  (See  Tetragrammaton.) 
The  term  is  also  applied  to  the  most  significant 
word  in  the  Royal  Arch  system. 

On.  This  is  a  significant  word  in  Royal 
Arch  Masonry,  and  has  been  generally  ex- 
plained as  being  the  name  by  which  Jehovah 
was  worshiped  among  the  Egyptians.  As 
this  has  been  recently  denied,  and  the  word 
asserted  to  be  only  the  name  of  a  city  in 
Egypt,  it  is  proper  that  some  inquiry  should 
be  made  into  the  authorities  on  the  subject. 


530  ON 

The  first  mention  of  On  in  the  Bible  is  in  the 
history  of  Joseph,  to  whom  Pharaoh  gave  "to 
wife  Asenath.  the  daughter  of  Poti-pherah, 
priest  of  On.  The  city  of  On  was  in  Lower 
Egypt,  between  the  Nile  and  the  Bed  Sea, 
and  "adorned,"  says  Philippson,  "by  a  gor- 
geous temple  of  the'  sun,  in  which  a  numerous 
priesthood  officiated." 

The  investigations  of  modern  Egyptologists 
have  shown  that  this  is  an  error.  On  was  the 
name  of  a  city  where  the  sun-god  was  wor- 
shiped, but  On  was  not  the  name  of  that  god. 

Champollioin,  in  his  Dictionnaire  Egyptien, 

^  ii  \  gives  the  phonetic  characters, 
I  "^rr  with  the  figurative  symbols  of 
'  »  i  i  i  a  serpent  and  disk,  and  a  seated 
figure,  as  the  name  of  the  sun-god.  Now,  of 
these  two  characters,  the  upper  one  has  the 
power  of  R,  and  the  lower  of  A,  and  hence  the 
name  of  the  god  is  Ra.  And  this  is  the  con- 
current testimony  of  Bunsen,  Lepsius,  Glid- 
don,  and  all  recent  authorities. 

But  although  On  was  really  the  name  of  a 
city,  the  founders  of  the  Royal  Arch  had,  with 
the  lights  then  before  them,  assumed  that  it 
was  the  name  of  a  god,  and  had  so  incorpo- 
rated it  with  their  system.  With  better  light 
than  theirs,  we  can  no  longer  accept  their 
definition;  yet  the  word  may  still  be  retained 
as  a  symbol  of  the  Egyptian  god.  I  know  not 
who  has  power  to  reject  it;  and  if  scholars 
preserve,  outside  of  the  symbolism,  the  true 
interpretation,  no  harm  will  be  done.  It  is 
not  the  only  significant  word  in  Masonry 
whose  old  and  received  meaning  has  been 
shown  to  be,  incorrect,  and  sometimes  even 
absurd.  Biggins  (Celt.  Druids,  171)  quotes 
an  Irish  commentator  as  showing  that  the 
name  AIN  or  ON  was  the  name  oIa  triad  of 
gods  in  the  Irish  language.  "AIT  etymolo- 
gists." Biggins  continues,  "have  supposed  the 
won!  On  to  mean  the  sun;  but  how  the  name 
arose  has  not  before  been  explained."  In 
another  work  (Anacalypsis,  vol.  L,  p.  109), 
Higgins  makes  the  following  important  re- 
marks: "Various  definitions  are  given  of  the 
word  ON;  but  they  are  all  unsatisfactory.  It 
is  written  in  the  Old  Testament  in  two  ways, 
318,  aim,  and  3X,  an.  It  is  usually  rendered  in 
English  by  the  word  On.  This  word  is  sup- 
posed to  mean  the  sun,  and  the  Greeks  trans- 
lated it  by  the  word  $\u>s,  or  Sol.  But  I  think 
it  only  stood  for  the  sun,  as  the  emblem  of  the 
procreative  power  of  nature."  Bryan  says 
(Ant.  Mythol.,i.,  19),  when  speaking  of  this 
word:  "On,  Eon  or  Aon,  was  another  title  of 
the  sun  among  the  Amonians.  The  Seventy, 
where  the  word  occurs  in  the  Scriptures,  in- 
terpret it  the  sun.  and  call  the  city  of  On, 
Heliopolis;  and  the  Coptic  Pentateuch  ren- 
ders the  city  On  by  the  city  of  the  sun." 
Plato,  in  his  Ttnweus,  says:  "Tell  me  of  the 
god  ON,  which  is,  and  never  knew  beginning." 
And  although  Plato  may  have  been  here 
thinking  of  the  Greek  word  ON,  which  means 
Being,  it  is  not  improbable  'that  he  may  have 
referred  to  the  god  worshiped  at  On,  or  Heli- 
opolis, as  it  was  thence  that  the  Greeks  de- 
rived so  much  of  their  learning.  It  would  be 
Vain  to  attempt  to  make  an  analogy  hetween 
the  Hindu  sacred  word  AUM  and  the  Egyp- 


tian  ON.  The  fact  that  the  M  in  the  former 
word  is  the  initial  of  some  secret  word,  renders 
the  conversion  of  it  into  N  impossible,  because 
it  would  thereby  lose  its  signification. 

The  old  Masons,  misled  by  the  authority  of 
St.  Cyril,  and  by  the  translation  of  the  name 
of  the  city  into  r'City  of  the  Sun"  by  the  He- 
brews and  the  Greeks,  very  naturally  sup- 
posed that  On  was  the  Egyptian  sun-god, 
their  supreme  deity,  as  the  sun  always  was, 
wherever  he  was  worshiped.  Hence,  they  ap- 
propriated that  name  as  a  sacred  word  explan- 
atory of  the  Jewish  Tetragrammaton. 

Onech.  QJeb.  p3».)  The  bird  Phoenix, 
named  after  Enoch  or  Phenoch.  Enoch  sig- 
nifies initiation.  The  Phoenix,  in  Egyptian 
mythological  sculptures,  as  a  bird,  is  placed  in 
the  mystical  palm-tree.  The  Phcenix  is  the 
representative  of  eternal  and  continual  regen- 
eration, and  is  the  Holy  Spirit  which  brooded 
as  a  dove  over  the  face  of  the  waters,  the  dove 
of  Noah  and  of  Hasisatra  or  Xysuthrus  (which 
see),  which  bore  a  sprig  in  its  mouth. 

Ontario.  Lodge  No.  156,  in  the  Eighth 
Regiment  of  Foot,  appears  to  have  been  the. 
first  Lodge  to  hold  meetings  in  this  Province, 
at  Fort  Niagara,  about  1766-80.  From 
1780  to  1792  some  ten  lodges  appear  to  have 
worked  in  what  was  called  "Upper  Canada." 
Some  chartered  by  England,  others  by  the 
Provincial  Grand  Lodge  at  Quebec,  among 
them  St.  James  in  the  Kings'  Rangers,  No.  14, 
at  Cataraqui  (Kingston),  1781;  St.  John's, 
No.  15,  at  Michilimakinac  (Michigan),  then 
part  of  Canada;  St.  John's,  No.  19,  at  Niagara 
and  Oswegatchie  Lodge,  1786,  at  Elizabeth- 
town  (Brockvilte). 

On  March  7, 1792,  Bro.  William  Jarvis  was 
appointed  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  Upper 
Canada  by  the  "Ancient"  or  "Athol" 
Grand  Lodge  of  England.  Bro.  Jarvis  re- 
sided at  Newark  (Niagara),  the  then  capital 
of  the  Province.  During  his  Grand  Master- 
ship, 1792  to  1804,  twenty  warrants  for  lodges 
were  issued. 

In  1797  Bro.  Jarvis  removed  from  Newark 
to  York  (now  Toronto). 

The  Brethren  at  Niagara  continued  to  be 
active  and  enthusiastic,  and  urged  Bro. 
Jarvis  to  assemble  Grand  Lodge  there,  but 
he  refused.  This  refusal  caused  much  dis- 
satisfaction, and  the1  Brethren  of  Niagara 
District  met  in  1803  and  elected  Bro.  Geo. 
Forsyth  as  Provincial  Grand  Master,  and 
trouble  and  friction  ensued. 

In  1817,  at  Kingston,  a  Grand  Convention 
was  called  by  the  Lodges  in  the  Midland 
District  under  R.  W.  Bro.  Ziba  M.  Phillips. 
All  the  lodges  attended  excepting  those  in 
the  Niagara  District.  This  convention  was 
held  annually  during  the  years  1817,  1818, 
1820, 1821, 1822. 

After  repeated  entreaty  to  England  during 
these  years,  R.  W.  Bro.  Simon  McGillivray 
came  to  Canada  in  September,  1822,  with 
authority  from  the  Duke  of  Sussex  to  re- 
organize the  Craft  in  Upper  Canada.  The 
Second  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  was  thus 
formed  at  York  in  1822,  with  R.  W.  Bro. 
Simon  McGillivray  as  Provincial  Grand 
Master,  and  met  regularly  up  to  1830,  but 


the  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  became  dormant 
and  remained  so  until  1845,  when  Masonic 
enthusiasm  once  more  gained  the  ascendency. 
An  urgent  appeal  was  sent  out  and  a  Third 
Provincial  Grand  Lodge  organized  in  Hamil- 
ton with  Bro.  Sir  Allan  MacNab  Provincial 
Grand  Master  of  "Canada  West,"  appointed 
by  the  Earl  of  Zetland.  This  body  con- 
tinued work  until  1868. 

In  1853  a  number  of  the  lodges  holding 
Irish  Warrants  organized  a  Grand  Lodge, 
but  it  was  not  very  successful.  They  then 
endeavored  to  secure  the  co-operation  of  the 
Provincial  Grand  Lodge  in  forming  a  Grand 
Lodge  for  Canada,  but  the  Provincial  Grand 
Body  declined.  But  Home  Rule  and  a  self- 
governing  body  for  Canada  was  the  idea 
uppermost  and  would  not  down,  and  finally, 
on  October  10,  1855,  a  convention  of  all  the 
lodges  in  the  two  Provinces  was  called  flit 
Hamilton  and  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada 
was  formed.  Forty-one  lodges  were  repre- 
sented, twenty-eight  in  Canada  West  (On- 
tario) and  thirteen  in  Canada  East  (Quebec), 
and  M.  W.  Bro.  William  Mercer  Wilson  was 
elected  Grand  Master, 

In  September,  1857,  the  Provincial  Grand 
Lodge  under  England  met  and  resolved  itself 
into  an  independent  Grand  Lodge,  under 
the  name  of  "Ancient  Grand  Lodge  of 
Canada,"  but  the  next  year  in  July,  1858, 
they  united  with  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada. 
In  October,  1869,  the  majority  of  the  lodges 
in  the  Province  of  Quebec  held  a  convention 
and  decided  to  form  a  Grand  Lodge  for  that 
Province.  The  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada 
strenuously  opposed  this  new  body,  and  an 
edict  of  suspension  covering  all  the  lodges 
and  Brethren  taking  part  was  issued.  The 
Grand  Lodge  of  Quebec,  however,  becoming 
duly  recognized  by  all  the  leading  Grand 
Lodges  of  the  world,  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Canada,  in  1874,  likewise  decided  to  do  the 
"same  and  withdrew  from  the  Province,  all 
the  lodgea,of  her  obedience  joining  the  Quebec 
Grand  Body.  In  1875  a  schism  occurred  and 
a  number  of  Brethren  organized  a  "Grand 
Lodge  of  Ontario."  This  weach  was  finally 
healed  and  the  Brethren  and  lodges  became 
of  allegiance  to  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Canada 
in  1896. 

In  1886  the  words  "in  the  Province  of 
Ontario*'  were  added  to  the  title  of  the 
"Grand  Lodge  of  Canada." 

Onyx,  CHIP.  (Shohem.)  The  second  stone 
in  the  fourth  row  of  the  high  priest's  breast- 
plate. It  is  of  a  bluish-black  color,  and  rep- 
resented the  tribe  of  Joseph. 

Opening  of  the  Lodge.  The  necessity  of 
some  preparatory  ceremonies,  of  a  more  or 
less  formal  character,  before  proceeding  to  the 
despatch  of  the  ordinary  business  of  any  asso- 
ciation, has  always  been  recognised.  De- 
corum and  the  dignity  of  the  meeting  alike 
suggest,  even  in  popular  assemblies  called 
only  for  a  temporary  purpose,  that  a  presiding 
officer  shall,  with  some  formality,  be  inducted 
into,  the  chair,  and  he  then,  to  use  the  ordinary 
phrase,  "opens"  the  meeting  with  the  ap- 
pointment of  his  necessary  assistants,  and 
with  the  announcement,  in  an  address  to  the 


audience,  explanatory  of  the  objects  that  have 
called  them  together. 

If  secular  associations  have  found  it  ex- 
pedient, by  the  adoption  of  some  preparatory 
forms,  to  avoid  the  appearance  of  an  unseem- 
ing  abruptness  in  proceeding  to  business,  it 
may  well  be  supposed  that  religious  societies 
have  been  still  more  observant  of  the  custom, 
and  that,  as  their  pursuits  are  more  elevated, 
the  ceremonies  of  their  preparation  for  the 
object  of  their  meeting  Bhould  be  still  more 

In  the  Ancient  Mysteries  (those  sacred  rites 
which  have  furnished  so  many  models  for 
Masonic  symbolism)  the  openinjr  ceremonies 
were  of  the  most  solemn  character.  '  The 
sacred  herald  commenced  the  ceremonies  of 
opening  the  greater  initiations  by  the  solemn 
formula  of  "Depart  henee,  ye  profane!"  to 
which  was  added  a  proclamation  which  for- 
bade the  use  of  any  language  which  might  be 
deemed  of  unfavorable  augury  to  the  ap- 
proaching rites. 

In  like  manner  a  Lodge  of  Masons  is  opened 
with  the  employment  of  certain  ceremonies  m 
which,  that  attention  may  be  given  to  their 
symbolic  as  well  as  practical  importance,  every 
member  present  is  expected  to  take  a  part. 

These  ceremonies,  which  slightly  differ  in 
each  of  the  degrees— but  differ  so  slightly  as 
not  to  affect  their  general  character — may  be 
considered,  in  reference  to  the  several  pur- 
poses which  they  are  designed  to  effect,  to  be 
divided  into  eight  successive  steps  or  parts. 

1.  The  Master  having  signified  his  inten- 
tion to  proceed  to  the  labors  of  the  Lodge, 
every  brother  is  expected  to  assume  his  neces- 
sary Masonic  clothing  and,  if  an  officer,  the 
insignia  of  hia  office,  and  silently  and  decor- 
ously to  repair  to  his  appropriate  station. 

2.  The  next  step  in  the  ceremony  is,  with 
the  usual  precautions,  to  ascertain  the  right  of 
each  one  to  be  present.  It  is  scarcely  neces- 
sary to  say  that,  in  the  performance  of  this 
duty,  the  officers  who  are  charged  with  it 
should  allow  no  one  to  remain  who  is  not 
either  well  known  to  themselves  or  properly 
vouched  for  by  some  discreet  and  experienced 

3.  Attention  is  next  directed  to  the  external 
avenues  of  the  Lodge,  and  the  officers  within 
and  without  who  are  entrusted  with  the  per- 
formance of  this  important  duty,  are  expected 
to  execute  it  with  care  and  fidelity. 

4.  By  a  wise  provision,  it  is  no  sooner  inti- 
mated to  the  Master  that  he  may  safely  pro- 
ceed, than  he  directs  his  attention  to  an  in- 
quiry into  the  knowledge  possessed  by  his 
officers  of  the  duties  that  they  will  be  re- 
spectively called  upon  to  perform. 

5.  Satisfied  upon  this  point,  the  Master 
then  announces,  by  formal  proclamation,  his 
intention  to  proceed  to  business;  and,  mind- 
ful -of  the  peaceful  character  of  our  Institu- 
tion, he  strictly  forbids  all  immoral  or  un- 
masonic  conduct  whereby  the  harmony  of 
the  Lodge  may  be  impeded,  under  no  less  a 
penalty  than  the  by-laws  may  impose,  or  a 
majority  of  the  brethren  present  may  see  fit 
to  inflict.  Nor,  after  this,  is  any  brother  per- 
mitted to  leave  the  Lodge  during  Lodge  hours 


(that  is,  from  the  time  of  opening  to  that  of 
closing)  without  having  first  obtained  the 
Worshipful  Master's  permission 

6.  Certain  mystic  rites,  which  can  here  be 
only  alluded  to,  are  then  employed,  by  which 
each  brother  present  signifies  Ins  concurrence 
in  the  ceremonies  which  have  been  performed, 
and  his  knowledge  of  the  degree  in  which  the 
Lodge  is  about  to  be  opened. 

7.  It  is  a  lesson  which  every  Mason  is 
taught,  as  one  of  the  earliest  points  of  his  in- 
itiation, that  he  should  commence  noimpor- 
tant  undertaking  without  first  invoking  the 
blessing  of  Deity.  He'nce  the  next  step  in  the 
progress  of  the  opening  ceremonies  is  to  ad- 
dress a  prayer  to  the  Supreme  Architect  of  the 
Universe.  This  pnayer,  although  offered  by 
the  Master,  is  to  be  participated  in  by  every 
brother,  and,  at  its  conclusion,  the  audible 
response  of  "So  mote  it  be:  Amen,"  should  be 
made  by  all  present. 

8.  The  Lodge  is  then  declared,  in  the  name 
of  God  and  the  Holy  Saints  John,  to  be 
opened  in  due  form  on  the  First,  Second,  or 
Third  Degree  of  Masonry,  as  the  ease  may  be. 

A  Lodge  is  said  to  be  opened  in  the  name  of 
God  and  the  Holy  Saints  John,  as  a  declaration 
of  the  sacred  and  religious  purposes  of  the 
meeting,  of  profound  reverence  for  that  Di- 
vine Being  whose  name  and  attributes  should 
be  the  constant  themes  of  contemplation,  and 
of  respect  for  those  ancient  patrons  whom  the 
traditions  of  Masonry  have  so  intimately  con- 
nected with  the  history  of  the  Institution. 

It  is  said  to  be  opened  in  due  form,  to  inti- 
mate that  all  that  is  necessary,  appropriate, 
and  usual  in  the  ceremonies,  all  that  the  law 
requires  or  ancient  usage  renders  indispensa- 
ble, have  been  observed. 

And  it  is  said  to  be  opened  on,  and  not  in, 
a  certain  degree  (which  latter  expression  is 
often  incorrectly  used)  in  reference  rather  to 
the  speculative  than  to  the  legal  character  of 
the  meeting,  to  indicate,  not  that  the  members 
are  to  be  circumscribed  in  the  limits  of  a  par- 
ticular degree,  but  that  they  are  met  together 
to  unite  m  contemplation  on  the  symbolic 
teachings  and  divine  lessons,  to  inculcate 
which  is  the  peculiar  object  of  that  degree. 

The  manner  of  opening  in  each  degree 
slightly  varies.  In  the  English  system,  the 
Lodge  is  opened  in  the  First  Degree  "in  the 
name  of  T.  G.  A.  O.  T.  U. " ;  in  the  Second,  "on 
the  square,  in  the  name  of  the  Grand  Geome- 
trician of  the  Universe  " ;  and  in  the  Third,  "on 
the  center,  in  the  name  of  the  Most  High." 

It  is  prescribed  as  a  ritual  regulation  that 
the  Master  shall  never  open  or  close  his  Lodge 
without  a  lecture  or  part  of  a  lecture.  Hence, 
in  each  of  the  degrees  a  portion  of  a  part  of  the 
lecture  of  that  degree  is  incorporated  into  the 
opening  and  closing  ceremonies. 

There  is  in  every  degree  of  Masonry,  from 
the  lowest  to  the  highest,  an  opening  cere- 
mony peculiar  to  the  degree.  This  ceremony 
has  always  more  or  less  reference  to  the  sym- 
bolic lesson  which  it  is  the  design  of  the  de- 
gree to  teach,  and  hence  the  varieties  of  open- 
ings are  as  many  as  the  degrees  themselves. 

Operative  Art.  Masonry  is  divided  by 
Masonic  writers  into  two  branches,  an  opera- 


tive  art  and  a  speculative  science.  The  oper- 
ative art  is  that  which  was  practised  by  the 
Stone-Masons  of  the  Middle  Ages.  The  spec- 
ulative science  is  that  which  is  practised  by 
the  Freemasons  of  the  present  day.  The 
technicalities  and  usages  of  the  former  have 
been  incorporated  into  and  modified  by  the 
latter.  Hence,  Freemasonry  is  sometimes 
defined  as  a  speculative  science  founded  on  an 
operative  art. 

Operative  Masonry.  Freemasonry,  in  its 
character  as  an  operative  art,  is  familiar  to 
everyone.  As  such,  it  is  engaged  in  the  appli- 
cation of  the  rules  and  principles  of  architec- 
ture to  the  construction  of  edifices  for  private 
and  public  use,  houses  for  the  dwelling-place 
of  man,  and  temples  for  the  worship  of  the 
Deity,  It  abounds,  like  every  other  art,  in 
the  use  of  technical  terms,  and  employs,  in 
practise,  an  abundance  of  implements  and 
materials  which  are  peculiar  to  itself. 

This  operative  art  has  been  the  foundation 
on  which  has  been  built  the  speculative  science 
of  Freemasonry.    (See  Speculative  Masonry.) 

Operative  Masons.  Workers  in  stone, 
who  construct  material  edifices,  in  contra- 
distinction to  Speculative  Masons,  who  con- 
struct only  spiritual  edifices. 

Ophites.  The  Brotherhood  of  the  Ser- 
pent, which  flourished  in  the  second  century, 
and  held  that  there  were  two  principles  of 
aeons  and  the  accompanying  theogony.  This 
Egyptian  fraternity  displayed  a  living  serpent 
in  their  ceremonies,  which  was  reverenced  as 
a  symbol  of  wisdoavaad  a  type  of  good. 

Option.  When"  ft  Masonic  obligation 
leaves  to  the  person  who  assumes  it  the  option 
to  perform  or  omit  any  part  of  it,  it  is  not  to  be 
supposed  that  such  option  is  to  be  only  his 
arbitrary  will  or  unreasonable  choice.  On  the 
contrary,  in  exercising  it,  he  must  be  governed 
and  restrained  by  the  principles  of  right  and 
duty,  and  be  controlled  by  the  circumstances 
which  surround  the  case,  so  that  this  option, 
which  at  first  would  seem  to  be  a  favor,  really 
involves  a  great  and  responsible  duty,  that  of 
exercising  a  just  judgment  in  the  premises. 
That  which  at  one  time  would  be  proper  to 
perform,  at  another  time  and  in  different  cir- 
cumstances it  would  be  equally  proper  to 

Oral  Instruction.  Much  of  the  instruc- 
tion which  is  communicated  in  Freemasonry, 
and,  indeed,  all  that  is  esoteric,  is  given  orally; 
and  there  is  a  law  of  the  Institution  that  for- 
bids such  instruction  to  be  written.  There 
is  in  this  usage  and  regulation  a  striking  anal- 
ogy to  what  prevailed  on  the  same  subject  in 
afl  the  secret  institutions  of  antiquity. 

In  all  the  ancient  mysteries,  the  same  reluc- 
tance to  commit  the  esoteric  instructions  of 
the  hierophants  to  writing  is  apparent;  and 
hence  the  secret  knowledge  taught  in  their  in- 
itiations was  preserved  m  symbols,  the  true 
meaning  of  which  was  closely  concealed  from 
the  profane. 

The  Druids  had  a  similar  regulation;  and 
Csesar  informs  us  that,  although  they  made 
use  of  the  letters  of  the  Greek  alphabet  to 
record  their  ordinary  or  public  transactions, 
yet  it  was  not  considered  lawful  to  entrust  their 




sacred  verses  to  writing,  but  these  were  always 
committed  to  memory  by  their  disciples. 

The  secret  doctrine  of  the  Kabbala,  or  the 
mystical  philosophy  of  the  Hebrews,  was  also 
communicated  in  an  oral  form,  and  could  be 
revealed  only  through  the  medium  of  allegory 
and  similitude.  The  Kabbalistic  knowledge, 
traditionally  received,  was,  says  Maurice  (Ind. 
Antiq.,  iv.,  548),  "transmitted  verbally  down 
to  all  the  great  characters  celebrated  in  Jewish 
antiquity,  among  whom  both  David  and  Solo- 
mon were  deeply  conversant  in  its  most  hidden 
mysteries.  Nobody,  however,  had  ventured 
to  commit  anything  of  this  kind  to  paper." 

The  Christian  church  also,  in  the  age  imme- 
diately succeeding  the  apostolic,  observed  the 
same  custom  of  oral  instruction.  The  early 
Fathers  were  eminently  cautious  hot  to  com- 
mit certain  of  the  mysterious  dogmas  of  their 
religion  to  writing,  lest  the  surrounding 
Pagans  should  be  made  acquainted  with  what 
they  could  neither  understand  nor  appreci- 
ate. St.  Basil  (De  SpirUu  Sancto),  treatingof 
this  subject  in  the  fourth  century,  says:  "We 
receive  the  dogmas  transmitted  to  us  by  writ- 
ing, and  those  which  have  descended  to  us 
from  the  apostles,  beneath  the  mystery  of  oral 
tradition;  for  several  things  have  been  handed 
down  to  us  without  writing,  lest  the  vulgar, 
too  familiar  with  our  dogmas,  should  lose  a 
due  respect  for  them. "  And  he  further  asks, 
"How  should  it  ever  be  becoming  to  write  and 
circulate  among  the  people  an  account  of  those 
things  which  the  uninitiated  are  not  permitted 
to  contemplate?" 

A  custom,  so  ancient  as  this,  of  keeping  the 
landmarks  unwritten,  and  one  so  invariably 
observed  by  the  Masonic  Fraternity,  it  may 
very  naturally  be  presumed,  must  have_  been 
originally  established  with  the  wisest  inten- 
tions; and,  as  the  usage  was  adopted  by 
many  other  institutions  whose  organization 
was  similar  to  that  of  Freemasonry,  it  may 
also  be  supposed  that  it  was  connected,  in 
some  way,  with  the  character  of  an  esoteric 

Two  reasons,  it  seems  to  me,  may  be  as- 
signed for  the  adoption  of  the  usage  among 

In  the  first  place,  by  confining  our  secret 
doctrines  and  landmarks  to  the  care  of  tradi- 
tion, all  danger  of  controversies  and  schisms 
among  Masons  and  in  Lodges  is  effectually 
avoided.  Of  these  traditions,  the  Grand 
Lodge  in  each  jurisdiction  is  the  interpreter, 
and  to  its  authoritative  interpretation  every 
Mason  and  every  Lodge  in  the  jurisdiction  is 
bound  to  submit.  There  is  no  book,  to  which 
every  brother  may  refer,  whose  language  each 
one  may  interpret  according  to  his  own  views, 
and  whose  expressions— sometimes,  perhaps, 
equivocal  and  sometimes  obscure — might 
afford  ample  sources  of  wordy  contest  and 
verbal  criticism.  The  doctrines  themselves, 
as  well  as  their  interpretation,  are  contained 
in  the  memories  of  the  Craft;  and  the  Grand 
Lodges,  as  the  lawful  representatives  of  the 
Fraternity,  are  alone  competent  to  decide 
whether  the  tradition  has  been  correctly  pre- 
served, and  what  is  its  true  interpretation. 
And  hence  it  is  that  there  is  no  institution  in 

which  there  have  been  so  few  and  such  unim- 
portant controversies  with  respect  to  essential 
and  fundamental  doctrines. 

In  illustration  of  this  argument,  Dr.  Oliver, 
while  speaking  of  what  he  calls  the  antedi- 
luvian system  of  Freemasonry — a  part  of 
which  must  necessarily  have  been  traditional, 
and  transmitted  from  father  to  son,  and  a  part 
entrusted  to  symbols — makes  the  following 

"  Such  of  the  legends  as  were  communicated 
orally  would  be  entitled  to  the  greatest  degree 
of  credence,  while  those  that  were  committed 
to  the  custody  of  symbols,  which,  it  is  prob- 
able, many  of  the  collateral  legends  would  be, 
were  in  great  danger  of  perversion,  because 
the  truth  could  only  be  ascertained  by  those 
persons  who  were  intrusted  with  the  secret 
of  their  interpretation.  And  if  the  symbols 
of  doubtful  character,  and  carried  a 
double  meaning,  as  many  of  the  Egyptian 
hieroglyphics  of  a  subsequent  age  actually  did, 
the  legends  which  they  embodied  might  sus- 
tain very  considerable  alteration  in  sixteen  or 
seventeen  hundred  years,  although  passing 
through  very  few  hands. " 

Maimonides  (Afore  Nevochim,  c.  lxxi.)  as- 
signs a  similar  reason  for  the  unwritten  pres- 
ervation of  the  Oral  Law.  "This,"  he  says, 
"was  the  perfection  of  wisdom  in  our  law, 
that  by  this  means  those  evils  were  avoided 
into  which  it  fell  in  succeeding  times,  namely, 
the  variety  and  perplexity  of  sentiments  and 
opinions,  and  the  doubts  which  so  commonly 
arise  from  written  doctrines  contained  in 
books,  besides  the  errors  which  are  easily  com- 
mitted by  writers  and  copyists,  whence,  after- 
wards, spring  up  controversies,  schisms,  and 
confusion  of  parties." 

A  second  reason  that  may  be  assigned  for 
the  unwritten  ritual  of  Masonry  is,  that  by 
compelling  the  craftsman  who  desires  to  make 
any  progress  in  his  profession,  to  commit  its 
doctrines  to  memory,  there  is  a  greater  proba- 
bility of  their  being  thoroughly  studied  and 
understood.  In  confirmation  of  this  opinion, 
it  will,  I  think,  be  readily  acknowledged  by 
anyone  whose  experience  is  at  all  extensive, 
that,  as  a  general  rule,  those  skilful  brethren 
who  are  technically  called  "bright  Masons," 
are  better  acquainted  with  the  esoteric  and 
unwritten  portion  of  the  lectures,  which  they 
were  compelled  to  acquire  under  a  competent 
instructor,  and  by  oral  information,  than  with 
that  which  is  published  in  the  Monitors,  and, ' 
therefore,  always  at  hand  to  be  read. 

Cassar  (Bell,  GaM.,  vi.,  14)  thought  that 
this  was  the  cause  of  the  custom  among 
the  Druids,  for,  after  mentioning  that  they 
did  not  suffer  their  doctrines  to  be  com- 
mitted to  writing,  he  adds:  "They  seem  to 
me  to  have  adopted  this  method  for  two 
reasons:  that  their  mysteries  might  be  hidden 
from  the  common  people,  and  to  exercise  the 
memory  of  their  disciples,  which  would  be 
neglected  if  they  had  books  on  which  they 
might  rely,  as,  we  find,  is  often  the  case."  _ 

A  third  reason  for  this  unwritten  doctrine 
of  Masonry,  and  one,  perhaps,  most  familiar 
to  the  Craft,  is  also  alluded  to  by  Caesar  in 
the  case  of  the  Druids,  "because  they  did  not 

534  ORAL 

wish  their  doctrines  to  be  divulged  to  the 
common  people."  Maimonides,  in  the  con- 
clusion of  the  passage  which  we  have  already 
quoted,  makes  a  similar  remark  with  respect 
to  the  oral  law  of  the  Jews.  "But  if,"  says 
he,  "so  much  care  was  exercised  that  the  Oral 
law  should  not  be  written  in  a  book  and  laid 

rn  to  all  persons,  lest,  peradventure,  it 
aid  become  corrupted  and  depraved,  how 
much  mere  caution  was  required  that  the 
secret  interpretations  of  that  law  should  not 
be  divulged  to  every  person,  and  pearls  be 
thus  thrown  to  swine."  "Wherefore,"  he 
adds,  "they  were  intrusted  to  certain  pri- 
vate persons,  and  by  them  were  transmitted 
to  other  educated  men  of  excellent  and  ex- 
traordinary gifts."  And  for  this  regulation 
he  quotes  the  Rabbis,  who  say  that  the  secrets 
of  the  law  are  not  delivered  to  any  person 
except  a  man  of  prudence  and  wisdom. 

It  is;  then,  for  these  excellent  reasons — 
to  avoid  idle  controversies  and  endless  dis- 
putes; to  preserve  the  secrets  of  our  Order 
from  decay;  and,  by  increasing  the  diffi- 
culties by  which  they  are  to  be  obtained, 
to  oHminiah  the  probability  of  their  being 
forgotten;  and,  finally,  to  secure  them  from 
the  unhallowed  gaze  of  the  profane— that 
the  oral  instruction  of  Masonry  was  first 
instituted,  and  still  continues  to  be  relig- 
iously observed.  Its  secret  doctrines  are 
the  precious  jewels  of  the  Order,  and  the 
memories  of  Masons  are  the  well-guarded 
caskets  in  which  those  jewels  are  to  be  pre- 
served with  unsullied  purity.  And  hence 
it  is  appropriately  said  in  our  ritual,  that 
"the  attentive  ear  receives  the  sound  from 
the  instructive  tongue,  and  the  secrets  of 
Freemasonry  are  safely  lodged  in  the  de- 
pository of  faithful  breasts." 

Oral  Law.  The  Oral  Law  is  the  name 
given  by  the  Jews  to  the  interpretation  of 
the  written  code,  which  is  said  to  have  been 
delivered  to  Moses  at  the  same  time,  accom- 
panied by  the  Divine  command:  "Thou 
shalt  not  divulge  the  words  which  I  have 
said  to  thee  out  of  my  mouth."  The  Oral 
Law  was,  therefore,  never  entrusted  to  books; 
but,  being  preserved  in  the  memories  of  the 
judges,  prophets,  priests,  and  other  wise  men, 
was  handed  down,  from  one  to  the  other, 
through  a  long  succession  Of  ages. 

Maimonides  has  described,  according  to 
the  Rabbinieal  traditions,  the  mode  adopted 
by  Moses  to  impress  the  principles  of  this 
Oral  Law  upon  the  people.  As  an  example  of 
perseverance  in  the  acquirement  of  informa- 
tion by  oral  instruetionj  it  may  be  worthy  of 
the  consideration  and  imitation  of  all  those 
Masons  who  wish  to  perfect  themselves  in 
the  esoteric  lessons  of  their  Institution. 

When  Moses  had  descended  from  Mount 
Sinai,  and  had  spoken  to  the  people,  he  re- 
tired to  his  tent.  Here  he  was  visited  by 
Aaron,  to  whom,  sitting  at  his  feet,  he  re- 
cited the  law  and  its  explanation,  as  he 
had  received  it  from  God.  Aaron  then 
rose  and  seated  himself  on  the  right  hand 
of  Moses.  Eleazar  and  Ithamar,  the  sons 
of  Aaron,  now  entered  the  tent,  and  Moses 
repeated  to  them  all  that  he  had  communi- 


cated  to  their  father;  after  which,  they 
seated  themselves,  one  on  the  left  hand  of 
Moses  and  the  other  on  the  right  hand  of 
Aaron.  Then  went  in  the  seventy  elders, 
and  Moses  taught  them,  in  the  same  manner 
as  he  had  taught  Aaron  and  his  sons.  After- 
ward, all  of  the  congregation  who.  desired  to 
know  the  Divine  will  came  in;  and  to  them, 
also,  Moses  recited  the  law  and  its  interpre- 
tation, in  the  same  manner  as  before.  The 
law,  thus  orally  delivered  by  Moses,  had  now 
been  heard  four  times  by  Aaron,  three  times 
by  his  sons,  twice  by  the  seventy  elders,  and 
once  by  the  rest  of  the  people.  After  this, 
Moses  withdrawing,  Aaron  repeated  all  that 
he  had  heard  from  Moses,  and  retired;  then 
Eleazar  and  Ithamar  repeated  it,  and  also 
withdrew;  and,  finally,  the  same  thing  was 
done  by  the  seventy  elders;  so  that  each  of 
them  having  heard  the  law  repeated  four 
times,  it  was  thus,  finally,  fixed  in  their 

The  written  law,  divided  by  the  Jewish 
lawgivers  into  613  precepts,  is  contained  in 
the  Pentateuch.  But  the  oral  law,  trans- 
mitted by  Moses  to  Joshua,  by  him  to  the 
elders,  and  from  them  conveyed  by  tradi- 
tionary relation  to  the  time  of  Judah  the 
Holy,  was  by  him,  to  preserve  it  from  being 
forgotten  and  lost,  committed  to  writing 
in  the  work  known  as  the  Misbna.  And 
now,  no  longer  an  Oral  Law,  its  precepts 
are  to  be  found  in  that  book,  with  the  sub- 
sidiary aid  of  the  Constitutions  of  the  prophets 
and  wise  men,  the  Decrees  of  the  Sanhedrim, 
the  decisions  of  the  Judges,  and  the  Expo- 
sitions of  the  Doctors. 

Orator.  An  officer  in  a  Lodge  whose  duty 
it  is  to  explain  to  a  candidate  after  his  initia- 
tion the  mysteries  of  the  degree  into  which 
he  has  just  been  admitted.  The  office  is 
therefore,  in  many  respects,  similar  to  that  of 
a  lecturer.  The  office  was  created  in  the 
French  Lodges  early  in  the  eighteenth 
century,  soon  after  the  introduction  of  Ma- 
sonry into  France.  A  writer  in  the  London 
Freemasons'  Magazine  for  1859  attributes  its 
origin  to  the  constitutional  deficiency  of  the 
French  in  readiness  of  public  speaking. 
From  the  French  it  passed  to  the  other  con- 
tinental Lodges,  ana  was  adopted  by  the 
Scottish  Rite.  The  office  is  not  recognized 
in.  the  English  and  American  system,  where 
its  duties  are  performed  by  the  .Worshipful 
Master.  [Though  a  few  Lodges  under  the  Eng- 
lish Constitution  do  appoint  an  Orator,  e.  g., 
the  Lodge  of  Antiquity,  No.  2,  the  Pilgrim 
Lodge,  No.  238.  the  Constitutional  Lodge, 
No.  294,  and  the  La  Cesaree  Lodge,  No. 

Order.  An  Order  may  be  defined  to  be 
a  brotherhood,  fellowship,  or  association  of 
certain  persons,  united  by  laws  and  statutes 
peculiar  to  the  society,  engaged  in  a  common 
object  or  design,  and  distinguished  by  par- 
ticular habits,  ensigns,  badges,  or  symbols. 

Johnson's  definition  is  that  an  Order  is 
"a  regular  government,  a  society  of  digni- 
fied persons  distinguished  by  marks  of  honor, 
and  a  religious  fraternity."  In  all  of  these 
senses  Freemasonry  may  be  styled  an  Order. 




Its  government  is  of  the  most  regular  and  sys- 
tematic character;  men  the  most  eminent  for 
dignity  and  reputation  have  been  its  members  ; 
and  if  it  does  not  constitute  a  religion  in  itself, 
it  is  at  least  religion's  handmaid. 

The  ecclesiastical  writers  define  an  Order 
to  be  a  congregation  or  society  of  religious 
persons,  governed  by  particular  rules,  living 
under  tne  same  superior,  in  the  same  manner, 
and  wearing  the  same  habit;  a  definition 
equally  applicable  to  the  society  of  Free- 
masons. These  ecclesiastical  Orders  are 
divided  into  three  classes:  1.  Monastic, 
such  as  the  Benedictines  and  the  Augus- 
tinians.  2.  The  Mendicant,  as  the  Domin- 
icans and  the  Franciscans.  3.  The  Mili- 
tary, as  the  Hospitalers,  the  Templars, 
and  the  Teutonic  Knights.  Only  the  first 
and  the  third  have  any  connection  with  Free- 
masonry: the  first  because  it  was  by  them 
that  architecture  was  fostered,  and  the  Ma- 
sonic-gilds patronized  in  the  Middle  Ages; 
and  the  third  because  it  was  in  the  bosom 
•  of  Freemasonry  that  the  Templars  found  a 
refuge  after  the  dissolution  of  their  Order. 

Order  Book.  The  book  to  which  all 
appeals  were  made,  in  the  Order  of  Strict 
Observance,  as  to  matters  of  history,  usage, 
or  ritual.  It  was  invariably  bound  in  red. 

Order  Name;  The  name  or  designation 
assumed  by  the  Illuminati,  the  members 
Of  the  Bite  of  Strict  Observance,  and  of  the 
Royal  Order  of  Scotland,  was  called  the 
Order  Name,  or  the  Characteristic  Name. 
(See  Eques.)  '         .  , 

The  Hluminati  selected  classical  names, 
of  which  the  following  are  specimens: 
Weishaupt     was  Spartacus. 
Knigge  "  Philo. 

Bode  "  Amelius. 

Nicolai  "  Lucian. 

Westenreider    "  Pythagoras. 
Constanza        "  Diomedes. 
Zwack  "  Cato. 

Count  Savioli  "  Brutus. 
Busche  "  Bayard. 

Eeker  "  Saladin. 

The  members  of  the  Strict  Observance 
formed  their  Order  Names  in  a  different 
w*y.  Following  the  custom  of  the  com- 
batants in  the  old  tournaments,  each  called 
himself  an  eques,  or  knight  of  some  particu- 
lar object:  as,  Knight  of  the  Sword,  Knight 
of  the  Star,  etc.  Where  one  belonged  both 
to  this  Rite  tod  to  that  of  Illuminism,  his 
Order  Name  in  each  was  different.  Thus 
Bode,  as  an  Illuminatus,  was,  we  have  seen, 
called  "Amelius,"  but  as  a  Strict  Observ- 
ant, he  was  known  as  '*Eques  a  lilio  con- 
vamum,"  or  Knight  of  the  Lily-of-the-VaUeys. 
The  following  examples  may  suffice.  A  full 
list  will  be  found  in  Thory's  Acta  Latomorum. 

Hund  was  Eques  ab  ense= Knight  of  the 

Jacobi  was  Eques  a  Stella = Knight  of  the 

Star.  , 
Count  Bruhl  was  Eques  a  gladio  ancipiti 

Knight  of  the  Double-edged  Sword. 
Bode  was  Eques  a  lilio  convallium=  Knight 

of  the  Lily-of-the-Valleys. 

Beyerle  was  Eques  a  fascia = Knight  of  the 

Berend  was  Eques  a  septem  steffis=- Knight 

of  the  Seven  Stars. 
Decker  was  Eques  a  plagula=  Knight  of  the 

Curtain.  , 
Lavater  was  Eques  ab  jEsculapio  =  Knight 

of  Esculapius. 
Seckendorf  was  Eques  a  capricorno-  Knight 
of  Capricorn.  , 
Prince  Charles  Edward  was  EqueB  a  son 

aureo  -  Knight  of  the  Golden  Sun. 
Zinnendorf  was  Eques  a  lapide  nigra  ■» 
Knight  of  the  Black  Stone. 
Order  of  Business.  In  every  Masonic 
body,  the  by-laws  should  prescribe  an  "Order 
of  Business,"  and  in  proportion  as  that 
order  is  riaorously  observed  will  .be  the 
harmony  and  celerity  with  which  the  business 
of  the  Lodge  will  be  despatched. 

In  Lodges  whose  by-laws  have  prescribed 
no  settled  order,  the  arrangement  of  bushiest 
is  left  to  the  discretion  of  the  presiding 
officer,  who,  however,  must  be  governed, 
to  some  extent,  by  certain  general  rules 
founded  on  the  principles  of  parliamentary 
law,  or  on  the  suggestions  of  common  sense. 

The  order  of  business  may,  for  conve- 
nience of  reference,  be  placed  in  the  following 
tabular  form: 

1.  Opening  of  the  Lodge.  , 

2.  Reading  and  confirmation  of  the  minutes. 

3.  Reports  on  petitions. 

4.  Balloting  for  candidates. 

5.  Reports  of  special  committees. 

6.  Reports  of  standing  committees. 

7.  Consideration  of  motions  made  at  a 
former  meeting,  if  called  up  by  a  member. 

8.  New  business. 

9.  Initiations. 

10 .  Reading  of  the  minutes  for  information 
and  correction. 

11.  Closing  of  the  Lodge. 
Order  of  Christ.  See  Christ,  Order  of. 
Order  of  the  Temple.   See  Temple, 

Order  of  the. 

Order,  Boles  of.  Every  permanent  de- 
liberative body  adopts  a  code  of  rules  of 
order  to  suit  itself;  but  there  are  certain  rules 
derived  from  what  may  be  called  the  common 
law  of  Parliament,  the  wisdom  of  which  hav- 
ing been  proven  by  long  experience,  that  have 
been  deemed  of  force  at  all  times  and  places, 
and  are,  with  a  few  necessary  exceptions,  as 
applicable  to  Lodges  as  to  other  societies. 

The  rules  of  order,  sanctioned  by  uninter- 
rupted usage  and  approved  by  all  authori- 
ties, may  be  enumerated  under  the  foHowmg 
distinct  heads,  as  applied  to  a  Masonic  body: 

1.  Two  independent  original  propositions 
cannot  be  presented  at  the  same  time  to 
the  meeting.  . 

2.  A  subsidiary  motion  cannot  be  offered 
out  of  its  rank  of  precedence. 

3.  When  a  brother  intends  to  speak,  he 
is  required  to  stand  up  in  his  place,  and 
to  address  himself  always  to  the  presiding 

4.  When  two  or  more  brethren  rise  nearly 
at  the  same  time,  the  presiding  officer  will 




indicate,  by  mentioning  his  name,  the  one 
who,  in  his  opinion,  is  entitled  to  the  floor. 

5.  A  brother  is  not  to  be  interrupted  by 
any  other  member,  except  for  the  purpose 
of  calling  him  to  order. 

6.  No  brother  can  speak  of tener  than  the 
rules  permit;  but  this  rule  may  be  dispensed 
with  by  the  Master. 

_7.  No  one  is  to  disturb  the  speaker  by 
hissing,  unnecessary  coughing,  loud  whisper- 
ing, or  other  unseemly  noise,  nor  should  he 
pass  between  the  speaker  and  the  presiding 

8.  No  personality,  abusive  remarks,  or 
other  improper  language  should  be  used  by 
any  brother  m  debate. 

9.  If  the  presiding  officer  rises  to  speak 
while  a  brother  is  on  the  floor,  that  brother 
should  immediately  sit  down,  that  the  pre- 
siding officer  may  be  heard. 

10.  Everyone  who  speaks  should  speak 
to  the  question. 

11.  As  a  sequence  to  this,  it  follows  that 
there  can  be  no  speaking  unless  there  be 
a  question  before  the  Lodge.  There  must 
always  be  a  motion  of  some  kind  to  author- 
ize a  debate. 

Orders  of  Architecture.  An  order  in 
architecture  is  a  system  or  assemblage  of 
parts  subject  to  certain  uniform  established 
proportions  regulated  by  the  office  which 
such  part  has  to  perform,  so  that  the  dis- 
position, in  a  peculiar  form,  of  the  members 
and  ornaments,  and  the  proportion  of  the 
columns  and  pilasters,  is  called  an  order. 
There  are  five  orders  of  architecture,  the 
Doric,  Ionic,  Corinthian,  Tuscan,  and  Com- 
posite—the first  three  being  of  Greek  and 
the  last  two  of  Italian  origin.  (See  each  under 
its  respective  title.) 

Considering  that  the  orders  of  architec- 
ture must  have  constituted  one  of  the  most 
important  subjects  of  contemplation  to  the 
Operative  Masons  of  the  Middle  Ages,  and 
that  they  afforded  a  fertile  source  for  their 
symbolism,  it  is  strange  that  so  little  allu- 
sion is  made  to  them  in  the  primitive  lec- 
tures and  in  the  earliest  catechisms  of  the 
last  century.  In  the  earliest  catechism  ex- 
tant, they  are  simply  enumerated,  and  said 
to  answer  "to  the  base,  perpendicular,  di- 
ameter, circumference,  and  square";  but  no 
explanation  is  given  of  this  reference.  Nor 
.  are  they  referred  to  in  the  "Legend  of  the 
Craft,"  or  in  any  of  the  Old  Constitutions. 
Preston,  however,  introduced  them  into  his 
system  of  lectures,  and  designated  the  three 
most  ancient  orders — the  Ionic,  Doric,  and 
Corinthian — as  symbols  of  wisdom,  strength, 
and  beauty,  and  referred  them  to  the  three 
original  Grand  Masters.  This  symbolism 
has  ever  since  been  retained;  and,  notwith- 
standing the  reticence  of  the  earner  ritual- 
ists, there  is  abundant  evidence,  in  the 
architectural  remains  of  the  Middle  Ages, 
that  it  was  known  to  the  old  Operative  Free- 

Orders  of  Architecture,  Egyptian.  The 

Egyptians  had  a  system  of  architecture 
peculiar  to  themselves,  which,  says  Barlow 
{.Essays  on  Symbolism,  p.  30),  "would  indicate 

a  people  of  grand  ideas,  and  of  confirmed 
religious  convictions."  It  was  massive,  and 
without  the  airy  proportions  of  the  Greek 
orders.  It  was,  too,  eminently  symbolic,  and 
among  its  ornaments  the  lotus  leaf  and  plant 
predominated  as  a  symbol  of  regeneration. 
Among  the  peculiar  forms  of  the  Egyptian 
architecture  were  the  fluted  column,  which 
suggested  the  Ionic  order  to  the  Greeks,  and 
the  basket  capital  adorned  with  the  lotus, 
which  afterward  became  the  Corinthian.  To 
the  Masonic  student,  the  Egyptian  style  of 
architecture  becomes  interesting,  because  it 
was  undoubtedly  followed  by  King  Solomon 
in  his  construction  of  the  Temple.  The  great 
similarity  between  the  pillars  of  the  porch 
and  the  columns  in  front  of  Egyptian  temples 
is  very  apparent.  Our  translators  have, 
however,  unfortunately  substituted  the  lily 
for  the  lotus  in  their  version. 

Orders  of  Knighthood.  An  order  of 
knighthood  is  a  confraternity  of  knights 
bound  by  the  same  rules.   Of  these  there 
are  many  in  every  kingdom  of  Europe,  be- 
stowed by  sovereigns  on  their  subjects  as 
marks  of  honor  ana  rewards,  of  merit.  Such, 
for  instance,  are  in  England  the  Knights 
of  the  Garter;  in  Scotland  the  Knights  of 
Saint  Andrew;  and  in  Ireland  the  Knights 
of  Saint  Patrick.   But  the  only  Orders  of 
Knighthood  that  have  had  any  historical 
relation  to  Masonry,  except  the  Order  of 
Charles  XII.  in  Sweden,  are  the  three  great 
religious  and  military  Orders  which  were 
established  in  the  Middle  Ages.   These  are 
the  Knights  Templar,  the  Knights  Hospi- 
talers or  Knights  of  Malta,  and  the  Teu- 
tonic Knights,'  each  of  which  may  be  seen 
under  its  respective  title.   Of  these  three, 
the  Masons  can  really  claim  a  connection 
only  with  the  Templars.   They  alone  had  a 
secret  initiation,  and  with  them  there  is  at 
least  traditional  evidence  of  a  fusion.  The 
Knights  of  Malta  and  the  Teutonic  Knights 
have  always  held  themselves  aloof  from  the 
Masonic  Order.   They  never  had  a  secret 
form  of  initiation;  their  reception  was  open 
and  public;  and  the  former  Order,  indeed, 
during  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury, became  the  willing  instruments  of  the 
Church  in  the  persecution  of  the  Masons  who 
were  at  that  time  in  the  island  of  Malta. 
There  is,  indeed,  a  Masonic  degree  called 
Knight  of  Malta,  but  the  existing  remnant 
of  the  historical  order  has  always  repudiated 
it.   With  the  Teutonic  Knights,  the  Free- 
masons have  no  other  connection  than  this, 
that  in  some  of  the  high  degrees  their  peculiar 
cross  has  been  adopted.   An  attempt  has 
been  made,  but  without  reason,  to  identify 
the  Teutonic  Knights  with  the  Prussian 
Knights,  or  Noachites. 

Orders  of  the  Day.  In  parliamentary 
law,  propositions  which  are  appointed  for 
consideration  at  a  particular  hour  and  day  are 
called  the  orders  of  the  day.  When  the  day 
arrives  for  their  discussion,  they  take  prece- 
dence of  all  other  matters,  unless  passed  over 
by  mutual  consent  or  postponed  to  another 
day.  The  same  rules  m  reference  to  these 
orders  prevail  in  Masonic  as  in  other  assem- 


blies.    The  parliamentary  law  is  here  ap- 

Elicable  without  modification  to  Masonic 

Ordinacio.  The  Old  Constitutions  known 
as  the  Halliwell  or  Regius  MS.  (fourteenth 
century)  speak  of  an  ordinacio  in  the  sense  of 
a  law.  "Alia  ordinacio  artis  gemetriat."  (L. 
471.)  It  is  borrowed  from  the  Roman  law, 
where  ordinatio  signified  an  imperial  edict. 
In  the  Middle  Ages,  the  word  was  used  in  the 
sense  of  a  statute,  or  the  decision  of  a  judge. 

Ordination.  At  the  close  of  the  recep- 
tion of  a  neophyte  into  the  order  of  Elect 
Cohens,  the  Master,  while  communicating 
to  him  the  mysterious  words,  touched  him 
with  the  thumb,  index,  and  middle  fingers 
(the  other  two  being  closed)  on  the  forehead, 
heart,  and  side  of  the  head,  thus  making 
the  figure  of  a  triangle.  This  ceremony  was 
called  the  ordination. 

Ordo  ab  Chao.  Order  out  of  Chaos.  A 
motto  of  the  Thirty-third  Degree,  and  having 
the  same  allusion  as  lux  e  ienebris,  which  see. 
The  invention  of  this  motto  is  to  be  attrib- 
uted t&  the  Supreme  Council  of  the  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  at  Charleston, 
and  it  is  first  met  with  in  the  Patent  of 
Count  de  Grasse,  dated  February  1,  1802. 
When  De  Grasse  afterward  carried  the  Rite 
over  to  France  and  established  a  Supreme 
Council  there,  he  changed  the  motto,  and, 
according  to  Lenning,  Ordo  ab  hoc  was  used  by 
him  and  his  Council  in  all  the  documents 
issued  by  them.   If  so,  it  was  simply  a  blunder. 

Oregon.  The  first  Lodges  instituted  in 
Oregon  were  under  Warrants  from  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  California,  in  the  year  1849.  On 
August  16,  1851,  a  convention  of  three 
Lodges  was  held  in  Oregon  City,  and  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  Oregon  was  there  organized, 
Berryman  Jennings  being  elected  Grand 
Master.  The  Grand  Chapter  was  organized 
at  Salen^  September  18,  1860.  Templar- 
ism  was  introduced  by  the  organization  of 
Oregon  Commandery,  No.  1,  at  Oregon  City, 
on  July  24,  1860. 

Organist,  Grand.  An  officer  in  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland 
whose  duty  it  is  to  superintend  the  musical 
exercises  on  private  and  public  occasions. 
He  must  be  a  Master  Mason,  and  is  required 
to  attend  the  Quarterly  and  other  communi- 
cations of  the  Grand  Lodge.  His  jewel  is  an 
antique  lyre.  Grand  Lodges  in  this  country 
do  not  recognize  such  an  officer.  But  an 
organist  has  been  recently  employed  since  the 
introduction  of  musical  services  into  Lodge 
ceremonies  by  some  Lodges. 

Organization  of  the  Grand  Lodges.  See 
Grand  Lodge. 

Orient.  The  East.  The  place  where  a 
Lodge  is  situated  is  sometimes  called  its 
"Orient,"  but  more  properly  its  "East." 
The  seat  of  a  Grand  Lodge  has  also  some- 
times been  called  its  "Grand  Orient";  but 
here  "Grand  East"  would,  perhaps,  be 
better.  The  term  "Grand  Orient"  has  been 
used  to  designate  certain  of  the  Supreme 
Bodies  on  the  Continent  of  Europe,  and 
also  in  South  America;  as,  the  Grand  Orient 
of  France,  the  Grand  Orient  of  Portugal, 


the  Grand  Orient  of  Brazil,  the  Grand  Orient 
of  New  Grenada,  etc.  The  title  always 
has  reference  to  the  East  as  the  place  of 
honor  in  Masonry.  (See  East,  Grand.) 
Orient,  Grand.  See  Grand  Orient. 
Orient,  Grand  Commander  of  the. 
(Grand  Commandeur  d'Orient.)  The  Forty- 
third  Degree  of  the  Rite  of  Mizraim. 

Orient,  Interior.  A  name  sometimes  used 
in  Germany  to  designate  a  Grand  Chapter  or 
superintending  body  of  the  higher  degrees. 
Orient  of  France,  Grand.  See  France. 
Orient,  Order  of  the.  (Ordre  d'Orient.) 
An  Order  founded,  says  Thory  (Act.  Lot.,  L, 
330),  at  Paris,  in  1806,  on  the  system  of  the 
Templars,  to  whom  it  traced  its  origin. 

Oriental  Chair  of  Solomon.  The  seat 
of  the  Master  in  a  Symbolic  Lodge,  and  so 
called  because  the  Master  is  supposed  sym- 
bolically to  fill  the  place  over  the  Craft  once 
occupied  by  King  Solomon.  For  the  same 
reason,  the  seat  of  the  Grand  Master  in  the 
Grand  Lodge  receives  the  same  appellation. 
In  England  it  is  called  the  throne. 

Oriental  Philosophy.  A  peculiar  sys- 
tem of  doctrines  concerning  the  Divine 
Nature  which  is  said  to  have  originated  in 
Persia,  its  founder  being  Zoroaster,  whence 
it  passed  through  Syria,  Asia  Minor,  and 
Egypt,  and  was  finally  introduced  among 
the  Greeks,  whose  philosophical  systems  it 
at  times  modified.  Pliny  calls  it  "a  magical 
philosophy,"  and  says  that  Democntus, 
having  traveled  into  the  East  for  the  purpose 
of  learning  it,  and  returning  home,  taught  it 
in  his  mysteries.  It  gave  Dirth  to  the  sect 
of  Gnostics,  and  most  of  it  being  adopted  by 
the  school  of  Alexandria,  it  was  taught  by 
Philo,  Jamblichus,  and  other  disciples  of 
that  school.  Its  essential  feature  was  the 
theory  of  emanations  (which  see).  And  the 
Oriental  Philosophy  permeates,  sometimes  to 
a  very  palpable  extent,  Ineffable,  Philosophic, 
and  Hermetic  Masonry,  being  mixed  up  and 
intertwined  with  the  Jewish  and  Kabbalistic 
Philosophy.  A  knowledge  of  the  Oriental 
Philosophy  is  therefore  essential  to  the  proper 
understanding  of  these  high  degrees. 

Oriental  Site.  The  title  first  assumed 
by  the  Rite  of  Memphis. 

Orientation.  The  orientation  of  a  Lodge 
is  its  situation  due  east  and  west.  The  word 
is  derived  from  the  technical  language  of 
architecture,  where  it  is  applied,  in  the 
expression  "orientation  of  churches,"  to 
designate  a  similar  direction  in  building. 
Although  Masonic  Lodges  are  still,  when 
circumstances  will  permit,  built  on  an  east  and 
west  direction,  the  explanation  of  the  usage, 
contained  in  the  old  lectures  of  the  last 
century,  that  it  was  "because  all  chapels 
and  churches  are,  or  ought  to  be  so,"  has  be- 
come obsolete,  and  other  symbolic  reasons  are 
assigned.  Yet  there  can  be  no  doubt  that 
such  was  really  the  origin  of  the  usage.  The 
orientation  of  churches  was  a  principle  of 
ecclesiastical  architecture  very  generally  ob- 
served by  builders,  in  accordance  with 
ecclesiastical  law  from  the  earliest  times  after 
the  apostolic  age.  Thus  in  the  Apostolic 
Constitutions,  which,  although  falsely  attrib- 

538  0R1FLAMME 

uted  to  St.  Clement,  are  yet  of  great  antiquity, 
we  find  the  express  direction,  "sit  cedes 
oblonga  ad  orientem  versus"— let  the  church 
be  of  an  oblong  /dm,  directed  to  the  east-^-e. 
direction  which  would  be  strictly  applicable 
in  the  building  of  a  Lodge  room.  St.  Charles 
Borromeo,  in  his  Instructionei  Fabricm  Eccle- 
siasticce,ia  still  more  precise,  and  directs  that 
the  rear  or  altar  part  of  the  church  shall  look 
directly  to  the  east,  "in  orientem  versus 
recta  spectat,"  and  that  it  shall  be  not  "ad 
solstitialem  sed  ad  sequinoctialem  orientem", 
— not  to  the  solstitial  east,  which  varies  by 
the  deflection  of  the  sun's  rising,  but  to  the 
equinoctial  east,  where  the  sun  rises  at  the 
equinoxes,  that  is  to  say,  due  east.  But,  as 
Bingham  (Antiq.,  b.  viii.,  c.  iii.)  admits, 
although  the  usage  was  very  general  to 
erect  churches  toward  the  east,  yet  "it 
admitted  of  exceptions,  as  necessity  or  ex- 
pediency"; and  the  same  exception  prevails 
m  the  construction  of  Lodges,  which,  although 
always  erected  due  east  and  west,  where 
circumstances  will  permit,  are  sometimes 
from  necessity  built  in  a  different  direction. 
But  whatever  may  be  externally  the  situation 
of  the  Lodge  witn  reference  to  the  points  of 
the  compass,  it  is  always  considered  internally 
that  the  Master's  seat  is  in  the  east,  and  there- 
fore that  the  Lodge  is  "situated  due  east  and 

As  to  the  original  interpretation  of  the 
usage,  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  Masonic 
was  derived  from  the  ecclesiastical,  that  is, 
that  Lodges  were  at  first  built  east  and 
west  because  churches  were;  nor  can  we 
help  believing  that  the  church  borrowed 
and  Christianized  its  symbol  from  the  Pagan 
reverence  for  the  place  of  sunrising.  The 
admitted  reverence  in  Masonry  for  the  east 
as  the  place  of  light,  gives  to  the  usage  the 
modern  Masonic  interpretation  of  the  symbol 
of  orientation. 

Oriflamme.  The  ancient  banner  which 
originally  belonged  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Denis, 
and  was  borne  by  the  Counts  of  Vezin, 
patrons  of  that  church,  but  which,  after  the 
country  of  Vezin  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
French  crown,  became  the  principal  banner 
of  the  kingdom.  It  was  charged  with  a 
saltire  wavy  Or,  with  rays  issuing  from  the 
center  crossways;  Seccee  into  five  points, 
each  bearing  a  tassel  of  green  silk. 

Original  Points.  The  old  lectures  of 
the  last  century,  which  are  now  obsolete, 
contained  the  following  instruction:  "There 
are  in  Freemasonry  twelve  original  points, 
which  form  the  basis  of  the  system  and 
comprehend  the  whole  ceremony  of  initia- 
tion. Without  the  existence  of  these  points, 
no  man  ever  was,  or  can  be,  legally'  and 
essentially  received  into  the  Order.  Every 
person  who  is  made  a  Mason  must  go  through 
all  these  twelve  forms  and  ceremonies,  not 
only  in  the  first  degree,  but  in  every  sub- 
sequent one." 

Origin  of  Freemasonry.  The  origin  and 
source  whence  first  sprang  the  institution  of 
Freemasonry,  such  as  we  now  have  it,  has 

S'ven  rise  to  more  difference  of  opinion  and 
scussion  among  Masonic  scholars  than  any 


other  topic  in  the  literature  of  the  Institu- 
tion. Writers  on  the  history  of  Freemasonry 
have,  at  different  times,  attributed  its  origin 
to  the  following  sources.  1.  To  the  Patri- 
archal religion.  2.  To  the  Ancient  Pagan 
Mysteries.  3.  To  the  Temple  of  King  Solo- 
mon. 4.  To  the  Crusaders.  6.  To  the 
Knights  Templar.  6.  To  the  Romas  Col- 
leges of  Artificers.  7.  To  the  Operative 
Masons  of  the  Middle  Ages.  8.  To  the 
Rosicrucians  of  the  sixteenth  century,  9. 
To  Oliver  Cromwell,  for  the  advancement 
of  his  political  schemes.  10.  To  the  Pre- 
tender, for  the  restoration  of  the  House  of 
Stuart  to  the  British  throne.  11.  To  Sir 
Christopher  Wren  at  the  building  of  St. 
Paul's  Cathedral.  12.  To  Dr.  Desaguliers 
and  his  associates  in  the  year  1717.  Each 
of  these  twelve  theories  has  been  from  time 
to  time,  and  the  twelfth  within  a  recent 
period,  sustained  with  much  seal,  if  hot 
always  with  much  judgment,  by  their  advo- 
cates. A  few  of  them,  however,  have  long 
since  been  abandoned,  but  the  others  stifl 
attract  attention  and  find  defenders.  Dr. 
Mackey  has  his  own  views  of  the  subject  in 
his  book  History  of  Freemasonry,  to  which  the 
reader  is  referred.* 

Orleans,  Duke  of.  Louis  Philippe  Joseph, 
Duke  of  Orleans,  better  known  in  history  by 
his  revolutionary  name  of  Egalit6,  was  the 
fifth  Grand  Master  of  the  Masonic  Order  in 
France.  As  Duke,  of  Chartres,  the  title 
which  he  held  during  the  life  of  his  father, 
he  was  elected  Grand  Master  in  the  year 
1771,  upon  the  death  of  the  Count  de  Cler- 
mont. Having  appointed  the  Duke  of 
Luxemburg  his  Substitute,  he  did  not  attend 
a  meeting  of  the  Grand  Lodge  until  1777,  but 
had  in  the  meantime  paid  much  attention 
to  the  interests  of  Masonry,  visiting  many 
of  the  Lodges,  and  laying  the  foundation- 
stone  of  a  Masonic  Half  at  Bordeaux. 

His  abandonment  of  his  family  and  his 
adhesion  to  the  Jacobins  during  the  revo- 
lution, when  he  repudiated  his  hereditary 
title  of  Duke  of  Orleans  and  assumed  the 
republican  one  of  Egalite,  forms  a  part  of 
the  history  of  the  times.  On  the  22d  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1793,  he  wrote  a  letter  to  Milsent, 
the  editor,  over  the  signature  of  "Citoyen 
Egalit6,  "  which  was  published  in  tfaa^ownoi 
de  Paris,  and  which  contains  the  following 

"This  is  my  Masonic  history.  At  one 
time,  when  certainly  no  one  could  hare 
foreseen  our  revolution,  I  was  in  favor  of 
Freemasonry,  which  presented  to  me  a  sort 
of  image  of  equality,  as  I  was  in  favor  of 
the  parliament,  which  presented  a  sort  of 
image  of  liberty.  I  have  since  quitted  the  phan- 
tom for  the  reality.  In  the  month  of  Decem- 
ber last,  the  secretary  of  the  Grand  Orient 
having  addressed  himself  to  the  person  who 
discharged  the  functions,  near  me,  of  secre- 

*  See  Antiquity  of  Masonry;  Egyptian  Mysteries; 
Roman  College  Artificers;  Como;  CoMacine  Mas- 
ters; Traveling  Masons;  Stone-Mason*  of  Middle 
Ages;  Four  Old  Lodges;  Reeisol;  Speculative  Ma- 


tary  of  the  Grand  Master,  to  obtain  my  opin- 
ion on  a  question  relating  to  the  affairs  of  that 
society,  I  replied  to  him  on  the  5th  of  January 
as  follows:  As  I  do  not  know  how  the  Grand 
Orient  is  composed,  and  as,  besides,  I  think 
that  there  should  be  no  mystery  nor  secret 
assembly  in  a  republic,  especially  at  the 
commencement  of  its  establishment.  I  desire 
no  longer  to  mingle  in  the  affairs  of  the  Grand 
Orient,  nor  in  the  meetings  of  the  Free- 
masons.' " 

In  consequence  of  the  publication  of  this 
letter,  the  Grand  Orient  on  May  13,  1793, 
declared  the  Grand  Mastership  vacant,  thus 
virtually  deposing  their  recreant  chief.  He 
soon  reaped  the  reward  of  his  treachery  and 
political  debasement.  On  the  6th  of  Novem- 
ber in  the  Same  year  he  suffered  death  on  the 

Ormtts  or  Ormesius.  See  Rose  Croix 
of  Odd,  Brethren  of  the.  > 

Ormuzd  and  Ahrlman.  Ormuzd  was 
the  principle  of  good  and  the  symbol  of  light, 
and  Ahriman  the  principle  of  evil  and  the 
symbol  of  darkness,  in  the  old  Persian  relig- 
ion.  (See  Zoroaster.) 

Ornaments  of  a  Lodge.  The  lectures 
describe  the  ornaments  of  a  Lodge  as  consist- 
ing of  the  Mosaic  Pavement,  the  Indented 
Teasel,  and  the  Blazing  Star.  They  are  called 
ornaments  because  they  are  really  the  dec- 
orations with  which  a  properly  furnished 
Lodge  1b  adorned.  See  these  respective 

Oman  the  Jebusite.  He  was  an  in- 
habitant of  Jerusalem,  at  the  time  that  that 
city  was  called  Jebua,  from  the  son  of  Canaan, 
whose  descendants  peopled  it.-  He  was  the 
owner  of  the  threshing-floor  situated  on 
Mount  Moriah,  in  the  same  spot  on  which 
the  Temple  was  afterward  built.  This 
threshing-floor  David  bought  to  erect  on  it 
an  altar  to  God.  (1  Chron.  aod.  18-25.)  On 
the  same  spot  Solomon  afterward  built  the 
Temple.  Hence,  in  Masonic  language,  the 
Temple  of  Solomon  is'  sometimes  spoken  of 
as  "  the  threshing-floor  of  Oman  the  Jebusite." 
(See  ThreMnq-Floor.) 

Orphan.  The  obligation  that  Masons 
should  care  for  the  children  of  their  de- 
ceased brethren  has  been  well  observed  in 
the  Institution  by  many  Grand  Lodges, 
independent  associations  of  Masons,  ana 
of  asylums  for  the  support  and  education 
of  Masonic  orphans;  Among  these,  perhaps 
one  of  the  most  noteworthy,  is  the  orphan 
asylum  founded  at  Stockholm,  in  1763,  by  the 
contributions  of  the  Swedish  Masons,  which, 
by  subsequent  bequests  and  endowments, 
has  become  one  of  the  richest  private  institu- 
tions of  the  kind  in  the  world. 

Orpheus.  There  are  no  less  than  four  per- 
sons to  whom  the  ancients  gave  the  name  of 
Orpheus,  but  of  these  only  one  is  worthy  of 
notice  as  the  inventor  of  the  mysteries,  or,  at 
least,  as  the  introducer  of  them  into  Greece. 
The  genuine  Orpheus  is  said  to  have  been  a 
Thracian,  and  a  disciple  of  Linus,  who  flour- 
ished when  the  kingdom  of  the  Athenians  was 
dissolved.  From  him  the  Thracian  or  Orphic 
mysteries  derived  their  name,  because  he  first 

ORPHIC  539 

introduced  the  sacred  rites  of  initiation  and 
mystical  doctrines  into  Greece.  He  was.  ac- 
cording to  fabulous  tradition,  torn  to  pieces 
by  Ciconian  women,  and  after  his  death  he 
was  deified  by  the  Greeks.  The  story,  that 
by  the  power  of  his  harmony  he  drew  wild 
beasts  and  trees  to  him,  has  been'symbolic- 
ally  interprete'd,  that  by  bis  sacred  doctrines 
he  tamed  men  of  rustic  and  savage  disposi- 
tion. An  abundance  of  fables  has  clustered 
around  the  name  of  Orpheus;  but  it  is  at  least 
generally  admitted  by  the  learned,  that  he  was 
the  founder  of  the  system  of  initiation  into  the 
sacred  mysteries  as  practised  in  Greece.  The 
Grecian  theology,  says  Thomas  Taylor— him- 
self the  most  Grecian  of  all  moderns— orig- 
inated from  Orpheus,  and  was  promulgated 
by  him,  by  Pythagoras,  and  by  Plato;  by  the 
first,  mystically  and  symbolically;  by  the 
second,  enigmatically  and  through  images; 
and  by  the  last,  scientifically.  The  mysti- 
cism of  Orpheus  should  certainly  have  given 
him  as  high  a  place  in  the  esteem  of  the 
founders  of  the  present  system  of  Speculative 
Masonry  as  has  been  bestowed  upon  Py- 
thagoras. But  it  is  strange  that,  while  they 
delighted  to  call  Pythagoras  an  "ancient 
friend  and  brother,"  they  have  been  utterly 
silent  as  to  Orpheus. 

Orphic  Mysteries.  These  rites  were  prac- 
tised m  Greece,  and  were  a  modification  of  the 
mysteries  of  Bacchus  or  Dionysus,  and  they 
were  so  called  because  their  institution  was 
falsely  attributed  to  Orpheus.  They  were, 
however,  established  at  a  much  later  period 
than  his  era.  Indeed,  M.  Freret,  who  has  in- 
vestigated this  subject  with  much  learning  in 
the  Memoires  de  I  Academie  dee  Inscriptions 
(torn,  xxiii.),  regards  the  Orphics  as  a  degener- 
ate branch  of  the  school  of  Pythagoras,  formed, 
after  the  destruction  of  that  school,  by  some 
of  its  disciples,  who,  seeking  to  establish  a 
religious  association,  devoted  themselves  to 
the  worship  of  Bacchus,  with  which  they 
mingled  certain  Egyptian  practises,  and  out  of 
this  mixture  made  up  a  species  of  life  which 
they  called  the  Orphic  life,  and  the  origin  of 
which,  to  secure  greater  consideration,  they 
attributed  to  Orpheus,  publishing  under  his 
name  many  apocryphal  works. 

The  Orphic  rites  differed  from  the  other 
Pagan  rites,  in  not  being  connected  with  the 
priesthood,  but  in  being  practised  by  a  fra- 
ternity who  did  not  possess  the  sacerdotal 
functions.  The  initiated  commemorated  in 
their  ceremonies,  which  were  performed  at 
night,  the  murder  of  Bacchus  by  the  Titans, 
and  his  final  restoration  to  the  supreme  gov- 
ernment of  the  universe,  under  the  name  of 

Demosthenes,  while  reproaching  jEscbines 
for  haying  engaged  with  his  mother  in  these 
mysteries,  gives  us  some  notion  of  their  na- 

In  the  day,  the  initiates  were  crowned  with 
fennel  and  poplar,  and  carried  serpents,  in 
their  hands,  or  twined  them  around  their 
heads,  crying  with  a  loud  voice,  enos,  sabos, 
and  danced  to  the  sound  of  the  mystic  words, 
hyes,  attes,  attes,  hyes.  At  night  the  mystes 
was  bathed  in  the  lustra!  water,  and  having 

540  OSIRIS 

been  rubbed  over  with  clay  and  bran;  he  was 
clothed  in  the  skin  of  a  fawn,  and  having  risen 
from  the  bath,  he  exclaimed,  "I  have  de- 
parted from  evil  and  have  found  the  good. " 

The  Orphic  poems  made  Bacchus  identical 
with  Osiris,  and  celebrated  the  mutilation  and 
palingenesis  of  that  deity  as  a  symbol  teaching 
the  resurrection  to  eternal  life*  so  that  their 
design  was  similar  to  that  of  the  other  Pagan 

The  Orphic  initiation,  because  it  was  not 
sacerdotal  in  its  character,  was  not  so  cele- 
brated among  the  ancients  as  the  other  mys- 
teries. Plato,  even,  calls  its  disciples  charla- 
tans. It  nevertheless  existed  until  the  first 
ages  of  the  Christian  religion,  being  at  that 
time  adopted  by  the  philosophers  as  a  means 
of  opposing  the  progress  of  the  new  revelation. 
It  fell,  however,  at  last,  with  the  other  rites  of 
Paganism,  a  victim  to  the  rapid  and  trium- 
phant progress  of  the  Gospel. 

Osiris.  He  was  the  chief  god  of  the  old 
Egyptian  mythology,  the  husband  of  Isis,  and 
the  father  of  Horus.  Jabloniski  says  that 
Osiris  represented  the  sun  only,  but  Plutarch, 
whose  opportunity  of  knowing  was  better, 
asserts  that,  while  generally  considered  as  a 
symbol  of  the  solar  orb,  some  of  the  Egyptian 
philosophers  regarded  him  as  a  river  god, 
and  called  him  Nilus.  But  the  truth  is,  that 
Osiris  represented  the  male,  active  or  genera- 
tive, powers  of  nature;  while  Isis  represented 
its  female,  passive  or  prolific,  powers.  Thus, 
when  Osiris  was  the  sun,  Isis  was  the  earth,  to 
be  vivified  by  his  rays;  when  he  was  the  Nile, 
Isis  was  the  land  of  Egypt,  fertilized  by  his 
overflow.  Such  is  the  mythological  or  mys- 
tical sense  in  which  Osiris  was  received. 

Historically,  he  is  said  to  have  been  a  great 
and  powerful  king,  who,  leaving  Egypt,  trav- 
ersed the  world,  leading  a  host  of  fauns  or 
satyrs,  and  other  fabulous  beings  in  his  train, 
actually  an  army  of  followers.  He  civilized 
the  whole  earth,  and  taught  mankind  to  fer- 
tilize the  soil  and  to  perform  the  works  of 
agriculture.  We  see  here  the  idea  which  was 
subsequently  expressed  by  the  Greeks  in  their 
travels  of  Dionysus,  and  the  wanderings  of 
Ceres;  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  old 
Masons  had  some  dim  perception  of  this  story, 
which  they  have  incorporated,  under  the  fig- 
ure of  Euclid,  in  their  "Legend  of  the  Craft." 

Osiris,  Mysteries  of.  _  The  Osirian  mys- 
teries consisted  in  a  scenic  representation  of 
the  murder  of  Osiris  by  Typhon,  the  subse- 
quent recovery  of  his  mutilated  body  by  Isis, 
and  his  deification;  or  restoration  to  immortal 
life.  Julius  Firmicus,  in  his  treatise  On  the 
Falsity  of  the  Pagan  Religions,  thus  describes 
the  object  of  the  Osirian  Mysteries:  "But  in 
those  funerals  and  lamentations  which  are 
annually  celebrated  in  honor  of  Osiris,  the  de- 
fenders of  the  Pagan  rites  pretend  a  physical 
reason.  They  call  the  seeds  of  fruit,  Osiris; 
the  earth,  Isis;  the  natural  heat,  Typhon; 
and  because  the  fruits  are  ripened  by  the 
natural  heat  and  collected  for  the  life  of 
man,  and  are  separated  from  their  natural 
tie  to  the  earth,  and  are  sown  again  when 
winter  approaches,  this  they  consider  is  the 
death  of  Osiris;  but  when  the  fruits,  by  the 


genial  fostering  of  the  earth,  begin  again  to 
be  generated  by  a  new  procreation,  this  is 
the  finding  of  Osiris. "  This  explanation  does 
not  essentially  differ  from  that  already  given 
in  the  article  Egyptian  Mysteries.  The  sym- 
bolism is  indeed  precisely  the  same — that  of  a 
restoration  or  resurrection  from  death  to  life. 
(See  Egyptian  Mysteries.) 

Oterfut.  The  name  of  the  assassin  at  the 
west  gate  in  the  legend  of  the  Third  Degree, 
according  to  some  of  the  high  degrees.  I  have 
vainly  sought  the  true  meaning  or  derivation 
of  this  word,  which  is  most  probably  an  ana- 
gram of  a  name.  It  was,  I  trunk,  invented  by 
the  Stuart  Masons,  and  refers  to  some  person 
who  was  inimical  to  that  party. 

Otreb.  The  pseudonym  of  the  celebrated 
Rosicrucian  Michael  Maier,  under  which  he 
wrote  his  book  on  Death  and  ike  Resurrection. 
(See  Maier.) 

Ouriel.   See  Uriel. 

Out  of  the  Lodge.  The  charges  of  a  Free- 
mason, compiled  by  Anderson  from  the  An- 
cient Records,  contain  the  regulations  for  the 
behavior  of  Masons  out  of  the  Lodge  under 
several  heads;  as,  behavior  after  the  Lodge  is 
over,  when  brethren  meet  without  strangers, 
in  the  presence  of  strangers,  at  home,  and  to- 
ward a  strange  brother.  Gadicke  gives  the 
same  directions  in  the  following  words: 

"A  brother  Freemason  shall  not  only  con- 
duct himself  in  the  Lodge,  but  also  out  of  the 
Lodge,  as  a  brother  towards  his  brethren;  and 
happy_  are  they  who  are  convinced  that  they 
have  in  this  respect  ever  obeyed  the  laws  of 
the  Order." 

Oval  Temples.  The  temple  in  the  Druid- 
ical  mysteries  was  often  of  an  oval  form.  As 
the  oblong  temple  was  a  representation  of  the 
inhabited  world,  whence  is  derived  the  form  of 
the  Lodge,  so  the  oval  temple  was  a  represen- 
tation of  the  mundane  egg,  which  was  also  a 
symbol  of  the  world.  The  symbolic  idea  in 
both  was  the  same. 

Overseer.  The  title  of  three  officers  in  a 
Mark  Lodge,  who  are  distinguished  as  the 
Master,  Senior,  and  Junior  Overseer.  The 
jewel  of  their  office  is  a  square.  In  Mark 
Lodges  attached  to  Chapters,  the  duties  of 
these  -  officers  are  performed  by  the  three 
Grand  Masters  of  the  Veils. 

Ox.  The  ox  was  the  device  on  the  banner 
of  the  tribe  of  Ephraim.  The  ox  on  a  scarlet 
field  is  one  of  the  Royal  Arch  banners,  and  is 
borne  by  the  Grand  Master  of  the  Third  Veil. 

Oyres  de  Ornellas,  Pracao.  A  Portu- 
guese gentleman,  who  was  arrested  as  a  Free- 
mason, at  Lisbon,  in  1776,  was  thrown  into  a 
dungeon,  where  he  remained  fourteen  months. 
(See  Alincourt.) 

Ozee.  Sometimes  Osee.  The  ucclamation 
of  the  Scottish  Rite  is  so  spelled  in  many 
French  Cahiers.  Properly  Hoschea,  which 
Delaunay  (ThwUew,  p.  141)  derives  from  the 
Hebrew  J>E?in,  hossheah,  deliverance,  safety,  or, 
as  he  says,  a  savior.  But  see  Hoschea,  where 
another  derivation  is  suggested. 

Ozlab.  (Heb.  i"WJ>;  Latin,  Fortitude-  dora- 
ini.)  Aprince  of  Judah,  and  the  name  of  the 
Senior  Warden  in  the  Fifth  Degree  of  the 
French  Rite  of  Adoption. 



P.   The  sixteenth  letter  of  the  English, 
and  Greek  alphabets,  and  the  seventeenth 
/       of  the  Hebrew,  in  which  last-mentioned 
A\    language  its  numerical  value  is  80,  is 
t!    formed  thus  D,  signifying  a  mouth  in 
^3  the  Phoenician.    The  sacred  name  of 

~  God  associated  with  this  letter  is  miD, 
Phodeh  or  Redeemer.  . 

Pachacamac.   The  Peruvian  name  for 
the  Creator  of  the  universe.        .  . 

Paganls,  Hugo  de.  The  Latinized  form 
of  the  name  of  Hugh  de  Payens,  the  first 
Grand  Master  of  the  Templars.  (See  Payens.) 

Paganism.  A  general  appellation  for  the 
religious  worship  of  the  whole  human  race, 
except  of  that  portion  which  has  embraced 
Christianity,  Judaism,  or  Mohammedanism. 
Its  interest  to  the  Masonic  student  arises  from 
the  fact  that  its  principal  development  was  the 
ancient  mythology,  in  whose  traditions  and 
mysteries  are  to  be  found  many  interesting 
analogies  with  the  Masonic  system.  (See 
Dispensations  of  Religion.)  .  , 

Paine,  Thomas.  A  political  writer  oi 
eminence  during  the  Eevolutionary  War  in 
America.  He  greatly  injured  his  reputation 
by  his  attacks  on  the  Christian  religion.  He 
was  not  a  Mason,  but  wrote  An  Essay  on  the 
Origin  of  Freemasonry,  with  no  other  knowl- 
edge of  the  Institution  than  that  derived  from 
the  writings  of  Smith  and  Dodd,  and  the  very 
questionable  authority  of  Prichard's  Masonry 
Dissected.  He  sought  to  trace  Freemasonry 
to  the  Celtic  Druids.  For  one  so  little  ac- 
quainted with  his  subject,  he  has  treated  it 
with  considerable  ingenuity.  Paine  was  born 
in  England  in  1737,  and  died  in  New  York,  m 

Palestine,  called  also  the  Holy  Land  on 
account  of  the  sacred  character  of  the  events 
that  have  occurred  there,  is  situated  on  the 
coast  of  the  Mediterranean,  stretching  from 
Lebanon  south  to  the  borders  of  Egypt,  and 
from  the  thirty-fourth  to  the  thirty-ninth 
degrees  of  longitude.  It  was  conquered  from 
the  Canaanites  by  the  Hebrews  under  Joshua 
1450  years  B.C.  They  divided  it  into  twelve 
confederate  states  according  to  the  ^lbes; 
Saul  united  it  into  one  kingdom,  and  David 
enlarged  its  territories.  In  975  b.c.  it  was 
divided  into  the  two  kingdoms  of  Israel  and 
Judea,  the  latter  consisting  of  the  tribes  of 
Judah  and  Benjamin,  and  the  former  of  the 
rest  of  the  tribes.  About  740  b.c,  both  king- 
doms were  subdued  by  the  Persians  and  Baby- 
lonians, and  after  the  captivity  only  the  two 
tribes  of  Judah  and  Benjamin  returned  to 
rebuild  the  Temple.  With  Palestme,  or  the 
Holy  Land,  the  mythical,  if  not  the  authentic, 
history  of  Freemasonry  has  been  closely  con- 
nected. There  stood,  at  one  time,  the  Temple 
of  Solomon,  to  which  some  writers  have  traced 
the  origin  of  the  Masonic  Order;  there  fought 
the  Crusaders,  among  whom  other  writers 
have  sought,  with  equal  boldness,  to  find  the 
cradle  of  the  Fraternity;  there  certainly  the 

Order  of  the  Templars  was  instituted,  whose 
subsequent  history  has  been  closely  mingled 
with  that  of  Freemasonry;  and  there  occurred 
nearly  all  the  events  of  sacred  history  that, 
with  the  places  where  they  were  enacted,  have 
been  adopted  as  important  Masonic  symbols. 

Palestine,  Explorations  in.  The  desire 
to  obtain  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  arche- 
ology of  Palestine,  gave  rise  in  1866  to  an  asso- 
ciation, which  was  permanently  organized  in 
London,  as  the  "  Palestine  Exploration  Fund, 
with  the  Queen  as  the  chief  patron,  and  a  long 
list  of  the  nobility  and  the  most  distinguished 
gentlemen  in  the  kingdom,  added  to  which 
followed  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  and 
forty-two  subordinate  and  provincial  Grand 
Lodges  and  Chapters.  Early  in  the  year 
1867  the  committee  began  the  work  of  exam- 
ination, by  mining  in  and  about  the  various 
points  which  had  been  determined  upon  by  a 
Former  survey  as  essential  to  a  proper  under- 
standing of  the  ancient  city,  which  had  been 
covered  up  by  dibris  from  age  to  age,  so  that 
the  present  profiles  of  the  ground,  in  every 
direction,  were  totally  different  from  what 
they  were  in  the  days  of  David  and  Solomon, 
or  even  the  time  of  Christ. 

Lieutenant  Charles  Warren,  R.E.  [as  he 
then  was,  now  Lieut.-General  Sir  Charles 
Warren,  G.C.M.G.,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.],  was  sent 
out  with  authority  to  act  as  circumstances 
might  demand,  and  as  the  delicacy  and  the 
importance  of  the  enterprise  required.  He 
arrived  in  Jerusalem  February  17,  1867,  and 
continued  his  labors  of  excavating  in  many 
parts  of  the  city,  with  some  interruptions, 
until  1871,  when  he  returned  to  England. 
During  his  operations,  he  kept  the  society 
in  London  constantly  informed  of  the  prog- 
ress of  the  work  in  which  he  and  his  asso- 
ciates were  so  zealously  engaged,  in  a  ma- 
jority of  cases  at  the  imminent  risk  of  then- 
lives  and  always  that  of  their  health.  The 
result  of  these  labors  has  been  a  vast  accumu- 
lation of  facts  in  relation  to  the  topography  of 
the  holy  city  which  throw  much  light  on  its 
archeology.  A  branch  of  the  society  has  been 
established  in  this  country,  and  it  is  still  in 
successful  operation.  . 

Palestine,  Knight  of.  See  Knight  of 
Palestine.  .       _  .      _  „ 

Palestine,  Knight  of  St.  John  of.  See 
Knight  of  St.  John  of  Palestine. 

Palestine,  Order  of.  Mentioned  by  Baron 
de  TschOudy,  and  said  to  have  been  the  foun- 
tain whence  the  Chevalier  Ramsay  obtained 
his  information  for  the  regulation  of  his  sys- 

tepaila.  An  altar-cloth,  also  a  canopy  borne 
over  the  head  of  royalty  in  Oriental  lands. 

PaUadlc  Masonry.  The  title  given  to  the 
Order  of  the  Seven  Sages  and  the  Order  of  the 
Palladium.    (See  Palladium,  Order  of  the.) 

Palladium,  Order  of  the.  An  androgy- 
nous society  of  Masonic  adoption,  established, 
says  Ragon,  at  Paris  in  1737.    It  made  great 




pretensions  to  high  antiquity,  claiming  that 
it  had  its  origin  in  the  instructions  brought  by 
Pythagoras  from  Egypt  into  Greece,  and  hav- 
ing fallen  into  decay  after  the  decline  Of  the 
Soman  Emperor,  it  was  revived  in  1687  b 
Feneion,  Archbishop  of  Canbray;  allofwhicL 
is  altogether  mythical.  Feneion  was  not 
born  until  1651 .  It  was  a  very  moral  society, 
consisting  of  two  degrees:  I.  Adelph:  2. 
Companion  of  Ulysses.  When  a  female  took 
the  Second  Degree,  she  was  called  a  Compan- 
ion of  Penelope. 

Palmer.  From  the  Latin,  palmifer,  a 
Palm-bearer.  A  name  given  in  the  tune  of 
the  Crusades  to  a  pilgrim,  who,  coming  back 
from  the  holy  war  after  having  accomplished 
his  vow  of  pilgrimage,  exhibited  uponliis  re- 
turn home  a  branch  of  palm  bound  round  his 
staff  in  token  of  it. 

Palmer,  Henry  L.  Born  in  New  York, 
October  18,  1819.  He  was  the  author  of  the 
celebrated  report,  in  October,  1849,  which  re- 
sulted m  the  union  of  the  two  Grand  Lodges  in 
New  York,  the  "Herring-Phillips"  and  the 
"New  York"  Grand  Lodge.  Bro.  Palmer 
occupied  almost  every  known  position  in  Craft 
Masonry,  and  was  the  commanding  officer  of 
every  one  of  its  departments.  He  was  P.  G. 
Master  of  the  G.  Encampment  of  K.  T.  of  the 
U.  S.,  and  G.  Commander  of  the  Supreme 
Council  of  the  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite,  Northern 
Jurisdiction  of  the  U.  S.  of  America.  He  died 
on  May  7, 1909. 

.  Pantade.  The  pentalpha  of  Pythagoras 
is  so  called  in  the  symbolism  of  High  Magic 
and  the  Hermetic  Philosophy.  (See  Pental- 

Pantheism.  A  speculative  system,  which, 
spiritually  considered,  identifies  the  universe 
with  God,  and,  in  the  material  form,  God  with 
the  universe.  Material  Pantheism  is  subject 
to  the  cnticiam,  if  not  to  the  accusation,  of 
being  atheistic.  Pantheism  is  as  aged  as  relig- 
ion, and  was  the  system  of  worship  in  India, 
as  it  was  in  Greece.  Giordano  Bruno  was 
burned  for  his  pantheistic  opinions  at  Rome 
in  1600. 

_  Pantheistic  Brotherhood.  Described  by 
John  Toland,  in  his  Pantheisticon,  as  having 
a  strong  resemblance  to  Freemasonry.  The 
Socratic  Lodge  in  Germany,  based  on  the 
Brotherhood,  was  of  short  duration. 
.  Papworth  Manuscript.  A  manuscript 
m  the  possession  of  Mr.  Wyatt  Papworth,  of 
London,  who  purchased  it  from  a  bookseller 
of  that  city  in  1860.   As  some  of  the  water 

—  —  ~  /  —  *w™.  dwud  ml  whs  water- 
marks of  thepaper  on  which  it  is  written  bear 
the  initials  G.  R.,  with  a  crown  as  a  water- 
mark, it  is  evident  that  the  manuscript  cannot 
be  older  than  1714,  that  being  the  year  in 
which  the  first  of  the  Georges  ascended  the 
throne.  It  is  most  probably  of  a  still  more 
recent  date,  perhaps  1720.  The  Rev.  A.  F.  A. 
Woodford  has  thus  described  its  appearance: 
"The  scroll  was  written  originally  on  pages  of 
foolscap  size,  which  were  then  joined  into  a 
continuous  roll,  and  afterwards,  probably  for 
greater  convenience,  the  pages  were  again  sep- 
arated by  cutting  them,  and  it  now  forms  a 

book,  contammg  twenty-^our  folios,  sewed 
together  in  a  light-brown  paper  cover.  The 
text  is  of  a  bold  character,  but  written  so  ir- 
regularly that  there  are  few  consecutive  pages 
which  have  the  same  number  of  lines,  the  aver- 
age being  about  seventeen  to  the  page."  The 
manuscript  is  not  complete,  three  or  four  of 
the  concluding  charges  being  omitted,  al- 
though some  one  has  written,  in  a  hand  differ- 
ent from  that  of  the  text,  the  word  Finis  at  the 
bottom  of  the  last  page;  The  manuscript 
appears  to  have  been  simply  a  copy,  in  a  little 
less  antiquated  language,  of  some  older  Con- 
stitution. It  has  Jeen  published  by  Bro. 
Hughan  m  his  Old  Charges  of  the  British  Free- 
masons. (1872.) 

Papyrus.  "The  papyrus  leaf,"  says  J.  W. 
Simons,  in  his  Egyptian  Symbols,  "is 
that  plant  which  formed  tablets  and 
books,  and  forms  the  first  letter  of 
the  name  of  the  only  eternal  and  all- 
powerful  god  of  Egypt,  Amon,  who 
m  the  beginning  of  things  created 
the  world,"  whose  name  signified 
occult  or  hidden.  The  wordiw, 
ole,  which  signifies  a  leaf,  and  to  in-  » 
scribe  on  tablets  forms  D?J>,  oim,  the  antique 
on^n  °tthings>  obscure  time,  hidden  eternity. 

The  Turin  Funeral  Papyrus  is  a  book  pub- 
lished by  Dr.  Lepsius  in  original  character, 
but  translated  by  Dr.  Birch.  This  Book  of 
the  Dead  is  invaluable  as  containing  the  true 
philosophic  belief  of  the  Egyptians  respecting 
;he  resurrection  and  immortality.  The  manu- 
script has  been  gathered  from  portions  which 
it  was  obligatory  to  bury  with  the  dead.  The 
excavations  of  mummies  in  Egypt  have  been 
fruitful  in  furnishing  the  entire  work. 

Paracelsus.  Philippus  Aureolus  Theo- 
phraetus  Bombastus  Paracelsus  de  Hohen- 
heim,  as  he  styled  himself,  was  born  in  Ger- 
many m  1493,  and  died  in  1541.  He  devoted 
his  youth  to  the  study  and  practise  of  astrol- 
ogy, alchemy,  and  magic,  and  passed  many 
years  of  his  life  in  traveling  over  Europe  and 
acquiring  information  in  medicine,  of  which 
he  proclaimed  himself  to  be  the  monarch.  He 
was,  perhaps,  the  most  distinguished  charla- 
tan who  ever  made  a  figure  in  the  world.  The 
followers  of  his  school  were  called  Paracekists, 
and  they  continued  for  more  than  a  century 
after  the  death  of  their  master  to  influence  the 
schools  of  Germany.  Much  of  the  Kabba- 
listic  and  mystical  science  of  Paracelsus  was 
incorporated  into  Hermetic  Masonry  by  the 
founders  of  the  high  degrees. 

Paracelsus,  Sublime.  A  degree  to  be 
found  in  the  manuscript  collections  of  Peuvret 
Parallel  lines.  In  every  well-regulated 
Lodge  there  is  found  a  point  within  a  circle, 
which  circle  is  imbordered  by  two  perpendic- 
ular parallel  lines.  These  lines  are  represen- 
tative of  St.  John  the  Baptist  and  St.  John 
the  Evangelist,  the  two  great  patrons  of  Ma- 
sonry to  whom  our  Lodges  are  dedicated,  and 
who  are  said  to  have  been  "perfect  parallels  in 
Christianity  as  well  as  Masonry."  In  those 
i-nghsh  Lodges  which  have  adopted  the 
Union  System"  established  by  the  Grand 



Lodge  of  England  in  1813,  and  where  the  dedi- 
cation is  "to  God  and  his  service,"  the  lines 
parallel  represent  Moses  and  Solomon.  As 
a  symbol,  the  parallel  lines  are  not  to  be  found 
in  the  earlier  rituals  of  Masonry.  Although 
Oliver  defines  the  symbol  on  the  authority  of 
what  he  calls  the  "Old  Lectures,  it  is  not  to 
be  found  in  any  anterior  to  Preston,  and  even 
he  only  refers  to  the  parallelism  of  the  two  Sts. 

Farlkchal,  Acrotschada.  An  occult  sci- 
entific work  of  the  Brahmans.  According  to 
a  work  by  Louis  Jacolliot,  1884,  the  Fakirs 
produced  phenomena  at  will  with  superior 
intervention  or  else  with  shrewd  charlatanism : 
processes  that  were  known  to  the  Egyptians 
and  Jewish  KabbaUsts.  The  doctrines  are 
those  known  to  the  Alexandrian  school,  to  the 
Gauls,  and  as  well  to  the  Christians.  In  the 
division  of  the  Kabbala,  the  first  treated  of 
the  History  of  the  Genesis  or  Creation,  and 
taught  the  science  of  nature;  the  second,  or 
Mercaba,  of  the  History  of  the  Chariot,  and 
contained  a  treatise  on  theology. 

There  were  three  degrees  of  initiation  among 
the  Brahmans  :  ■ 

1st.  According  to  selection,  the  candidate 
became  a  Gribasta,  a  Pourohita  or  Fakir,  or  in 
twenty  years  a  Guru. 

2d.  A  Sannyassis  or  Cenobite  and  Vana- 
prasthas,  and  lived  in  the  Temple. 

3d.  A  Sanayassis-Nirvany  or  Naked  Ceno- 

Those  of  the  third  degree  were  visible  only 
once  in  five  years,  appearing  in  a  column  of 
light  created  by  themselves,  at  midnight,  and 
on  a  stand  in  the  center  of  a  great  tank. 
Strange  sounds  and  terrific  shrieks  were  heard 
as  they  were  gazed  upon  as  demigods,  sur- 
rounded by  thousands  of  Hindus. 

The  government  was  by  a  Supreme  Council 
of  seventy  Brahmans,  over  seventy  years  of 
age,  selected  from  the  Nirvany,  and  chosen  to 
see  enforced  the  Law  of  the  Lotus.   The  Su- 

Ereme  Chief,  or  Brahmatna,  was  required  to 
e  over  eighty  years  of  age,  and  was  looked 
upon  as  immortal  by  the  populace.  This  Pon- 
tiff resided  in  an  immense  palace  surrounded 
by  twenty-one  walls. 

The  primitive  holy  word  composed  of  the 
three  letters  A.  U.  M.,  comprises  the  Vedic 
trinity,  signifying  Creation,  Preservation,  and 
Transformation,  and  symbolize  all  the  initia- 
tory secrets  of  the  occult  sciences.  By  some 
it  has  been  taught  that  the  "  Honover,"  or 
primordial  germ,  as  defined  in  the  Avesta,  ex- 
isted before  all  else.  Abo  see  Manou,  Book 
Sloca  265.  The  following  unexplained 
magical  words  were  always  inscribed  in  two 
triangles:  L'om.  L'rhom-sh'hrum.  Sho'kim. 

He  who  possessed  the  word  greater  than 
the  A.  U.  M.  was  deemed  next  to  Brahma. 
The  word  was  transmitted  in  a  sealed  box. 

The  Hindu  triad,  of  which  in  later  times  OM 
is  the  mystic  name,  represents  the  union  of 
the  three  gods,  viz.,  a  (Vishnu),  w  (Siva),  to 
(Brahma).  It  may  also  be  typical  of  the 
three  Yedas.  Om  appears  first  in  the  Upan- 

ishads  as  a  mystical  monosyllable,  and  is  thus 
set  forth  as  the  object  of  profound  meditation. 
It  is  usually  called  pranava,  more  rarely 
ahsharam.  The  Buddhists  use  Om  at  the  be- 
ginning of  their  Vidya  Shad-akshari  or  mysti- 
cal formulary  in  six  syllables  (viz.,  Om  mani 
pad  me  hum).  (See  Pitris  Indische  Mys- 
terien  and  Aum.)      [C.  T.  McClenachan.] 

Paris,  Congresses  of.  Three  important 
Masonic  Congresses  have  been  held  in  the  city 
of  Paris.  The  first  was  convened  by  the  Bite 
of  Philalethes  in  1785,  that  by  a  concourse 
of  intelligent  Masons  of  all  rites  and  countries, 
and  by  a  comparison  of  oral  and  written  tra- 
ditions, light  might  be  educed  on  the  most 
essential  subjects  of  Masonic  science,  and  on 
the  nature,  origin,  and  historic  application  as 
well  as  the  actual  state  of  the  Institution. 
Savalette  de  Lauges  was  elected  President. 
It  closed  after  a  protracted  session  of  three 
months,  without  producing  any  practical  re- 
sult. _  The  second  was  called  in  1787,  as  a 
continuation  of  the  former,  and  closed  with 
precisely  the  same  negative  result.  The 
third  was  assembled  in  1855,  by  Prince  Murat, 
for  the  purpose  of  effecting  various  reforms  in 
the  Masonic  system.  At  this  Congress,  ten 
propositions,  some  of  them  highly  important, 
were  introduced,  and  their  adoption  recom- 
mended to  the  Grand  Lodges  of  the  world. 
But  the  influence  of  this  Congress  has  not 
been  more  successful  than  that  of  its  prede- 

Paris  Constitutions.  A  copy  of  these 
Constitutions,  said  to  have  been  adopted  in 
the  thirteenth  century,  will  be  found  in  G.  P. 
Depping's  Collection  de  Documents  irtedits  sur 
I'Higtoire  de  France.  (Paris,  1837.)  A  part  of 
this  work  contains  the  Reglemens  sur  les  mis 
et  metiers  de  Paris,  redigis  au  lSme  Steele  et 
connus  sous  le  nom  de  livre  desmitiers  d'Elienne 
BoUeau.  This  treats  of  the  masons,  stone- 
cutters, plasterers,  and  mortar-makers,  ancL 
as  Steinbrenner  (Or,  and  Hist,  of  Mas.,  p.  104) 
says,  "is  interesting,  not  only  as  exhibiting 
the  peculiar  usages  and  customs  of  the  Craft 
at  that  early  period,  but  as  showing  the  con- 
nection which  existed  between  the  laws  and 
regulations  of  the  French  Masons  and  those  of 
the  Steinmetzen  of  Germany  and  the  Masons 
of  England."  A  translation  of  the  Paris  Con* 
stitutions  was  published  in  the  Freemasons' 
Magazine,  Boston,  1863,  p.  201.  In  the  year 
1743,  the  "English  Grand  Lodge  of  France" 
published,  in  Paris,  a  series  of  statutes,  taken 
principally  from  Anderson's  work  of  the 
editions  of  1723  and  1738.  It  consisted  of 
twenty  articles,  and  bore  the  title  of  General 
Regulations  taken  from  the  Minutes  of  the 
Lodges,  for  the  use  of  the  French  Lodges,  together 
with  the  alterations  adopted  at  the  General  As- 
sembly of  the  Grand  Lodge,  December  11,  17 43, 
to  serve  as  a  ride  of  action  for  the  said  kingdom. 
A  copy  of  this  document,  says  Findel,  was 
translated  into  German,  with  annotations, 
and  published  Jn  1856  in  the  Zeitschrift  fur 
Freimaurer  of  Altenberg.  , 

Parliamentary  Law.  Parliamentary  Law, 
or  the  Lex  Parliamentaria,  is  that  code  origi- 


nally  framed  for  the  government  of  the  Par- 
liament of  Great  Britain  in  the  transaction  of 
its  business,  and  subsequently  adopted,  with 
necessary  modifications,  by  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States. 

But  what  was  found  requisite  for  the  regu- 
lation of  public  bodies,  that  order  might  be 
secured  and  the  rights  of  all  be  respected,  has 
been  found  equally  necessary  in  private  soci- 
eties. Indeed!,  no  association  of  men  could 
meet  together  for  the  discussion  of  any  sub- 
ject, with  the  slightest  probability  of  ever 
coming  to  a  conclusion,  unless  its  debates  were 
regulated  by  certain  and  acknowledged  rules. 

The  rules  thus  adopted  for  its  government 
are  called  its  parliamentary  law,  and  they  are 
selected  from  the  parliamentary  law  of  the 
national  assembly,  because  that  code  has  been 
instituted  by  the  wisdom  of  past  ages,  and 
modified  and  perfected  by  the  experience  of 
subsequent  ones,  so  that  it  is  now  universally 
acknowledged  that  there  is  no  better  system 
of  government  for  deliberative  societies  than 
the  code  which  has  so  long  been  in  operation 
under  the  name  of  parliamentary  law. 

Not  only,  then,  is  a  thorough  knowledge 
of  parliamentary  law  necessary  for  the  pre- 
siding officer  of  a  Masonic  body,  if  he  would 
discharge  the  duties  of  the  chair  with  credit 
to  himself  and  comfort  to  the  members,  but 
he  must  be  possessed  of  the  additional  infor- 
mation as  to  what  parts  of  that  law  are  applica- 
ble to  Masonry,  and  what  parts  are  not;  as 
to  where  and  when  he  must  refer  to  it  for  the 
decision  of  a  question,  and  where  and  when  he 
must  lay  it  aside,  and  rely  for  his  government 
upon  the  organic  law  and  the  ancient  usages 
of  the  Institution. 

Parlirer.  In  the  Lodges  of  Stone-Masons 
of  the  Middle  Ages,  there  was  a  rank  or  class 
of  workmen  called  Parlirers,  literally,  spokes- 
men. They  were  an  intermediate  class  of 
officers  between  the  Masters  of  the  Lodges 
and  the  Fellows,  and  were  probably  about  the 
same  as  our  modern  Wardens.  Thus,  in  the 
Strasbourg  Constitutions  of  1459,  it  is  said: 
"No  Craftsman  or  Mason  shall  promote  one 
of  his  apprentices  as  a  parlirer  whom  he  has 
taken  as  an  apprentice  from  his  rough  state, 
or  who  is  still  in  the  years  of  apprenticeship, 
which  may  be  compared  with  the  old  English 
charge  that  "no  Brother  can  be  a  Warden 
until  he  has  passed  the  part  of  a  Fellow- 
Craft."  {Constitutions,  1723,  p.  52.)  They 
were  called  Parlirers,  properly,  says  Held- 
mann,  Parlierers,  or  Spokesmen,  because,  in 
the  absence  of  the  Masters,  they  spoke  for  the 
Lodge,  to  traveling  Fellows  seeking  employ- 
ment, and  made  the  examination.  There  are 
various  forms  of  the  word.  Kloss,  citing  the 
Strasbourg  Constitutions,  has  Parlirer;  Krause 
has,  from  the  same  document,  Parlierer,  but 
says  it  is  usually  Polier;  Heldmann  uses  Par- 
lierer, which  has  been  now  generally  adopted. 

Parole.  A  Mot  de  semestre  (q.  v.),  com- 
municated by  the  Grand  Orient  of  France,  and 
in  addition  an  annual  word  in  November, 
which  tends  to  show  at  once  whether  a  mem- 
ber is  in  good  standing. 


Parrot  Masons.  One  who  commits  to 
memory  the  questions  and  answers  of  the  cate- 
chetical lectures,  and  the  formulas  of  the  rit- 
ual, but  pays  no  attention  to  the  history  and 
philosophy  of  the  Institution,  is  commonly 
called  a  Parrot  Mason,  because  he  is  supposed 
to  repeat  what  he  has  learned  without  any 
conception  of  its  true  meaning.  In  former 
times,  such  superficial  Masons  were  held  by 
many  in  high  repute,  because  of  the  facility 
with  which  they  passed  through  the  ceremo- 
nies of  a  reception,  and  they  were  generally 
designated  as  "Bright  Masons."  But  the 
progress  of  Masonry  as  a  science  now  requires 
something  more  than  a  mere  knowledge  of  the 
lectures  to  constitute  a  Masonic  scholar. 
-  Parsees.  The  descendants  of  the  original 
fire-worshipers  of  Persia,  or  the  disciples  of 
Zoroaster,  who  emigrated  to  India  about  the 
end  of  the  eighth  century.  There  they  now 
constitute  a  body  very  little  short  of  a  million 
of  industrious  and  moral  citizens,  adhering 
with  great  tenacity  to  the  principles  and  prac- 
tises of  their  ancient  religion.  Many  of  the 
higher  classes  have  become  worthy  members 
of  the  Masonic  fraternity,  and  it  was  for  their 
sake  principally  that  Dr.  Burnes  attempted 
some  years  ago  to  institute  his  new  Order,  en- 
titled the  Brotherhood  of  the  Olive-Branch,  as 
a  substitute  for  the  Christian  degrees  of  Knight- 
hood, from  which,  by  reason  of  their  religion, 
they  were  excluded.  (See  Olive-Branch  in  the 
East,  Brotherhood  of  the,  and  Zendavesta.) 

Particular  Lodges.  In  the  Regulations  of 
1721,  it  is  said  that  the  Grand  Lodge  consists 
of  the  representatives  of  all  the  particular 
Lodges  on  record.  (Constitutions,  1723,  p. 
61.)  In  the  modern  Constitutions  of  Eng- 
land, the  term  used  is  private  Lodges.  In 
America,  they  are  called  subordinate  Lodges. 

Parts.  In  the  old  obligations,  which  may 
be  still  used  in  some  portions  of  the  country, 
there  was  a  provision  which  forbade  the  rev- 
elation of  any  of  the  arts,  parts,  or  points  of 
Masonry.  Oliver  explains  the  meaning  of  the 
word  parts  by  telling  us  that  it  was  an  old 
word  for  degrees  or  lectures."    (See  Points.) 

Paryln,  Theodore  S.  Born  January  15, 
1817t  in  Cumberland  County,  New  Jersey. 
His  journey  in  fife  gradually  tending  west- 
ward, he  located  in  Ohio,  and  graduated  in 
1837  at  the  Cincinnati  Law  School.  He  was 
appointed  private  secretary  by  Robert  Lucas, 
first  Governor  of  Iowa,  in  which  state  he  be- 
came Judge  of  the  Probate  Court  and  after- 
ward Curator  and  Librarian  of  the  State 
University  at  Iowa  City.  Bro.  Parvin  was  in- 
itiated in  Nova  Cesarea  Lodge,  No.  2,  Cincin- 
nati, Ohio,  March  14, 1838,  and  raised  the  9th 
of  the  May  following,  and  the  same  year  de- 
mitted_  and  removed  to  Iowa.   He  partici- 

?ated  in  the  organization  of  the  first  Lodge, 
)es  Moines,  No.  1,  and  also  of  the  second, 
Iowa  Lodge,  No.  2,  at  Muscatine.  He  was 
elected  Grand  Secretary  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
at  its  organization  (1844),  and  held  the  office 
continuously  to  the  time  of  his  death,  with  the 
exception  of  the  year  1852-3,  when  he  served 
as  Grand  Master.  He  founded  and  organized 




the  Grand  Lodge  Library  and  held  the  office 
of  Grand  Librarian  until  his  death.  His 
official  signature  is  on  every  charter  of  tne 
Grand  Lodge  of  Iowa  from  1844  to  1900. 

He  was  exalted  in  Iowa  City  Chapter,  JNo.  A 
January  7, 1845,  and  held  the  offices  of  Grand 
High  Priest  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  1854,  and 
Grand  Secretary  of  the  Grand  Chapter,  1855- 
56,  and  represented  the  Grand  Chapter  in 
the  GeneralGrand  Chapter  for  many  years. 

He  was  created  a  Royal  Select  Master  in 
Dubuque  Council,  No.  3.  September  27,  1847, 
and  presided  over  the  Convention  organizing 
the  Grand  Council  of  Iowa,  1857. 

Knighted  January  18,  1855,  in  Apollo  En- 
campment, No.  1,  Chicago,  M;,  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Convention  organizing  the  Grand 
Commandery  of  Iowa,  1864,  being  the  first 
Grand  Commander.  He  waa  Grand  Recorder 
of  the  Grand  Encampment  K.  T.  of  the  U.  o. 
for  fifteen  years,  1871-86. 

In  1859  he  received  the  degrees  of  the  Scot- 
tish Rite  and  was  crowned  in  that  year  an 
Inspector-General,  Thirty-third  Degree. 

In  addition  to  this  record,  our  brother  also 
organized  the  Grand  Bodies  of  Dakota,  and 
the  Grand  Commandery  of  Nebraska,  and  his 
contributions  to  Masonic  literature  placed, 
him  among  the  leading  writers  and  thinkers  of 
the  Craft.  .  ' 

He  died  at  Cedar  Rapids,  Iowa,  June  28, 


Parvis.  In  the  French  system,  the  room 
immediately  preceding  a  Masonic  Lodge  is  so 
called.  It  is  equivalent  to  the  Preparation 
Room  of  the  American  and  English  systems. 

Paschal  Feast.  Celebrated  by  the  Jews 
in  commemoration  of  the  Passover,  by  the 
Christians  in  commemoration  of  the  resur- 
rection of  our  Lord.  The  Paschal  Feast, 
called  also  the  Mystic  Banquet,  is  kept  by  all 
Princes  of  the  Rose  Croix.  Where  two  are 
together  on  Maundy  Thursday,  it  is  of  obli- 
gation that  they  should  partake  of  a  por- 
tion of  roasted  lamb.  This  banquet  is  sym- 
bolic of  the  doctrine  of  the  resurrection. 

Paschalis,  Martinez.  a  The  founder  of 
a  new  Rite  or  modification  of  Masonry, 
called  by  him  the  Bite  of  Elected  Cohens  or 
Priests.  It  was  divided  into  two  classes, 
in  the  first  of  which  was  represented  the 
fall  of  man  from  virtue  and  happiness, 
and  in  the  second,  his  final  restoration. 
It  consisted  of  nine  degrees,  namely:  1. 
Apprentice;  2.  Fellow-Craft;  3.  Master;  4. 
Grand  Elect;  5.  Apprentice  Cohen;  6.  Fel- 
low-Craft Cohen;  7.  Master  Cohen;  8.  Grand 
Architect;  9.  Knight  Commander.  Paschalis 
first  introduced  this  Rite  into  some  of  tne 
Lodges  of  Marseilles,  Toulouse,  and  Bor- 
deaux, and  afterward,  in  1767,  he  extended  it 
to  Paris,  where,  for  a  short  time,  it  was  rather 
popular,  ranking  some  of  the  Parisian  literati 
among  its  disciples.    It  has  now  ceased  to 

through  Turkey.  Arabia,  and  Palestine,  where 
he  made  himself  acquainted  with  the  Kabba- 
listic  learning  of  the  Jews.  He  subsequently 
repaired  to  Paris,  where  he  established  ins 

^Paschalis  was  the  Master  of  St.  Martin,  who 
afterward  reformed  his  Bite.   Af ter  living  f or 
some  years  at  Paris,  he  went  to  St.  Domingo, 
where  he  died  in  1779.  Thory,  in  his  #w- 
loire  de  la  Fondaiion  du  Grand  Orient  de  France 
m.  239-253),  has  given  very  full  details  ot 
im  Rite  and  of  its  receptions. 
Paschal  Lamb.   See  Lamb,  Paschal. 
Pasperdus.   The  French  call  the  room  ap- 
propriated to  visitors  the  Salle  des  pas 
Et  is  the  same  as  the  Tiler's  Room  in  the  Eng- 
'.  ish  and  American  Lodges. 

Passage.  The  Fourth  Degree  of  the  Fess- 
ler  Rite,  of  which  Patria  forms  the  Fifth. 

Passages  of  the  Jordan.  See  Fords  of  the 
Jordan.  .  . 

Passed.  A  candidate,  on  receiving  the 
Second  Degree,  is  said  to  be  "passed  as  a  Fel- 
k>w-Craft.'r  It  alludes  to  his  having  passed 
through  the  porch  to  the  middle  chamber  of 
the  Temple,  the  place  in  which  Fellow-Crafts 
received  their  wages.  In  America  crafted 
is  often  improperly  used  in  its  stead. 

Passing  of  Conyng.  That  is,  surpassing 
in  skill.  The  expression  occurs  m  the  Cooke 
MS.  (line  676),  "The  forsayde  Maister  Euglet 
ordeynet  thei  were  passing  of  conyne  scbold 
be  passing  honoured";  i.  e.,  The  aforesaid 
Master,  Euclid,  ordained  that  they  .that  were 
surpassing  in  skill  should  be  exceedingly  hon- 
ored. It  is  a  fundamental  principle  of  Ma- 
sonry to  pay  all  honor  to  knowledge.  .  ■ 

"Passing  the  RlTer."  A  mystical  alpha- 
bet said  to  have  been  used  by  the  Kabbalists. 
These  characters,  with  certain  explanations, 
become  the  subject  of  consideration  with 
brethren  of  the  Fifteenth  Degree,  A.  A.  Scot- 
tish Rite.  The  following  are  the  characters: 

Paschalis  was  a  German,  born  about  the 
year  1700,  of  poor  but  respectable  parentage. 
At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  acquired  a  knowledge 
of  Greek  and  Latin.   He  then  traveled 

3  rfilT^iK^Z 
1  J3<X€V£  AFX  / 


Password.  A  word  intended,  like  the  mil- 
itary countersign,  to  prove  the  friendly,  nature 
of  him  who  gives  it,  and  is  a  test  of  his  right  to 
pass  or  be  admitted  into  a  certain  place.  Be- 
tween a  Word  and  a  Password  there  seems  to 
be  this  difference:  the  former  is  given  for  in- 
struction, as  it  always  contains  a  symbolic 
meaning;  the  latter,  for  recognition  only. 
Thus,  the  author  of  the  life  of  the  celebrated 
Elias  Ashmole  says,  "Freemasons  are  known 
to  one  another  aft  over  the  world  by  certain 
passwords  known  to  them  alone;  they  nave 
Lodges  in  different  countries,  where  they  are 
relieved  by  the  brotherhood  if  they  are  in  dis- 
tress."   (See  Sign.) 




Past.  An  epithet  applied  in  Masonry  to 
an  officer  who  has  held  an  office  for  the  pre- 
scribed period  for  which  he  was  elected,  and 
has  then  retired.  Thus,  a  Past  Master  is  one 
who  has  presided  for  twelve  months  over  a 
ixKlge,  and  the  Past  High  Priest  one  who,  for 
the  same  period,  has  presided  over  a  Chapter. 
I  he  French  use  the  word  passi  in  the  same 
sense,  but  they  have  also  the  word  aneien, 
with  a  similar  meaning.  Thus,  while  they 
would  employ  Mattre  pass6  to  designate  the 
degree  of  Past  Master,  they  would  call  the  offi- 
cial Past  Master,  who  had  retired  from  the 
Chan-  at  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  service, 
an  Ancien  Ven&rahle,  or  Ancien  Mattre. 

Past  Master.  An  honorary  degree  con 
f  erred  on  the  Master  of  a  Lodge  at  his  installa- 
tion into  office.  In  this  degree  the  necessary 
instructions  are  conferred  respecting  the  vari- 
ous ceremonies  of  the  Order,  such  as  installa- 
tions, processions,  the  laying  of  corner-stones, 
etc.  ' 

When  a  brother,  who  has  never  before  pre- 
sided, has  been  elected  the  Master  of  a  Lodge, 
an  emergent  Lodge  of  Past  Masters,  consisting 
of  not  less  than  three,  is  convened,  and  all  but 
Past  Masters  retiring,  the  degree  is  conferred 
upon  the  newly  elected  officer. 

Some  form  of  ceremony  at  the  installation 
of  a  new  Master  seems  to  have  been  adopted 
at  an  early  period  after  the  revival.  In  the 
manner  of  constituting  a  new  Lodge,"  as 
practised  by  the  Duke  of  Wharton,  who  was 
Grand  Master  in  1723,  the  language  used  by 
toe  Grand  Master  when  placing  the  candidate 
m  toe  chair  is  given,  and  he  is  said  to  use 
some  other  expressions  that  are  proper  and 
usual  on  that  occasion,  but  not  proper  to, 
be  written."  (Constitutions,  1738,  p.  150) 
Whence  we  conclude  that  there  was  an  eso- 
teric ceremony.  Often  the  rituals  tell  us  that 
this  ceremony  consisted  only  in  the  outgoing 
Master  communicating  certain  modes  of  rec- 
ognition to  his  successor.   And  this  actually 

*«Vf>Tl  at.  thia  Aavr    „™„+;*,.*  4.1  !•  i  ••" 

even  at  this  day,  constitutes  the  essential  in- 
gredient of  the  Past  Master's  Degree. 
™.      de^ree  k  also  conferred  in  Royal  Arch 
Chapters,  where  it  succeeds  the  Mark  Mas- 
ter sDegree.    The  conferring  of  this  degree 
which  has  no  historical  connection  with  the 
rest  of  the  degrees,  in  a  Chapter,  arises  from 
the  following  circumstance:  Originally,  when 
Chapters  of  Royal  Arch  Masonry  were  under 
the  government  of  Lodges  in  which  the  degree 
was  then  always  conferred,  it  was  a  part  of  the 
regulations  that  no  one  could  receive  the 
Royal  Arch  Degree  unless  he  had  previously 
presided  m  the  Lodge  as  Master.  ^VVhen  the 
Chapters  became  independent,  the  regulation 
could  not  be  abolished,  for  that  would  have 
been  an  innovation;  the  difficulty  has,  there 
fore,  been  obviated,  by  making  every  candi- 

? \}he  degree  of  Roval  Arch  a  Past 
Virtual  Master  before  his  exaltation. 

lUnder  the  English  Constitution  this  prac- 
tise was  forbidden  in  1826,  but  seems  to  have 
lingered  on  in  some  parts  until  1850  ] 

Some  extraneous  ceremonies,  by  no  means 
creditable  to  then-  inventor,  were  at  an  early 

period  introduced  into  America.   In  1856,  the 
General  Grand  Chapter,  by  a  unanimous  vote, 
ordered  these  ceremonies  to  be  discontinued, 
and  the  simpler  mode  of  investiture  to  be  used; 
but  the  order  has  only  been  partially  obeyed, 
and  many  Chapters  still  continue  what  one 
can  scarcely  help  calling  the  indecorous  form 
of  initiation  into  the  degree. 
For  several  years  past  the  question  has  been 
itated  m  some  of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  the 
Jmted  States,  whether  this  degree  is  within 
the  jurisdiction  of  Symbolic  or  of  Royal  Arch 
Masonry.   The  explanation  of  its  introduc- 
tion into  Chapters,  just  given,  manifestly  dem- 
onstrates that  the  j'urisdiction  over  it  by 
Chapters  is  altogether  an  assumed  one.  The 
Past  Master  of  a  Chapter  is  only  a  quasi  Past 
Master;  the  true  and  legitimate  Past  Master 
L^ge  °ne  presided  over  a  Symbolic 

.  Pas*  Masters  are  admitted  to  membership 
in  many  Grand  Lodges,  and  by  some  the  in- 
herent right  has  been  claimed  to  sit  in  those 
bodies.  But  the  most  eminent  Masonic  au- 
thorities have  made  a  contrary  decision,  and 
the  general,  and,  indeed,  almost  universal  opin- 
ion now  is  that  Past  Masters  obtain  their 
seats  m  Grand  Lodges  by  courtesy,  and  in  con- 
sequence of  local  regulations,  and  not  by  in- 
herent right. 

The  jewel  of  a  Past  Master  in  the  United 
btates  is  a  pair  of  compasses  extended  to  sixty 
degrees  on  the  fourth  part  of  a  circle,  with  a  sun 
m  the  center.  In  England  it  was  formerly  the 
square  on  a  quadrant,  but  is  at  present  the 
square  with  the  forty-seventh  problem  of  Eu- 
clid engraved  on  a  silver  plate  suspended 
within  it. 

The  French  have  two  titles  to  express  this 
degree.  They  apply  Mattre  passe  to  the  Past 
Master  of  the  English  and  American  system, 
and  they  call  in  their  own  system  one  who  has 
formerly  presided  over  a  Lodge  an  Ancien 
Mattre.  The  mdiscriminate  use  of  these  titles 
sometimes  leads  to  confusion  in  the  transla- 
tion of  then-  rituals  and  treatises. 

Pastophori.  Couch  or  shrine  bearers, 
rhe  company  of  Pastophori  constituted  a  sa- 
cred college  of  priests  in  Egypt,  whose  duty  it 
was  to  carry  in  processions  the  image  of  the 
god.  Then-  chief,  according  to  Apuleius  (Met 
xi.),  was  called  a  Scribe.  Besides  acting  as 
mendicants  m  soliciting  charitable  donations 
irom  the  populace,  they  took  an  important 
part  in  the  mysteries. 

Pastos.  (Greek,  Taares,  a  couch.)  The 
pastos  was  a  chest  or  close  cell,  in  the  Pagan 
mysteries  (among  the  Druids,  an  excavated 
stone) ,  in  which  the  aspirant  was  for  some  time 
Placed,  to  commemorate  the  mystical  death  of 
the  god.  This  constituted  the  symbolic  death 
which  was  common  to  all  the  mysteries.  In 
the  Arkite  rites,  the  pastos  represented  the  ark 
in  which  Noah  was  confined.  It  is  repre- 
sented among  Masonic  symbols  by  the  coffin. 
,  .Patents.  Diplomas  or  certificates  of  the 
higher  degrees  in  the  Scottish  Rite  are  called 
patents.  The  term  is  also  sometimes  applied 
to  commissions  granted  for  the  exercise  of  high. 


Masonic  authority.  Literal  patentee  or  aperta, 
that  is,  letters  -patent  or  open  letters,  was  a 
term  used  in  the  Middle  Ages  in  contradis- 
tinction to  literal  clauses,  or  closed  letters,  to 
designate  those  documents  which  were  spread 
out  on  the  whole  length  of  the  parchment,  and 
sealed  with  the  public  seal  of  the  sovereign; 
while  the  secret  or  private  seal  only  was  at- 
tached to  the  closed  patents.  The  former 
were  sealed  with  green  wax,  the  latter  with 
white.  There  was  also  a  difference  in  then- 
heading;  letters  patent  were  directed  "um- 
versis  turn  prsesentibus  quam  futuris,"  i.  e.,  to 
all  present  or  to  come;  while  closed  letters  were 
directed  "universis  praesentibus  literas  in- 
spections," i.  e.,  to  all  present  who  shall  inspect 
these  letters.  Masonic  diplomas  are  therefore 
properly  called  letters  patent,  or,  more  briefly, 

Patience.  In  the  ritual  of  the  Third  De- 
gree according  to  tile  American  Rite,  it  is  said 
that  "time,  patience,  and  perseverance  will 
enable  us  to  accomplish  all  things,  and  perhaps 
at  last  to  find  the  true  Master's  Word?'  The 



idea  is  similar  to  one  expressed  by  the  Her 
metic  philosophers.  Thus  Pernetty  tells  us 
(Diet.  Mythol.  Herm.)  that  the  alchemists 
said:  "The  work  of  the  philosopher's  stone  is 
a  work  of  patience,  on  account  of  the  length  of 
time  and  of  labor  that  is  required  to  conduct  it 
to  perfection;  and  Geber  says  that  many 
adepts  have  abandoned  it  in  weariness,  and 
others,  wishing  to  precipitate  it,  have  never 
succeeded."  With  the  alchemists,  in  then- 
esoteric  teaching,  the  philosopher's  stone  had 
the  same  symbolism  as  the  WORD  has  in 

Patriarchal  Masonry.  The  theory  of 
Dr.  Oliver  on  this  subject  has,  we  think,  Deen 
misinterpreted.  He  does  not  maintain,  as  has 
been  falsely  supposed,  that  the  Freemasonry 
of  the  present  day  is  but  a  continuation  of  that 
which  was  practised  by  the  patriarchs,  but 
simply  that,  in  the  simplicity  of  the  patri- 
archal worship,  unencumbered  as  it  was  witii 
dogmatic  creeds,  we  may  find  the  true  model 
after  which  the  religious  system  of  Specula- 
tive Masonry  has  been  constructed.  Thus  he 
says:  "Nor  does  it  (Freemasonry)  exclude  a 
survey  of  the  patriarchal  mode  of  devotion, 
which  indeed  forms  the  primitive  model  of 
Freemasonry.  The  events  that  occurred  in 
these  ages  of  simplicity  of  manners  and  purity 
of  faith,  when  it  pleased  God  to  communicate 
with  his  favoured  creature,  necessarily,  there- 
fore, form  subjects  of  interesting  illustration 
in  our  Lodges,  and  constitute  legitimate  topics 
on  which  the  Master  in  the  chair  may  expati- 
ate and  exemplify,  for  the  edification  of  the 
brethren  and  their  improvement  in  morality 
and  the  love  and  fear  of  God."  (Hist.Landm.) 
i.,  207.)  There  is  here  no  attempt  to  trace  an 
historical  connection,  but  simply  to  claim  an 
identity  of  purpose  and  character  in  the  two 
religious  systems,  the  Patriarchal  and  the 
Masonic.  .    „,    „      ,.  .  _ 

Patriarch,  Grand.  The  Twentieth  De- 
gree of  the  Council  of  Emperors  of  the  East 
and  West.   The  same  as  the  Twentieth  De- 

gree, or  Noachite,  of  the  Ancient  and  Ac- 
cepted Rite.  , 

Patriarch  of  the  Crusades.  One  of  the 
names  formerly  given  to  the  degree  of  Grand 
Scottish  Knight  of  St.  Andrew,  the  Twenty- 
ninth  of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish 
Rite.  The  legend  of  that  degree  connects  it 
with  the  Crusades,  and  hence  the  name; 
which,  however,  is  never  used  officially,  and  is 
retained  by  regular  Supreme  Councils  only  as 
a  synonym.  - 

Patriarch  of  the  Grand  Luminary.  A 
degree  contained  in  the  nomenclature  of  Le 

^Patron.  In  the  year  1812,  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  becoming  Regent  of  the  kingdom,  was 
constrained  by  reasons  of  state  to  resign  the 
Grand  Mastership  of  England,  but  immedi- 
ately afterward  accepted  the  title  of  Grand 
Patron  of  the  Order  in  England,  and  this  was 
the  first  time  that  the  title  was  officially  rec- 
ognized. George  IV.  held  it  during  his  life, 
and  on  his  death,  William  IV.,  in  1830,  offi- 
cially accepted  the  title  of  "Patron  of  the 
United  Grand  Lodge."  On  the  accession  of 
Victoria,  the  title  fell  into  abeyance,  because 
it  was  understood  that  it  could  only  be  as- 
sumed by  a  sovereign  who  was  a  member  of 
the  Craft,  but  King  Edward  VII.  became 
"Protector  of  English  Freemasons"  on  his 
accession  to  the  throne  in  1901.  The  office  is 
not  known  in  other  countries. 

Patrons  of  Masonry.  St.  John  the  Bap- 
tist and  St.  John  the  Evangelist.  At  an  early 
period  we  find  that  the  Christian  church 
adopted  the  usage  of  selecting  for  every  trade 
and  occupation  its  own  patron  saint,  who  is 
supposed  to  have  taken  it  under  his  especial 
charge.  And  the  selection  was  generally 
made  in  reference  to  some  circumstance  in 
the  life  of  the  saint,  which  traditionally  con- 
nected him  with  the  profession  of  which  he  was 
appointed  the  patron.  Thus  St.  Crispin,  be- 
cause he  was  a  shoemaker,  is  the  patron  saint 
of  the  "gentle  craft,"  and  St.  Dunstan,  who 
was  a  blacksmith,  is  the  patron  of  black- 
smiths. The  reason  why  the  two  Saints  John 
were  selected  as  the  patron  saints  of  Free- 
masonry will  be  seen  under  the  head  of  Dedir 
caiion  of  Lodges. 

Paul,  Confraternity  of  Saint.  In  the 
time  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V.  there  was  a 
secret  community  at  Trapani,  in  Sicily,  which 
called  itself  La  Confratemita  di  San  Paolo. 
These  people,  when  assembled,  passed  sen- 
tence on  their  fellow-citizens;  and  if  anyone 
was  condemned,  the  waylaying  and  putting 
him  to  death  was  allotted  to  one  of  the  mem- 
bers, which  office  he  was  obliged,  without 
murmuring,  to  execute.  (Stolberg's  Travels, 
vol.  iii.,  p.  472.)  In  the  travels  of  Brocquire 
to  and  from  Palestine  in  1432  (p.  328),  an 
instance  is  given  of  the  power  of  the  associa- 
tion over  its  members.  In  the  German 
romance  of  Hermann  of  Unna,  of  which  there 
are  an  English  and  French  translation,  this 
tribunal  plays  an  important  part. 

Paul  I.  This  emperor  of  Russia  was 
induced  by  the  machinations  of  the  Jesuits, 


whom  he  had  recalled  from  banishment,  to 
prohibit  in  his  domains  all  secret  societies, 
and  especially  the  Freemasons.  This  prohibi- 
tion lasted  from  1797  to  1803,  when  it  was 
repealed  by  his  successor.  Paul  had  always 
expressed  himself  an  enthusiastic  admirer  of 
the  Knights  of  Malta;  in  1797  he  had  assumed 
the  title  of  Protector  of  the  Order,  and  in  1798 
accepted  the  Grand  Mastership.  This  is 
another  evidence,  if  one  was  needed,  that 
there  was  no  sympathy  between  the  Order 
of  Malta  and  the  Freemasons. 

Pavement,  Mosaic.  See  Mosaic  Pave- 

Pax  Voblscum.  ("Peace  be  with  you!") 
Used  m  the  Eighteenth  Degree,  A  .A.  Scottish 
Rite.  ■  ,  • 

Payens,  Hugh  de.  In  Latin,  Hugo  de 
Pagams.  The  founder  and  the  first  Grand 
Master  of  the  Order  of  Knights  Templar. 
He  was  born  at  Troyes,  in  the  kingdom  of 
Naples.  Having,  with  eight  others,  estab- 
lished the  Order  at  Jerusalem,  in  1118  he 
visited  Europe,  where,  through  his  represen- 
tations, its  reputation  and  wealth  and  the 
number  of  its  followers  were  greatly  increased. 
In  1129  he  returned  to  .Jerusalem,  where 
he  was  received  with  great  distinction,  but 
shortly  afterward  died,  and  was  succeeded 
in  the  Grand  Mastership  by  Robert  de  Craon, 
surnamed  the  Burgundian. 

P.  D.  E.  P.  Letters  placed  on  the  ring 
pf  profession  of  the  Order  of  the  Temple, 
being  the  initials  of  the  Latin  sentence,  Pro 
Deo  et  Patria,  i.  e.,  For  God  and  my  country. 

Peace.  The  spirit  of  Freemasonry  is  an- 
tagonistic to  war.  Its  tendency  is  to  unite 
all  men  in  one  brotherhood,  whose  ties  must 
necessarily  be  weakened  by  all  dissension. 
Hence,  as  Bro.  Albert  Pike  says,  "Masonry 
is  the  great  peace  society  of  the  world.  Wher- 
ever it  exists,  it  struggles  to  prevent  inter- 
national difficulties  and  disputes,  and -to  bind 
republics,  kingdoms,  and  empires  together  in 
one  great  band  of  peace  and  amity." 

Pectoral.  Belonging  to  the  breast;  from 
the  Latin  pectus,  the  breast.  The  heart  has 
always  been  considered  the  seat  of  fortitude 
and  courage,  and  hence  by  this  word  is  sug- 
gested to  the  Mason  certain  symbolic  instruc- 
tions in  relation  to  the  virtue  of  fortitude. 
In  the  earliest  lectures  of  the  last  century 
it  was  called  one  of  the  "principal  signs," 
and  had  this  hieroglyphic,  X;  but  in  the 
modem  rituals  the  hieroglyphic  has  become 
obsolete,  and  the  word  is  appropriated  to  one 
of  the  perfect  points  of  entrance. 

Pectoral  of  the  High  Priest.  The 
breastplate  worn  by  the  high  priest  of  the 
Jews  was  so  called  from  -pectus,  the  breast, 
upon  which  it  rested.    (See  Breastplate.) 

Pedal.  Belonging  to  the  feet,  from  the 
Latin  pedes,  the  feet.  The  just  man  is  he 
who,  firmly  planting  his  feet  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  right,  is  as  immovable  as  a  rock, 
and  can  be  thrust  from  his  upright  position 
neither  by  the  allurements  of  flattery,  nor 
the  frowns  of  arbitrary  power.  And  hence 
by  this  word  is  suggested  to  the  Mason 


certain  symbolic  instructions  in  relation 
tp  the  virtue  of  justice.  Like  "Pectoral," 
this  word  was  assigned,  in  the  oldest  rituals, 
to  the  principal  signs  of  a  Mason,  having  < 
for  its  hieroglyphic;  but  in  the  modern  lectures 
it  is  one  of  the  perfect  points  of  entrance, 
and  the  hieroglyphic  is  no  longer  used. 

Pedestal.  The  pedestal  is  the  lowest  part 
or  base  of  a  column  on  which  the  shaft  is 

§ laced.  In  a  Lodge,  there  are  supposed  to 
_  e  three  columns,  the  column  of  Wisdom 
in  the  east,  the  column  of  Strength  in  the 
west,  and  the  column  of  Beauty  in  the  south. 
These  columns  are  not  generally  erected  in 
the  Lodge,  but  their  pedestals  always  are, 
and  at  each  pedestal  sits  one  of  the  three 
superior  officers  of  the  Lodge.  Hence  we 
often  hear  such  expressions  as  these,  advancing 
to  the  pedestal,  or  standing  before  me  pedestal, 
to  signify  advancing  to  or  standing  before  the 
seat  of  the  Worshipful  Master.  The  custom 
in  some  Lodges  of  placing  tables  or  desks 
before  the  three  principal  officers  is,  of  course, 
incorrect.  They  should,  for  the  reason  above 
assigned,  be  representations  of  the  pedestals 
of  columns,  ana  should  be  painted  to  represent 
marble  or  stone. 

Pedum.  Literally,  a  shepherd's  crook, 
and  hence  sometimes  used  in  ecclesiology  for 
the  bishop's  crozier.  In  the  statutes  of  the 
Order  of  the  Temple  at  Paris,  it  is  prescribed 
that  the  Grand  Master  shall  carry  a  "pedum 
magistrate  seu  patriarchale."  But  the  better 
word  for  the  staff  of  the  Grand  Master  of 
the  Templars  is  bacvlus,  which  see. 

Peetash.  The  demon  of  calumny  in  the 
religious  system  of  Zoroaster,  Persia. 

Pelasgian  Religion.  The  Pelasgians  were 
the  oldest,  if  not  the  aboriginal,  inhabitants 
of  Greece.  Their  religion  differed  from  that 
of  the  Hellenes,  who  succeeded  them,  in  being 
less  poetical,  less  mythical,  and  more  abstract. 
We  know  little  of  their  religious  worship 
except  by  conjecture;  but  we  may  suppose 
it  resembled  in  some  respects  the  doctrines 
of  what  Dr.  Oliver  calls  the  Primitive  Free- 
masonry. Creuzer  thinks  that  the  Pelas- 
gians were  either  a  nation  of  priests  or  a  nation 
ruled  by  priests. 

Peleg.  ibt,  Division.  A  son  of  Eber. 
In  his  day  the  world  was  divided.  A  sig- 
nificant word  in  the  high  degrees.  In  the 
Noachite,  or  Twentieth  Degree  of  the  Scot- 
tish Rite,  there  is  a  singular  legend  of  Peleg, 
which  of  course  is  altogether  mythical,  in 
which  he  is  represented  as  the  architect  of 
the  Tower  of  Babel. 

Pelican.  The  pelican  feeding  her  young 
with  her  blood  is  a  prominent  symbol  of  the 
Eighteenth  or  Rose  Croix  Degree  of  the 
Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite,  and  was 
adopted  as  such  from  the  fact  that  the 
pelican,  in  ancient  Christian  art,  was  con- 
sidered as  an  emblem  of  the  Savior.  Now 
this  symbolism  of  the  pelican,  as  a  represen- 
tative of  the  Savior,  is  almost  universally 
supposed  to  be  derived  from  the  common 
belief  that  the  pelican  feeds  her  young  with 
her  blood,  as  the  Savior  shed  his  blood  for 


mankind;  and  hence  the  bird  is  always  repre- 
sented as  sitting  on  her  nest,  and  surrounded 
by  her  brood  of  young  ones,  who  are  dipping 
their  bills  into  a  wound  in  their  mother's 
breast.  But  this  is  not  the  exact  idea  of 
the  symbolism,  which  really  refers  to  the  resur- 
rection, and  is,  in  this  point  of  view,  more 
applicable  to  our  Lord,  as  well  as  to  the 
Masonic  degree  of  which  the  resurrection  is 
a  doctrine. 

In  an  ancient  Bestiarium,  or  Natural 
History,  in  the  Royal  Library  at  Brussels, 
cited  by  Larwood  and  Botten  in  a  recent 
work  on  The  History  of  Sign-Boards,  this 
statement  is  made:  "The  rieliean  is  very 
fond  of  his  young  ones,  and  when  they  are 
born  and  begin  to  grow,  they  rebel  in  their 
nest  against  then*  parent,  and  strike  him 
with  their  wings, '  flying  about  him,  and 
beat  him  so  much  tul  they  wound  him  in 
his  eyes.  Then  the  father  strikes  and  kills 
them.  And  the  mother  is  of  such  a  nature 
that  she  comes  back  to  the  nest  on  the  third 
day,  and  sits  down  upon  her  dead  young 
ones,  and  opens  her  side  with  her  bill  and 
pours  her  blood  over  them,  and  so  resusci- 
tates them  from  death;  for  the  young  ones, 
by  their  instinct,  receive  the  blood  as  soon 
as  it  comes  out  of  the  mother,  and  drink  it." 

The  Ortus  Vocabulorum,  compiled  early  in 
the  fifteenth  century,  gives  the  fable  more 
briefly:  "It  is  said,  if  it  be  true,  that  the 
pelican  kills  its  young,  and  grieves  for  them 
for  three  days.  Then  she  wounds  herself, 
and  with  the  aspersione  of  her  blood  resusci- 
tates her  children."  And  the  writer  cites, 
in  explanation,  the  verses 

"Ut  pelicanu.  fit  matris  sanguine  sanus, 
Sio  Sancti  sumus  nos  omnea  sanguine  nati." 

i.  e.,  "As  the  Pelican  is  restored  by  the  blood 
of  its  mother,  so  are  we  all  born  by  the  blood  of 
the  Holy  One,"  that  is,  of  Christ. 

St.  Jerome  gives  the  same  story,  as  an 
illustration  of  the  destruction  of  man  by  the 
old  serpent,  and  his  salvation  by  the  blood 
of  Christ.  And  Shelton,  in  an  old  work  en- 
titled the  Armorie  of  Birds,  expresses  the  same 
sentiment  in  the  following  words: 

"Then  said  the  pelican, 
When  my  birds  be  slain, 
With  my  blood  I  them  revive; 
Scripture  doth  record 
The  same  did  our  Lord, 
And  rose  from  death  to  life." 

This  romantic  story  was  religiously  believed 
as  a  fact  of  natural  history  in  the  earliest 
ages  of  the  church.  Hence  the  pelican  was 
very  naturally  adopted  as  a  symbol  of  the 
resurrection  and,  by  consequence,  of  him  whose 
resurrection  is,  as  Cruden  terms  it,  "the  cause, 
pattern,  and  argument  of  ours." 

But  in  the  course  of  time  the  original 
legend  was,  to  some  extent,  corrupted,  and 
a  simpler  one  was  adopted,  namely,  that 
the  pelican  fed  her  young  with  her  own 
blood  merely  as  a  means  of  sustenance,  and 
the  act  of  maternal  love  was  then  referred 


to  Christ  as  shedding  bis  blood  for  the  sins 
of  the  world.  In  fins  view  of  the  symbol- 
ism, Pugin  has  said  that  the  pelican  is  "an 
emblem  of  our  Blessed  Lord  shedding  his 
blood  for  mankind,  and  therefore  a  most 
appropriate  symbol  to  be  introduced  on  all 
vessels  or  ornaments  connected  with  the 
Blessed  Sacrament."  And  in  the  Antiqui- 
ties of  Durham  Abbey,  we  learn  that  "over 
the  high  altar  of  Durham  Abbey  hung  a 
rich  and  most  sumptuous  canopy  for  the 
Blessed  Sacrament  to  hang  within  it,  whereon 
stood  a  pelican,  all  of  silver,  upon  the  height 
of  the  said  canopy,  very  finely  gilt,  giving 
her  blood  to  her  young  ones,  m  token  that 
Christ  gave  his  blood  for  the  sins  of  the 
world."  ,  , 

But  I  think  the  true  theory  of  the  peli- 
can is,  that  by  restoring  her  young  ones  to 
hfe  by  her  blood,  she  symbolizes  the  resur- 
rection. The  old  symbologists  said,  after 
Jerome,  that  the  male  pelican,  who  de- 
stroyed his  young,  represents  the  serpent,  or 
evil  principle,  which  brought  death  into 
the  world;  while  the  mother,  who  resuscitates 
them,  is  the  representative  of  that  Son  of 
Man  of  whom  it  is  declared,  "except  ye 
drink  of  his  blood,  ye  have  no  life  in  you." 

And  hence  the  pelican  is  very  appropriately 
assumed  as  a  symbol  in  Masonry,  whose  great 
object  is  to  teach  by  symbolism  the  doctrine 
of  the  resurrection,  and  especially  in  that 
sublime  degree  of  the  Scottish  Bite  wherein, 
the  old  Temple  being  destroyed  and  the  old 
Word  beink  lost,  a  new  temple  and  a  new  word 
spring  forth — all  of  which  is  but  the  great 
allegory  of  the  destruction  by  death  and  the 
resurrection  to  eternal  life. 

Pellegrini,  Marquis  of.  One  of  the 
pseudonyms  assumed  by  Joseph  Balsamo, 
better  known  as  Count  Cagliostro  (o.  «■)• 

Penal  Sign.  That  which  refers  to  a 
penalty.  ' 

Penalty.  The  adversaries  of  Freemasonry 
have  found,  or  rather  invented,  abundant 
reasons  for  denouncing  the  Institution;  but 
on  nothing  have  they  more  strenuously  and 
fondly  lingered  than  on  the  accusation 
that  it  makes,  by  horrid  and  impious  cere- 
monies, all  its  members  the  willing  or  unwilling 
executioners  of  those  who  prove  recreant  to 
their  vows  and  violate  the  laws  which  they 
are  stringently  bound  to  observe.  Even  a 
few  timid  and  uninstructed  Masons  have  been 
found  who  were  disposed  to  believe  that  there 
was  some  Weight  in  this  objection.  The  fate 
of  Morgan,  apocryphal  as  it  undoubtedly  was, 
has  been  quoted  as  an  instance  of  Masonic 
punishment  inflicted  by  the  regulations  of 
the  Order;  and,  notwithstanding  the  solemn 
asseverations  of  the  most  intelligent  Masons 
to  the  contrary,  men  have  been  found,  and 
still  are  to  be  found,  who  seriously  entertain 
the  opinion  that  every  member  of  the  Fra- 
ternity becomes,  by  the  ceremonies  of  nis 
initiation  and  by  the  nature  of  the  vows 
which  he  has  taken,  an  active  Nemesis  of 
the  Order,  bound  by  some  unholy  promise 
to  avenge  the  Institution  upon  any  treach- 


erous  or  unfaithful  brother.  All  of  this  arises 
from  a  total  misapprehension,  in  the  minds 
of  those  who  are  thus  led  astray,  of  the  true 
character  and  design  of  vows  or  oaths  which 
are  accompanied  by  an  imprecation.  It  is 
well,  therefore,  for  the  information  both  of 
our  adversaries — who  may  thus  be  deprived 
of  any  further  excuse  for  slander,  and  of  our 
friends — who  will  be  relieved  of  any  continued 
burden  on  their  consciences,  that  we  should 
show  that,  however  solemn  may  be  the  prom- 
ises of  secrecy,  of  obedience,  and  of  charity 
which  are  required  from  our  initiates,  and 
however  they  may  be  guarded  by  the  sanc- 
tions of  punishment  upon  their  offenders, 
they  never  were  intended  to  impose  upon 
any  brother  the  painful  and — so  far  as  the 
laws  of  the  country  are  concerned — the 
illegal  task  of  vindicating  the  outrage  com- 
mitted by  the  violator.  The  only  Masonic 
penalty  inflicted  by  the  Order  upon  a  traitor, 
is  the  scorn  and  detestation  of  the  Craft 
whom  he  has  sought  to  betray. 

But  that  this  subject  may  be  thoroughly 
understood,  it  is  necessary  that  some  consid- 
eration should  be  given  to  oaths  generally, 
and  to  the  character  of  the  imprecations 
by  which  they  are  accompanied. 

The  obsecration,  or  imprecation,  is  that 
part  of  every  oath  which  constitutes  its 
sanction,  and  which  consists  in  calling 
some  superior  power  to  witness  the  declara- 
tion or  promise  made,  and  invoking  his 
protection  for  or  anger  against  the  person 
making  it,  according  as  the  said  declaration 
or  promise  is  observed  or  violated.  This 
obsecration  has,  from  the  earliest  times, 
constituted  a  part  of  the  oath — and  an  im- 
portant part,  too — among  every  people, 
varying,  of  course,  according  to  the  varie- 
ties of  religious  beliefs  and  modes  of  adora- 
tion. Thus,  among  the  Jews,  we  find  such 
obsecrations  as  these:  Co  yagnasheh  li  Elo- 
him,  "So  may  God  do  to  me."  A  very 
common  obsecration  among  the  Greeks  was, 
isto  Zeus  or  them  martwromai,  "May  Jove 
stand  by  me,"  or  "I  call  God  to  witness." 
And  the  Romans,  among  an  abundance  of 
other  obsecrations,  often  said,  dii  me  perdant, 
"May  the  gods  destroy  me,"  or  ne  vivam, 
"May  I  die"' 

These  modes  of  obsecration  were  accom- 
panied, to  make  them  more  solemn  and  sacred, 
by  certain  symbolic  forms.  Thus  the  Jews 
caused  the.  person  who  swore  to  hold  up 
his  right  hand  toward  heaven,  by  which 
action  he  was  supposed  to  signify  that  he 
appealed  to  God  to  witness  the  truth  of 
what  he  had  averred  or  the  sincerity  of  his 
intention  to  fulfil  the  promise  that  he  had 
made.  So  Abraham  said  to  the  King  of 
Sodom,  "I  have  lift  up  my  hand  unto  the 
Lord,  ...  that  I  will  not  take  anything 
that  is  thine."  Sometimes,  in  taking  an 
oath  of  fealty,  the  inferior  placed  his  hand 
under  the  thigh  of  his  lord,  as  in  the  case 
of  Eliezer  and  Abraham,  related  in  the  24th 
chapter  of  Genesis.  Among  the  Greeks 
and  RomanSj  the  person  swearing  placed  his 


hands,  or  sometimes  only  the  right  hand, 
upon  the  altar,  or  upon  the  victims  when, 
as  was  not  unusual,  the  oath  was  accompanied 
by  a  sacrifice,  or  upon  some  other  sabred  thing. 
In  the  military  oath,  for  instance,  the  soldiers 
placed  their  hands  upon  the  signa,  or  stand- 
ards, x 

The  obsecration,  with  an  accompanying 
form  of  solemnity,  was  indeed  essential  to 
the  oath  among  the  ancients,  because  the 
crime  of  perjury  was  not  generally  looked 
upon  by  them  in  the  same  light  in  which  it  is 
viewed  by  the  moderns.  It  was,  it  is  true, 
considered  as. a  heinous  crime,  but  a  crime 
not  so  much  against  society  as  against  the  gods, 
and.its  punishment  was  supposed  to  be  left  to 
the  deity  whose  sanctity  had  been  violated 
by  the  adjuration  of  his  name  to  a  false  oath 
or  broken  vow.  Hence,  Cicero  says  that 
"death  was  the  divine  punishment  of  perjury, 
but  only  dishonor  was  its  human  penalty." 
And  therefore  the  cringe  of  giving  false  testi- 
mony under  oath  was  not  punished  in  any 
higher  degree  than  it  would  have  been  had  it 
been  given  without  the  solemnity  of  an  oath. 
Swearing  was  entirely  a  matter  of  con- 
science, and  the  person  who  was  guilty  of 
false  swearing,  where  his  testimony  did  not 
affect  the  rights  or  interests  of  others,  was 
considered  as  responsible  to  the  deity  alone 
for  his  perjury. 

The  explicit  invocation  of  God  as  a  witness 
to  the  truth  of  the  thing  said,  or,  in  promis- 
sory oaths,  to  the  faithful  observance  of  the 
act promised,  the  obsecration  of  Divine 
punishment  upon  the  jurator  if  what  he  swore 
x>  be  true  should  prove  to  be  false,  or  if  the 
vow  made  should  be  thereafter  violated,  and 
the  solemn  form  of  lifting  up  the  hand  to 
heaven  or  placing  it  upon  the  altar  or  the 
sacred  victims,  must  necessarily  have  given 
confidence  to  the  truth  of  the  attestation, 
and  must  have  been  required  by  the  hearers 
as  some  sort  of  safeguard  or  security  for  the 
confidence  they  were  called  upon  to  exercise. 
This  seems  to  have  been  the  true  reason  for 
the  ancient  practise  of  solemn  obsecration 
in  the  administration  of  oaths. 

Among  modern  nations,  the  practise  has 
been  continued,  and  from  the  ancient"  usage 
of  invoking  the  names  of  the  gods  and  of 
placing  the  hands  of  the  person  swearing 
upon  their  altars,  we  derive  the  present 
method  of  sanctifying  every  oath  by  the 
attestation  contained  in  the  phrase  "So 
help  me  God,"  and  the  concluding  form  of 
kissing  the  Holy  Scriptures. 

And  now  _  the  question  naturally  occurs 
as  to  what  is  the  true  intent  of  this  obse- 
cration, and  what  practical  operation  is  ex- 
pected to  result  from  it.  In  other  words, 
what  is  the  nature  of  a  penalty  attached  to 
an  oath,  and  how  is  it  to  be  enforced?  When 
the  ancient  Roman,  in  attesting  with  the 
solemnity  of  an  oath  to  the  truth  of  what 
he  had  just  said  or  was  about  to  say,  concluded 
with  the  formula,  "May  the  gods  destroy 
me,"  it  is  evident  that  he  simply  meant  to 
say  that  he  was  so  convinced  of  the  truth 


of  what  he  had  said  that  he  was  entirely 
willing  that  his  destruction  by  the  gods 
whom  he  had  invoked  should  be  the  condi- 
tion consequent  upon  his  falsehood.  He  had 
no  notion  that  he  was  to  become  outlawed 
among  his  fellow-creatures,  and  that  it  should 
be  not  only  the  right,  but  the  duty,  of  any 
man  to  destroy  him.  His  crime  would  have 
been  one  against  the  Divine  law,  and  subject 
only  to  a  Divine  punishment. 

In  modern  times,  perjury  is  made  a  penal 
offense  against  human  laws,  and  its  punish- 
ment is  inflicted  by  human  tribunals.  But 
here  the  punishment  of  the  crime  is  entirely 
different  from  that  inferred  by  the  obsecration 
which  terminates  the  oath.  The  words  "So 
help  me  God,"  refer  exclusively  to  the  with- 
drawal of  Divine  aid  and  assistance  from  the 
jurator  in  the  case  of  his  proving  false,  and 
not  to  the  human  punishment  which  society 
would  inflict. 

In  like  manner,  we  may  say  of  what  are 
called  Masonic  penalties,  that  they  refer  in 
no  case  to  any  kind  of  human  punishment; 
that  is  to  say,  to  any  kind  of  punishment 
which  is  to  be  inflicted  by  human  hand  or 
instrumentality.  The  true  punishments  of 
Masonry  affect  neither  life  nor  limb.  They 
are  expulsion  and  suspension  only.  But 
those  persons  are  wrong,  be  they  mistaken 
friends  or  malignant  enemies,  who  suppose 
or  assert  that  there  is  any  other  sort  of 
penalty  which  a  Mason  recreant  to  his  vows 
is  subjected  to  by  the  laws  of  the  Order, 
or  that  it  is  either  the  right  or  duty  of  any 
Mason  to  inflict  such  penalty  on  an  offending 
brother.  The  obsecration  of  a  Mason  simply 
means  that  if  he  violates  his  vows  or  betrays 
his  trust  he  is  worthy  of  such  penalty,;  and 
that  if  such  penalty  were  inflicted  on  him  it 
would  be  but  just  and  proper.  "May  I  die," 
said  the  ancient,  "if  this  be  not  true,  or  if  I 
keep  not  this  vow."  Not  may  any  man 
put  me  to  death,  nor  is  any  man  required  to 
put  me  to  death,  but  only,  if  I  so  act,  then 
would  I  be  worthy  of  death.  The  ritual 
penalties  of  Masonry,  supposing  such  to  be, 
are  in  the  hands  not  of  man,  but  of  God,  and 
are  to  be  inflicted  by  God,  and  not  by  man. 

Bro.  Fort  says,  in  the  29th  chapter  of  his 
Early  History  and  Antiquities  of  Freemasonry, 
that  "Penalties  inflicted  upon  convicts  of 
certain  grades  during  the  Middle  Ages,  were 
terrible  and  inhuman. 

"  The  most  cruel  punishment  awaited  him 
who  broke  into  and  robbed  a  Pagan  temple. 
According  to  a  law  of  the  Frisians,  such 
desecration  was  redressed  by  dragging  the 
criminal  to  the  seashore  and  burying  the  body 
at  a  point  in  the  sands  where  the  tide  daily 
ebbed  and  flowed."  (Lex  Frisian.,  Add.  Sap., 
Tit.  12.) 

"A  creditor  was  privileged  to  subject 
his  delinquent  debtor  to  the  awful  penalty 
of  having  the  flesh  torn  from  his  breast 
and  fed  to  birds  of  prey.  Convicts  were 
frequently  adjudged  by  the  ancient  Norse 
code  to  have  their  hearts  torn  out."  (Grimm, 
Deutsche  Bechts-A  UerthUmer,  p.   690.  And 


for  the  following,  see  pp.  693  and  700.)  "  The 
oldest  death  penalties  of  the  Scandinavians 
prescribed  that  the  body  should  be  exposed 
to  fowls  of  the  air  to  feed  upon.  Sometimes 
it  was  decreed  that  the  victim  be  disem- 
boweled, his  body  burnt  to  ashes  and  scat- 
tered as  dust  to  the  winds.  Judges  of  the 
secret  Vehmgericht  passed  sentences  of  death 
as  follows:  'Your  body  and  flesh  to  the  beasts 
of  the  field,  to  the  birds  of  the  air,  and  to  the 
fishes  in  the  stream.'  The  judicial  executioner, 
in  carrying  into  effect  this  decree,  severed  the 
body  in  twain,  so  that,  to  use  the  literal  text, 
'the  air  might  strike  together  between  the 
two  parts.'  The  tongue  was  oftentimes  torn 
out  as  a  punishment.  A  law  of  the  early 
Roman  Empire,  known  as  ex  Jure  Orientis 
Ccesareo,  enacted  that  any  person,  suitor  at 
law  or  witness,  having  sworn  upon  the 
evangelists,  and  proving  to  be  a  perjurer, 
should  have  the  tongue  cut  from  its  roots. 
A  cord  about  the  neck  was  used  symbol- 
ically, in  criminal  courts,  to  denote  that  the 
accused  was  worthy  of  the  extreme  penalty 
of  law  by  hanging  or  decapitation.  When 
used  upon  the  person  of  a  freeman,  it  signified 
a  slight  degree  of  subjection  or  servitude." 
(Pp.  318-320.) 

Some  eminent  brethren  of  the  Fraternity 
insist  that  the  penalty  had  its  origin  in  the 
manner  in  which  the  lamb  was  sacrificed 
under  the  charge  of  the  Captain  of  the  Tem- 
ple, who  directed  the  priests:  and  said,  "Come 
and;  cast  lots."  "  Who  is  to  slaughter?  " 
"  Who  is  to  sprinkle?  "  "  Go  and  see  if  the 
time  for  slaughter  approaches?"  "Is  it 
light  in  the  whole  East,  even  to  Hebron? " 
and  when  the  priest  said  "Yes,"  he  was  di- 
rected to  "go  and  bring  the  lamb  from  the 
lamb-chamber";  this  was  in  the  northwest 
corner  of  the  court.  The  lamb  was  brought 
to  the  north  of  the  altar,  its  head  southward 
and  its  face  northward.  The  lamb  was  then 
slaughtered;  a  hole  was  made  in  its  side,  and 
thus  it  was  hung  up.  The  priest  skinned  it 
downward  until  he  came  to  the  breast,  then 
he  cut  off  the  head,  and  finished  the  skinning; 
he  tore  out  the  heart;  subsequently  he  cleft 
the  body,  and  it  became  all  open  before  him; 
he  took  out  the  intestines,  etc.;  and  the 
various  portions  were  divided  as  they  had 
cast  lots.  (The  Talmud,  Joseph  Barclay, 

Pencil.  In  the  English  system  this  is 
one  of  the  working-tools  of  a  Master  Mason, 
and  is  intended  symbolically  to  remind  us 
that  our  words  and  actions  are  observed  and 
recorded  by  the  Almighty  Architect,  to  whom 
we  must  give  an  account  of  our  conduct 
through  life.  In  the  American  system  the 
pencil  is  not  specifically  recognized.  The 
other  English  working-tools  of  a  Master 
Mason  are  the  skirrit  and  compasses. 

In  the  French  Rite  "to  hold  the  pencil," 
tener  U  crayon,  is  to  discharge  the  functions 
of  a  secretary  dining  the  communication 
of  a  lodge. 

Penitential  Sign.  Called  also  the  Sup- 
plicatory Sign.   It  is  the  third  sign  in  the 



English  Royal  Arch  system.  It  denotes 
that  frame  of  heart  and  mind  without  which 
our  prayers  and  oblations  will  not  obtain 
acceptance;  in  other  words,  it  is  a  symbol 
of  humility. 

Pennsylvania.  [The  early  history  pf 
Freemasonry  in  this  State  is  wrapped  in 
obscurity;  the  first  mention  of  it  as  yet  dis- 
covered is  in  the  Pennsylvania  Gazette  for 
December  6-8,  1730,  which  contains  the  fol- 
lowing: "As  there  are  several  Lodges  of  Free- 
masons erected  in  this  Province,  and  People 
have  lately  been  much  amus'd  with  Conjec- 
tures concerning  them;  we  think  the  following- 
account  of  Freemasonry  from  London  will 
not  be  unacceptable  to  our  readers,"  and  then 
follows  a  Masonic  catechism.  Benjamin 
Franklin,  the  editor  of  the  paper,  was  not 
then  a  Mason,  but  became  one  in  the  following 
year,  and  makes  frequent  references  to  the 
Craft  in  the  Gazette,  from  which  we  learn  that 
he  was  appointed  J.  G.  W.  by  Grand  Master 
Allen  in  June,  1732,  and  elected  Grand  Master 
of  this  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsylvania  in  1734. 

From  this  it  is  quite  plain  that  there  were 
Masonic  Lodges  in  Pennsylvania  in  1730  and 
a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  there  in  1732,  and 
it  seems  fairly  certain  that  these  early  Lodges 
were  formed  by  brethren  from  the  Mother 
Country  acting  on  their  own  authority. 

In  1743  Thomas  Oxnard  of  Boston  was 
appointed  by  the  Grand  Master  of  England 
to  be  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  all  North 
America,  and  in  1749  he  appointed  Benjamin 
Franklin  to  be  Provincial  Grand  Master  of 

In  1755  there  were  three  Lodges  in  Phila- 
delphia, and  in  1758  a  Lodge  was  warranted 
there  by  the  "Ancients,"  followed  by  another 
in  1761,  and  in  1764  authority  was  grant- 
ed by  the  "Ancients"  for  forming  a  Provin- 
cial Grand  Lodge  in  Philadelphia,  which  in 
1786  became  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Pennsyl- 
vania.— E.  L.  H.] 

The  Grand  Chapter  of  Pennsylvania  was 
established  in  1795.  The  Grand  Chapter 
was  at  first  only  an  integral  part  of  the 
Grand  Lodge,  but  in  1824  it  became  an 
independent  body,  except  so  far  as  that 
members  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  who  were 
Royal  Arch  Masons,  were  declared  to  be 
members  of  the  Grand  Chapter. 

The  Royal  and  Select  degrees  were  for- 
merly conferred  in  Pennsylvania  by  the 
Chapters,  but  on  October  16,  1847,  a  Grand 
Council  was  organized. 

A  Grand  Encampment,  independent  of 
the  General  Grand  Encampment  of  the 
United  States,  was  organized  on  February 
16,  1814.  On  April  14,  1854,  a  Grand  Com- 
mandery  was  organized  under  the  authority 
of  the  Grand  Encampment  of  the  United 
States,  and  in  February,  1857,  both  of  these 
bodies  united  to  form  the  present  Grand 
Commandery  of  Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania  Work.  The  method  of 
Entering,  Passing,  and  Raising  candidates 
in  the  Lodges  of  Pennsylvania  differs  so 
materially  from  that  practised  in  the  other 


States  of  the  Union,  that  it  cannot  be  con- 
sidered as  a  part  of  the  American  Rite  as  first 
taught  by  Webb,  but  rather  as  an  inde- 
pendent, Pennsylvania  modification  of  the 
York  Rite  of  England.  Indeed,  the  Pennsyl- 
vania system  of  work  much  more  resembles 
the  English  than  the  American.  Its  ritual  is 
simple  and  didactic,  like  the  former,  and  is 
almost  entirely  without  the  impressive 
dramatization  of  the  latter.  Bro.  vaux,  a 
Past  Grand  Master  of  Pennsylvania,  thus 
speaks  of  the  Masonic  work  of  his  State 
with  pardonable,  although  not  with  im- 
partial, commendations:  "The  Pennsylvania 
work  is  sublime  from  its  simplicity.  That 
it  is  the  ancient  work  is  best  shown  con- 
clusively, however,  from  this  single  fact, 
it  is  so  simple,  so  free  from  those  displays 
of  modern  inventions  to  attract  the  atten- 
tion, without  enlightening,  improving,  or 
cultivating  the  mind.  In  this  work  every 
word  has  its  significance.  Its  types  and 
symbols  are  but  the  language  in  which  truth 
is  conveyed.  These  are  to  T>e  studied  to  be 
understood.  In  the  spoken  language  no 
synonyms  are  permitted.  In  the  ceremonial 
no  innovations  are  tolerated.  In  the  ritual 
no  modern  verbiage  is  allowed." 

Penny.  In  the  parable  read  in  the  Mark 
Degree  a  penny  is  the  amount  given  to  each 
of  the  laborers  in  the  vineyard  for  his  day's 
labor.  Hence,  in  the  ritual,  a  penny  a  day 
is  said  to  be  the  wages  of  a  Mark  Master. 
In  several  passages  of  the  authorized  version 
of  the  New  Testament,  penny  occurs  as  a 
translation  of  the  Greek,  Srivipioy,  which  was 
intended  as  the  equivalent  of  the  Roman 
denarius.  This  was  the  chief  silver  coin  of 
the  Romans  from  the  beginning  of  the 
coinage  of  the  city  to  the  early  part  of  the 
third  century.  Indeed,  the  name  continued 
to  be  employed  in  the  coinage  of  the  conti- 
nental States,  which  imitated  that  of  the 
Byzantine  empire,  and  was  adopted  by  the 
Anglo-Saxons.  The  specific  value  of  each 
of  so  many  coins,  going  under  the  same  name, 
cannot  be  ascertained  with  any  precision. 
In  its  Masonic  use,  the  penny  is  simply  a 
symbol  of  the  reward  of  faithful  labor.  The 
smallness  of  the  sum,  whatever  may  have 
been  its  exact  value,  to  our  modern  im- 
pressions is  apt  to  give  a  false  idea  of  the 
liberality  of  the  owner.  Dr.  Lightfoot,  in 
his  essay  on  a  Fresh  Revision  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment, remarks:  "It  is  unnecessary  to  ask 
what  impression  the  mention  of  this  sum  will 
leave  on  the  minds  of  an  uneducated  peasant 
or  shopkeeper  of  the  present  day.  Even  at 
the  time  when  our  version  was  made,  and 
when  wages  Were  lower,  it  must  have  seemed 
wholly  inadequate."  However  improper  the 
translation  is,  it  can  have  no  importance  in 
the  Masonic  application  of  the  parable, 
where  the  "penny"  is,  as  has  already  been 
said,  only  a  symbol,  meaning  any  reward  or 

Pentacle,  The.  The  "pentaculum  Sat- 
omonis,"  or  magical  pentafpha,  not  to  be 
confounded  with  Solomon's  seal.  The  pea- 


tacle  is  frequently  ref erred  to  in  Hermetio 
formulae,  .  ,  „         .  „ 

Pentagon.  A  geometrical  figure  of  live 
sides  and  five  angles.  It  is  the  third  figure 
from  the  exterior,  in  the  camp  of  the  Sublime 
Princes  of  the  Royal  Secret,  or  Thirty-second 
Degree  of  the  Scottish  Rite.  In  the  Egyp- 
tian Rite  of  Cagliostro,  he  constructed,  with 
much  formality,  an  implement  called  the 
"sacred  pentagon,"  and  which,  beingdia- 
tributed  to  his  disciples,  gave,  as  he  affirmed, 
to  each  one  the  power  of  holding  spiritual 
intercourse.  .  /• 

Pentagram.  From  the  Greek  penis,  nve; 
and  gramma,  a  letter.  In  the  science  of  magic 
the  pentalpha  is  called  the  holy  and  mys- 
terious pentagram.  Eliphas  Levi  says  (Dog. 
et  RUuel  de  la  Haute  Magie,  ii.,  55)  that  the 
pentagram  is  the  star  of  the  Magians;  it  is 
the  sign  of  the  word  made  flesh;  and  accord- 
ing to  the  direction  of  its  rays,  that  is,  as  it 
points  upward  with  one  point  or  with  two, 
it  represents  the  good  or  the  evil  principle, 
order  or  disorder;  the  blessed  lamb  of  Ormuzd 
and  of  St.  John,  or  the  accursed  god  of  Men- 
el  es;  initiation  or  profanation;  Lucifer  or 
Vesper;  the  morning  or  the  evening  star; 
Mary  or  LiKth;  victory  or  death;  Bght  or 
darkness.    (See  Pentalpha.) 

Pentalpha.  The  triple  triangle,  or  the 
pentalpha  of  Pythagoras,  is  so  called  from 
the  Greek  *«««,  pente,  five,  and  o\*«,  alpha, 
the  letter  A,  because  in  its  configuration 
»        it  presents  the  form  of  that  letter 
f\       in  five  different  positions.  It 
v  /  \y  was  a  doctrine  of  Pythagoras, 
J\C\     that  all  things  proceeded  from 
numbers,  and  the  number  five, 
as  being  formed  by  the  union  of  the  first  ode 
and  the  first  even,  was  deemed  of  peculiar 
value;  and  hence  Cornelius  Agrippa  says 
(Philos.  Oecuti.)  of  this  figure,  that,  "by  vir- 
tue of  the  number  five,  it  has  great  oommand 
over  evil  spirits  because  of  its  five  double 
triangles  and  its  five  acute  angles  within  and 
its  five  obtuse  angles  without,  so  that  this 
interior  pentangle  contains  in  it  many  great 
mysteries."   The  disciples  of  Pythagoras, 
who  were  indeed  its  real  inventors,  placec 
within  each  of  its  interior  angles  one  of  the 
letters  of  the  Greek  word  UTIEIA,  or  the 
Latin  one  SALUS,  both  of  which  signify 
health;  and  thus  it  was  made  the  talisman  of 
health.   They  placed  it  at  the  beginning  of 
their  epistles  as  a  greeting  to  invoke  secure 
health  to  their  correspondent.   But  its  use 
was  not  confined  to  the  disciples  of  Pythago- 
ras.  As  a  talisman,  it  was  employed  all 
over  the  East  as  a  charm  to  resist  evil  spirits. 
Mone  says  that  it  has  been  found  m  Egypt 
on  the  statue  of  the  god  Anubis.  Lord 
Brougham  says,  in  his  Italy,  that  it  was  used 
by  Antiochus  Epiphanes,  and  a  writer  in 
Notes  and  queries  (3  Ser.,  in.,  511)  says  that 



Notes  ana  queries  (is  ser.,  ix.,  on;  aayo  to« 
he  has  found  it  on  the  coins  of  Lysimmachus 
On  old  British  and  Gaulish  coins  it  is  often 
seen  beneath  the  feet  of  the  sacred  and 
mythical  horse,  which  was  the  ensign  of  the 
ancient  Saxons.   The  Druids  wore  it  on  their 

sandals  as  a  symbol  of  Deity,  and  hence  the 
Germans  call  the  figure  "  Druttenf  uss,"  a  word 
originally  signifying  Druid's  foot,  but  which, 
in  the  gradual  corruptions  of  language,  is  now 
made  to  mean  Witehe's  foot.  Even  at  the 
present  day  it  retains  its  hold  upon  the  minds 
of  the  common  people  of  Germany,  and  is 
drawn  on  or  affixed  to  cradles,  thresholds  of 
houses,  and  stable-doors,  to  keep  off  witches 
and  elves.  ,      •  . 

The  early  Christians  referred  it  to  the 
five  wounds  of  the  Savior,  because,  when 
properly  inscribed  upon  the  representation 
of  a  human  body,  the  five  points  win  respec- 
tively extend  to  and  touch  the  side,  the 
two  hands,  and  the  two  feet. 

The  Medieval  Masons  considered  it  a 
symbol  of  deep  wisdom,  and  it  is  found 
among  the  architectural  ornaments  of  most 
of  the  ecclesiastical  edifices  of  the  Middle 

^But  as  a  Masonic  symbol  it  peculiarly 
claims  attention  from  the  fact  that  it  forms 
the  outlines  of  the  five-pointed  star,  which  is 
typical  of  the  bond  of  brotherly  love  that 
unites  the  whole  Fraternity.  It  is  in  this 
view  that  the  pentalpha  or  triple  triangle 
is  referred  to  in  Masonic  symbolism  as 
representing  the  intimate  union  which  existed 
between  our  three  ancient  Grand  Masters, 
and  which  is  commemorated  by  the  living 
pentalpha  at  the  closing  of  every  Royal  Arch 

Many  writers  have  confounded  the  pen- 
talpha with  the  seal  of  Solomon,  or  shield 
of  David.  This  error  is  almost  inexcusable 
in  Oliver,  who  constantly  commits  it,  because 
his  Masonic  and  archeologicai  researches 
should  have  taught  him  the  difference, 
Solomon's  seal  being  a  double,  interlaced 
triangle,  whose  form  gives  the  outline  of  a 
star  of  six  points. 

Perau,  Gabriel  Louis  Calaore.  A  man 
of  letters,  an  Abb6,  and  a  member  of  the 
Society  of  the  Sorbonne.   He  was  born  at 
Semur.  in  Auxois,  in  1700,  and  died  at 
Paris,  March  31,  1767.   De  Feller  (Biog. 
Univ.)  speaks  of  his  uprightness  and  probity, 
his  frankness,  and  sweetness  of  disposition 
which  endeared  him  to  many  friends.  Cer- 
tainly, the  only  work  which  gives  him  a  place 
in  Masonio  history  indicates  a  gentleness 
and  moderation  of  character  with  which  we 
can  find  no  fault.   In  general  literature,  he 
was  distinguished  as  the  continuator  of 
d'Avrigny's  Vies  des  Hommes  Utustres  de  la 
France;  which,  however,  a  loss  of  sight  pre- 
vented him  from  completing.   In  1742,  he 
published  at  Geneva  a  work  entitled  Le 
Secret  des  Frdnc-Macons.   This  work  at  its 
first  appearance  attracted  much  attention 
and  went  through  many  editions,  the  title 
being  sometimes  changed  to  a  more  attractive 
one  by  booksellers.   The  Abbe  Larudan 
attempted  to  palm  off  his  libelous  and  malig- 
nant work  on  the  Abbe  Perau,  but  without 
success;  for  while  the  work  of  Larudan  is 
marked  with  the  bitterest  malignity  to  the 
Order  of  Freemasonry,  that  of  Perau  is  simply 



a  detail  o*  the  ceremonies  and  ritual  of  Ma- 
sonry as  then  practised,  under  the  guise  of 
Perfect  Ashlar.  See  Ashlar. 
Perfect  Initiates,  Bite  of.  A  name  given 
to  the  Egyptian  Rite  when  first  established 
at  Lyons  by  Caghostro. 

Perfect  Irish  Master.   (Parfait  Maitre 
Irlandais.)   One  of  the  degrees  given  in  the 
Irish  Colleges  instituted  by  Eamsay. 
Perfect  Lodge.   See  Just  Lodge. 
Perfect  Master.    (Mattre  Parfait.)  The 
Fifth  Degree  in  the  Ancient  and  Accepted 
Scottish  Rite.   The  ceremonies  of  this  degree 
were  originally  established  as  a  grateful  trib- 
ute of  respect  to  a  worthy  departed  brother. 
The  officers  of  the  Lodge  are  a  Master,  who 
represents  Adoniram,  the  Inspector  of  the 
Works  at  Mount  Lebanon,  and  one  Warden. 
The  symbolic  color  of  the  degree  is  green,  to 
remind  the  Perfect  Master  that,  being  dead  in 
vice,  he  must  hope  to  revive  in  virtue.  His 
jewel  is  a  compass  extended  sixty  degrees,  to 
teach  him  that  he  should  act  within  measure, 
and  ever  pay  due  regard  to  justice  and  equity. 
_  The  apron  is  white,  with  a  green  flap;  and 
in  the  middle  of  the  apron  must  be  embroid- 
ered or  painted,  within  three  circles,  a  cubical 
stone,  in  the  center  of  which  the  letter  J  is 
inscribed,  according  to  the  old  rituals;  but 
the  Samaritan  yod  and  he,  according  to  the 
ritual  of  the  Southern  Jurisdiction. 

Delaunay,  in  his  Thuileur  de  VEcossisme, 
gives  the  Tetragrammaton  in  this  degree,  and 
says  the  degree  should  more  properly  be  called 
Past  Master,  Ancien  Mattre,  because  the  Te 
tragrammaton  makes  it  in  some  sort  the  com 

Slement  of  the  Master's  Degree.  But  the 
etragrammaton  is  not  foundin  any  of  the 
approved  rituals,  and  Delaunay's  theory  falls 
therefore  to  the  ground.  But  besides,  to  com- 
plete the  Masters  with  this  degree  would  be 
to  confuse  all  the  symbolism  of  the  Ineffable 
degrees,  which  really  conclude  with  the  Four- 

Perfect  Prussian.  (Parfait  Prussien.) 
A  degree  invented  at  Geneva,  in  1770,  as  a 
second  part  of  the  Order  of  Noachites. 

Perfect  Stone.  A  name  frequently  given 
to  the  cubic  stone  discovered  in  the  Thirteenth 
Degree  of  Perfection,  the  tenth  of  the  In- 

effable Series.  It  denotes  Justice  and  firm- 
ness, with  all  the  moral  lessons  and  duties  in 
which  the  mystic  cube  is  calculated  to  in- 
struct us. 

Perfect  Union,  Lodge  of.  A  Lodge  at 
Remies,  m  France,  where  the  Rite  of  Elect 
of  Truth  was  instituted.  (See  Elect  of  Truth, 
atte  of.) 


Perfectlom  The  Ninth  and  last  degree 
of  Feeler's  Rite.    (See  Fessler,  Bite  of.) 

Perfectionists.  The  name  by  which 
Weishaupt  first  designated  the  Order  which 
he  founded  in  Bavaria,  and  which  he  sub- 
sequently changed  for  that  of  the  Illumi- 

Perfection,  Lodge  of.  The  Lodge  in 
which  the  Fourteenth  Degree  of  the  Ancient 
and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  is  conferred. 
In  England  and  America  this  degree  is  called 
Grand  Elect  Perfect  and  Sublime  Mason, 
but  the  French  designate  it  Grand  Scottish 
Mason  of  the  Sacred  Vault  of  James  VI.,  or 
Grandjcossais  de  la  Voute  Sacree  du  Jacques 
VI.  This  is  one  of  the  evidences— and  a 
very  pregnant  one— of  the  influence  exercised 
by  the  exiled  Stuarts  and  their  adherents  on 
the  Masonry  of  that  time  in  making  it  an 
instrument  for  the  restoration  of  James  II., 
and  then  of  his  son,  to  the  throne  of  Eng- 
land._  6 
.,  as  concluding  all  reference 
to  tne  first  Temple,  has  been  called  the  ulti- 
mate degree  of  ancient  Masonry.  It  is  the 
a  lt  Y  "  technically  styled  the  In- 
effable degrees,  because  their  instructions 
relate  to  the  Ineffable  word. 

Its  place  of  meeting  is  called  the  Sacred 
Vault.  Its  principal  officers  are  a  Thrice 
Puissant  Grand  Master,  two  Grand  War- 
dens, a  Grand  Treasurer,  and  Grand  Secre- 
tary. In  the  first  organization  of  the  Rite 
in  this  country,  the  Lodges  of  Perfection 
were  called  "Sublime  Grand  Lodges,"  and, 
hence,  the  word  "Grand"  is  still  affixed  to 
the  title  of  the  officers. 

The  following  mythical  history  is  con- 
nected with  and  related  in  this  degree. 

When  the  Temple  was  finished,  the  Masons 
who  had  been  employed  in  constructing  it 
acquired  immortal  honor.  Their  Order  be- 
came more  uniformly  established  and  regu- 
lated than  it  had  been  before.  Their  cau- 
tion and  reserve  in  admitting  new  members 
produced  respect,  and  merit  alone  was  re- 
quired of  the  candidate.  With  these  prin- 
ciples instilled  into  their  minds,  many  of  the 
Grand  Elect  left  the  Temple  after  its  dedi- 
cation, and,  dispersing  themselves  among  the 
neighboring  nations,  instructed  all  who 
applied  and  were  found  worthy  in  the  sublime 
degrees  of  Ancient  Craft  Masonry. 

The  Temple  was  completed  m  the  year 
of  the  world  3000.  Thus  far,  the  wise  King 
of  Israel  had  behaved  worthy  of  himself, 
and  gamed  universal  admiration;  but  in 
process  of  time,  when  he  had  advanced  in 
years,  his  understanding  became  impaired; 
ne  grew  deaf  to  the  voice  of  the  Lord,  and 
,8trangely  irregular  in  his  conduct, 
mud  of  havmg  erected  an  edifice  to  his 
Maker,  and  intoxicated  with  his  great  power, 
Plul}Sed  into  all  manner  of  licentiousness 
and  debauchery  and  -profaned  the  Temple, 
by  offering  to  the  idof  Moloch  that  incense 
which  should  have  been  offered  only  to  the 
living  God. 

The  Grand  Elect  and  Perfect  Masons 




saw  this,  and  were  sorely,  grieved,  afraid 
that  his  apostasy  would  end  in  some  dread- 
ful consequences,  and  bring  upon  them 
those  enemies  whom  Solomon  had  vam- 
gloriously  and  wantonly  defied.  The  people, 
5opying  the  vices  and.  follies  of  their  King, 
became  proud  and  idolatrous,  and  neglected 
toe  worship  of  the  true  God  for  that  of 

ldAs  an  adequate  punishment  for  thfe  de- 
fection, God  inspired  the  heart  of  Nebu- 
chadnezzar, King  of  Babylon,  to  take  venge- 
ance on  the  kingdom  of  Israel.  This  prince 
sent  an  army  with  Nebuzaradan,  Captain 
of  the  Guards,  who  entered  Jtidah  with  fire 
and  sword,  took  and  sacked  the  city  of 
Jerusalem,  razed  its  walls,  and  destroyed  the 
Temple.  The  people  were  carried  captive 
to  Babylon,  and  the  conquerors  took  with 
them  all  the  vessels  of  silver  and  gold.  1ms 
happened  four  hundred  and  seventy  years, 
six  months,  and  ten  days  after  its  dedica- 

tl0When,  in  after  times,  the  princes  of  Chris- 
tendom entered  into  a  league  to  free  the 
Holy  Land  from  the  oppression  of  the  infidels, 
the  good  and  virtuous  Masons,  anxious  for 
the  success  of  so  pious  an  undertaking,  volun- 
tarily offered  their  services  to  the  confederates, 
on  condition  that  they  should  be  permitted 
a  chief  of  their  own  election,  which  was 
granted;  they  accordingly  rallied  under  their 
standard  and  departed.  ,   ,  , 

The  valor  and  fortitude  of  these  elected 
knights  was  such  that  they  were  admired  by, 
and  took  the  lead  of,  all  the  princes  of  Jeru- 
salem, who,  believing  that  their  mysteries 
inspired  them  with  courage  and  fidelity  in 
the  cause  of  virtue  and  religion,  became 
desirous  of  being  initiated.  Upon  being 
found  worthy,  their  desires  were  complied 
with;  and  thus  the  royal  art,  meeting  the 
approbation  of  great  and  good  men,  be- 
came popular  and  honorable,  was  diffused 
through  their  various  dominions,  and  has 
continued  to  spread  through  a  succession 
of  ageB  to  the  present  day.  . 

The  symbolic  color  of  this  degree  m  red 
•—emblematic  of  fervor,  constancy,  and  assi- 
duity. Hence,  the  Masonry  of  this  degree 
was  formerly  called  Red  Masonry  on  the 
Continent  of  Europe.  . 

The  jewel  of  the  degree  is  a  pair  of  com- 
passes extended  on  an  arc  of  ninety  degrees, 
surmounted  by  a  crown,  and  with  a  sun  m 
the  center.  In  the  Southern  Jurisdiction 
the  sun  is  on  one  side  and  a  five-pointed 
star  on  the  other. 

The  apron  is  white  with  red  flames,  bor- 
dered with  blue,  and  having  the  jewel  painted 
on  the  center  and  the  stone  of  foundation 

°npcrf ec&on,  Bite  of.  In  1754,  the  Cheva- 
lier de  Bonneville  established  a  Chapter  of 
the  high  degrees  at  Paris,  in  the  College  of 
Jesuits  of  Clermont,  hence  called  the  Chapter 
of  Clermont.  The  Bystem  of  Masonry  he 
there  practised  received  the  name  of  the  Kite 
of  Perfection,  or  Rite  of  Heredom.  The 

College  of  Clermont  was,  says  Rebold  (Hist. 
deSG.  L.,  46),  the  asylum  of  the  adherents  of 
the  house  of  Stuart,  and  hence  the  Rite  is  to 
some  extent  tinctured  with  Stuart  Masonry. 
It  consisted  of  twenty-five  degrees,  as  follows: 
1.  Apprentice;  2.  Fellow-Craft;  3.  Master; 
4.  Secret  Master;  5.  Perfect  Master;  6.  In- 
timate Secretary;  7.  Intendant  of  the  Build- 
ing; 8.  Provost  and  Judge;  9.  Elect  of  Nine; 
ia  Elect  of  Fifteen;  11.  Illustrious  Elect, 
Chief  of  the  Twelve  Tribes;  12.  Grand  Master 
Architect;  13.  Royal  Arch;  14.  Grand,  Elect, 
Ancient,  Perfect  Master;  15.  Knight  of  the 
Sword;  16.  Prince  of  Jerusalem;  17.  Knight 
of  the  East  and  West;  18.  Rose  Croix  Knight; 
19.  Grand  Pontiff;  20.  Grand  Patriarch;  21. 
Grand  Master  of  the  Key  of  Masonry;  22. 
Prince  of  Libanus;  23.  Sovereign  Prince  Adept 
Chief  of  the  Grand  Consistory;  24.  Illustrious 
Knight,  Commander  of  the  Black  and  White 
Eagle;  25.  Most  Illustrious  Sovereign  Prince 
of  Masonry,  Grand  Knight,  Sublime  Com- 
mander of  the  Royal  Secret.   It  will  be 
seen  that  the  degrees  of  this  Rite  are  the  same 
as  those  of  the  Council  of  Emperors  of  the 
East  and  West,  which  was  established  four 
years  later,  and  to  which  the  Chapter  of 
Clermont  gave  way.   Of  course,  they  are 
the  same,  so  far  as  they  go,  as  those  of  the 
Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite  which 
succeeded  the  Council  of  Emperors.  , 

The  distinguishing  principle  of  this  Rite  is, 
that  Freemasonry  was  derived  from  Tem- 
plarism,  and  that  consequently  every  Free- 
mason was  a  Knight  Templar.  It  was  there 
that  the  Baron  von  Hund  was  initiated, 

and  from  it,  through  him,  proceeded  the  Rite 
of  Strict  Observance;  although  he  discarded 
the  degrees  and  retained  only  the  Templar 

Perignan.  When  the  Elu  degrees  were 
first  invented,  the  legend  referred  to  an  un- 
known person,  a  tiller  of  the  soil,  to  whom 
King  Solomon  was  indebted  for  the  informa- 
tion which  led  to  the  discovery  of  the  crafts- 
men who  had  committed  the  crime  recorded 
in  the  Third  Degree.  This  unknown  person, 
at  first  designated  as  "l'inconnu,"  afterward 
received  the  name  of  Perignan,  and  a  degree 
between  the  elu  of  nine  and  the  elu  of  fifteen 
was  instituted,  which  was  called  the  Elu  of 
Perignan,"  and  which  became  the  Sixth  De- 
gree of  the  Adonhiramite  Rite.  The  deriva- 
tion or  radical  meaning  of  the  word  is  un- 
known, but  it  may  contain,  as  do  many  other 
words  in  the  high  degrees,  a  reference  to  the 
adherents,  or  to  the  enemies,  of  the  exiled 
house  of  Stuart,  for  whose  sake  several  of 
these  degrees  were  established.    (See  alect  of 

Periods  of  the  Grand  Architect.  See 

Six  Periods.  .  .    ,  , 

Perjury.  In  the  municipal  law  perjury  is 
defined  to  be  a  wilful  false  swearing  to  a  ma- 
terial matter,  when  an  oath  has  been  admin- 
istered by  lawful  authority.  The  violation 
of  vows  or  promissory  oaths  taken  before  one 
who  is  not  legally  authorized  to  administer 
them,  that  is  to  say,  one  who  is  not  a  magie- 




^iMttlrS^S^^I^"  /-etti,  be^  hi.  Masonic 
law;  but  the  moral  sense  oj raSffldoSS  fc^**  A^0.*' ,  ™&»*  seve^  other 
assent  to  such  a  doctrine,  and  considers  per- 
jury, as  the  root  of  the  word  indicates,  tte 
doing  of  that  which  one  has  sworn  not  to  do 
or  the  omrtting  to  do  that  which  he  has  sworn 
to  do.   The  old  Romans  seem  to  have  taken 
a  sensible  view  of  the  crime  of  perjury. 
Among  them  oaths  were  not  often  adminis- 
tered, and,  in  general,  a  promise  made 
under  oath  had  no  more  binding  power  in  a 
court  of  justice  than  it  would  have  had  with- 
out  the  oath.   False  swearing  was  with  them 
a  matter  of  conscience,  and  the  person  who 
was  guilty  of  it  was  responsible  to  the  Deity 
aione    I  he  violation  of  a  promise  under  oath 

Swl^  °rln0t  ™^  ««»  a  form  was  con- 
sidered alike,  and  neither  was  more  liable  to 
human  punishment  than  the  other.  But 

u       . — .  o— ™>  severs*  oiner 

Masonic  degrees,  and  to  him  is  attributed  the 
authorship  of  the  degree  of  Knight  of  the  Sun, 
now  occupying  the  twenty-eighth  place  in  the 
Ancient  and  Accepted  ScottisTlU^.  Hewal 
a  very  learned  man  and  a  voluminous  writer 
of  versatile  talents,  and  published  numerous 
works  on  mythology,  the  fine  arts,  theology, 
geography,  philosophy,  and  the  mathematicai 
sciences,  besides  some  translations  from  the 

the fyeWSba     a*        °*'  *  DM*hi,V» 5n 

th&VPP?^*1:  J*  a,  8"™«Wcal  sense, 
that  which  is  upright  and  erect,  leaning  nei- 
ther one  way  nor  another.    In  a  figurative 
and  symbolic  sense,  it  conveys  the  significa- 
tion of  Justice,  Fortitude,  PrudencVand 
lemperance.   Justice,  that  leans  to  no  side 
perjury  wa7n"oT  temSTto  'be  without         no  a^m  °f  ^  fortitude,  that  yieMs  to 
Wnd  of  punishment.  Cicero .expressed  the  Z^hf^/*^1  .W1106' ^  everJ)ur- 
Roman  sentiment  when  he  sal  ^iurii  SSL*!?  S*wght  path  of  «d  Tem- 

Ptena  divina  exitium:  hunTanaXlecu^X  Sn'  ^  n°*  f°r  appetite  nor 

^^t^  everv 
accompanied  by  an  execration  S  annUt^  ^  md!™*  thmS,  has  been  subjected 
God  to  punish  the  swearer snouKffi v  t  V*  SU8P1010Jn' to  nusinterpretation.  and 
his  oath"  "In  the  c^JSs^'^jJtjt^-^^011'  .Like  *urck,  it 
Archbishop  Sharp,  "there  mav V™  VnS  ^  lts S^?1*',  wh°.  hy  their  devotion 
made  to  (fad's  Xe^yet  SttS  3?£  fed  SS?™* W  Vindicated  ite 

Sutes  S'tKiy tsus  LiXh SW-  w***  s^ 

hath  braved  God  Almighty,  and I  hath  to  effect  h«X  k 6  on  th?  Institution  can 

toldWrntohisfa^rh-Lwas  fore^woS  pe«ecutions-not  because 

should  desire  no  mercv  "  foresworn  he  there  was  not  the  will,  but  because  the  power 

It  is  not  right  thus  to  seek  to  restrict  God' J  HnrS^60^6  was  want[n8— all  the  pereecu- 
mercy.buttfetsanbenodoubtSthe^t  ™^  ^-^Sf801??  \ave^ for  the  ™°st 
tlement  of  the  crime  ]fe Tmore  ^tK  th^  ^V^iS^^  ^  the  Chureh- 
with  man.  Freemasons  loo? taMfiitS  1  JSW£t^2^^^!l',^fa^'^ 
what  is  called  the  it    advocation  Magazine  (1851,  p.  141), 

of  God's  ymvJ^^S^^^S^lJ^l^1^  architectural  monuments  of  ail 

vow,  should  hTever  vio\TitT^~  ^aSFthT^hW""  °f  Ma80¥° 
ance  is  confined  to  the  conWnt  .n^T  spue*  ana  ,tne  Church  of  Rome  owes  the 
famy  which Xfor^wearer  S  £  -het  cathedrals,  her 

Bora  at  Roanne,  in  FranceTto  1716  A?an*  of  foV^J^JL  k °t  u Wlaec  ^ter-builders 
early  age  he  joined  the  BenSctines  but  In  Sf  SSSf  a»es' she  ^  been  for  four  centuries 
1765  allied,  'with  tw^tySS&fte  a  tfcfcrX^  *°  the  PnnCiple?  mculcated  ^ 

bSf disced  °wSh  ttfoSdSftft'  JS**  the  "  *■  ~ 

paired  to  BeX  ^Cri^^ raM,1  Freemasons  in  the  fifteenth,  six- 
made  him  his  librarian    InTsW &    w*\uand  s^teenth  centuries,  we  may 

the  mystical  theories  of  SwXborttnd  ^  TOu^c^W^faa>D^ 
hshed  a  translation  of  his  Wonders  of  S  ;<£Lll\ t  October  of  that  year,  a  crowd 
and  Hell.  He  then  repah-edto  AvS HwJSES 'ant  f^os,  whose  zeal  had  been  en- 
where,  under  the  influence^  of  toS  C^ttfc^r^ 
borgian  views,  he  established  an  MiSmTrf  S'  t?5  mto  a  house  m  Amsterdam, 
muminati,ba^donthe&  y.,^  to  be  held 

of  Masonry,  to  which  he  added  a  mvsticSo»P  m^ntf  ^  ^  t  j  the  i'}rnlture  and  orna- 
whieh  he  called  the  Tn^Mason ^Thfe  Rite  Wwfn„  L  +k  L°dge,'    Th?  States  General, 


edict,  to  meet  at  a  private  house,  the  members 
were  arrested  and  brought  before  the  Court  of 
Justice.  Here,  in  the  presence  of  the  whole 
city,  the  Masters  and  Wardens  defended 
themselves  with  great  dexterity;  and  while 
acknowledging  their  inability  to  prove  the 
innocence  of  their  Institution  by  a  public  ex- 
posure of  their  secret  doctrines,  they  freely 
offered  to  receive  and  initiate  any  person  ia 
the  csonfidence  of  the  magistrates,  and  who 
could  then  give  them  information  upon  which 
they  might  depend,  relative  to  the  true  de- 
signs of  the  Institution.  The  proposal  was 
acceded  to,  and  the  town  clerk  was  chosen. 
He  was  immediately  initiated,  and  his  report 
so  pleased  his  superiors,  that  all  the  magis- 
trates and  principal  persons  of  the  city  be- 
came members  and  zealous  patrons  of  the 

In  France,  the  fear  of  the  authorities  that 
the  Freemasons  concealed,  within  the  re- 
cesses of  their  Lodges,  designs  hostile  to  the 
government,  gave  occasion  to  an  attempt,  in 
1737,  on  the  part  of  the  police,  to  prohibit  the 
meeting  of  the  Lodges.  But  this  unfavorable 
disposition  did  not  long  continue,  and  the  last 
instance  of  the  interference  of  the  government 
with  the  proceedings  of  the  Masonic  body  was 
in  June,  1745,  %hen  the  members  of  a  Lodge, 
meeting  at  tie  Hotel  de  Soissons,  were  dis- 
persed, their  furniture  and  jewels  seized,  and 
the  landlord  amerced  in  a  penalty  of  three 
thousand  livres. 

The  persecutions  in  Germany  were  owing 
to  a  singular  cause.  The  malice  of  a  few 
females  had  been  excited  by  their  disap- 
pointed curiosity.  A  portion  of  this  disposi- 
tion they  succeeded  in  communicating  to  the 
Empress,  Maria  Theresa,  who  issued  an  order 
for  apprehending  all  the  Masons  in  Vienna, 
when  assembled  m  their  Lodges.  The  meas- 
ure was,  however,  frustrated  by  the  good 
sense  of  the  Emperor,  Joseph  I.,  wno  was  him- 
self a  Mason,  and  exerted  his  power  in  pro- 
tecting his  brethren. 

The  persecutions  of  the  church  in  Italy, 
and  other  Catholic  countries,  have  been  the 
most  extensive  and  most  permanent.  On  the 
28th  of  April,  173$  Pope  Clement  XII.  issued 
the  famous  bull  against  Freemasons  whose 
authority  is  still  in  existence.  In  this  bull, 
the  Roman  Pontiff  says,  "We  have  learned, 
and  public  rumor  does  not  permit  us  to  doubt 
the  truth  Of  the  report,  that  a  certain  society 
has  been  formed,  under  the  name  of  Free- 
masons, into  which  persons  of  all  religions  and 
all  sects  are  indiscriminately  admitted,  and 
whose  members  have  established  certain  laws 
which  bind  themselves  to  each  Other,  and 
which,  in  particular,  compel  their  members, 
under  the  severest  penalties,  by  virtue  of  an 
oath  taken  on  the  Holy  Scriptures,  to  pre- 
serve an  inviolable  secrecy  in  relation  to  every 
thing  that  passes  in  their  meetings."  The 
bull  goes  on  to  declare,  that  these  societies 
have  become  suspected  by  the  faithful,  and 
that  they  are  hurtful  to  the  tranquillity  of 
the  state  and  to  the  safety  of  the  soul;  and 
after  making  use  of  the  now  threadbare  argu- 


ment,  that  Jf  the  actions  of  Freemasons  were 
irreproachable,  they  would  not  so  carefully 
conceal  them  from  the  light,  it  proceeds  to 
enjoin  all  bishops,  superiors,  and  ordinaries 
to  punish  the  Freemasons  "with  the  penalties 
which  they  deserve,  as  people  greatly  sus- 
pected of  heresy,  having  recourse,  if  necessary, 
to  the  secular  arm." 

What  this  delivery  to  the  secular  arm  means, 
we  are  at  no  loss  to  discover,  from  the  inter- 
pretation given  to  the  bull  by  Cardinal  Firrao 
in  his  edict  of  publication  in  the  beginning  of 
the  following  year,  namely,  "that  no  person 
shall  dare  to  assemble  at  any  Lodge  of  the  said 
society,  nor  be  present  at  any  of  their  meet- 
ings, under  pain  of  death  and  confiscation  of 
goods,  the  said  penalty  to  be  without  hope  of 

The  bull  of  Clement  met  in  France  with  no 
congenial  spirits  to  obey  it.  On  the  con- 
trary, it  was  the  subject  of  universal  con- 
demnation as  arbitrary  and  unjust,  and  the 
parliament  of  Paris  positively  refused  to  en- 
roll it.  But  in  other  Catholic  countries  it  was 
better  respected.  In  Tuscany  the  persecu- 
tions were  unremitting.  A  man  named  Cru- 
deli  was  arrested  at  Florence,  thrown  into  the 
dungeons  of  the  Inquisition,  subjected  to  tor- 
ture, and  finally  sentenced  to  a  long  impris- 
onment, on  the  charge  of  having  furnished  an 
asylum  to  a  Masonic  Lodge.  The  Grand 
Lodge  of  England,  upon  learning  the  circum- 
stances, obtained  his  enlargement,  and  sent 
him  pecuniary  assistance.  Francis  de  Lor- 
raine, who  had  been  initiated  at  The  Hague 
in  1731,  soon  after  ascended  the  grand  ducal 
throne,  and  one  of  the  first  acts  of  his  reign 
was  to  liberate  all  the  Masons  who  bad  been 
incarcerated  by  the  Inquisition;  and  still 
further  to  evince  his  respect  for  the  Order,  he 
personally  assisted  in  the  constitution  of  sev- 
eral Lodges  at  Florence,  and  in  other  cities  of 
his  dominions. 

The  Other  sovereigns  of  Italy  were,  how- 
ever, more  obedient  to  the  behests  of  the  holy 
father,  and  persecutions  continued  to  rage 
throughout  the  peninsula.  Nevertheless,  Ma- 
sonry continued  to  flourish,  and  in  1751,  thir- 
teen years  after  the  emission  of  the  bull  of 
prohibition,  Lodges  were  openly  in  existence 
m  Tuscany,  at  Naples,  and  even  in  the  "eter- 
nal city"  itself. 

The  priesthood,  whose  vigilance  had  abated 
under  the  influence  of  time,  became  once  more 
alarmed,  and  an  edict  was  issued  in  1751  by 
Benedict  XIV.,  who  then  occupied  the  papal 
chair,  renewing  and  enforcing  the  bull  which 
had  been  fulminated  by  Clement. 

This,  of  course,  renewed  the  spirit  of  per- 
secution. In  Spain,  one  Tournon,  a  French- 
man, was  convicted  of  practising  the  rites  of 
Masonry,  and  after  a  tedious  confinement  in 
the  dungeons  of  the  Inquisition,  he  was  finally 
banished  from  the  kingdom. 

In  Portugal,  at  Lisbon,  John  Coustos,  a 
native  of  Switzerland,  was  still  more  severely 
treated.  He  was  subjected  to  the  torture, 
and  suffered  so  much  that  he  was  unable  to 
move  bis  limbs  for  three  months.  Coustos, 



with  two  companions  of  his  reputed  crime,  was 
sentenced  to  the  galleys,  but  was  finally  re- 
leased by  the  interposition  of  the  English  am- 
bassador. . 

In  1745,  the  Council  of  Berne,  in  Switzer- 
land, issued  a  decree  prohibiting,  under  the 
severest  penalties,  the  assemblages  of  Free- 
masons. In  1757,  in  Scotland,  the  Synod  of 
Sterlingadopted  a  resolution  debarring  all  ad- 
hering TVeemasons  from  the  ordinances  of  re- 
ligion. And,  as  if  to  prove  that  fanaticism  is 
everywhere  the  same,  in  1748  the  Divan  at 
Constantinople  caused  a  Masonic  Lodge  to  be 
demolished,  its  jewels  and  furniture  seized, 
and  its  members  arrested.  They  were  dis- 
charged upon  the  interposition  of  the  English 
minister;  Dut  the  government  prohibited  the 
introduction  of  the  Order  into  Turkey. 

America  has  not  been  free  from  the  blighting 
influence  of  this  demon  of  fanaticism.  But  the 
exciting  scenes  of  anti-Masonry  are  too  recent 
to  be  treated  by  the  historian  with  coolness  or 
impartiality.  The  political  party  to  which 
this  spirit  of  persecution  gave  birth  was  the 
most  abject  in  its  principles,  and  the  most 
unsuccessful  in  its  efforts,  of  any  that  our 
times  have  seen.  It  has  passed  away;  the 
clouds  of  anti-Masonry  have  been,  we  trust, 
forever  dispersed,  and  the  bright  sun  of  Ma- 
sonry, once  more  emerging  from  its  tempo- 
rary eclipse,  is  beginning  to  bless  our  landwith 
the  invigorating  heat  and  light  of  its  meridian 

Perseverance.  A  virtue  inculcated;  by  a 
peculiar  symbol  in  the  Third  Degree,  m  ref- 
erence to  the  acquisition  of  knowledge,  and  es- 
pecially the  knowledge  of  the  True  Word. 
(See  Patience.) 

Perseverance,  Order  of.  An  Adoptive 
Order  established  at  Paris,  in  1771,  by  several 
nobles  and  ladies.  It  had  but  little  of  the 
Masonic  character  about  it;  and,  although  at 
the  time  of  its  creation  it  excited  considerable 
sensation,  it  existed  but  for  a  brief  period. 
It  was  instituted  for  the  purpose  of  rendering 
services  to  humanity.  Ragon  says  (Tuileur 
Gen.,  p.  92)  that  there  was  kept  in  the  archives 
of  the  Order  a  quarto  volume  of  four  hundred 
leaves,  in  which  was  registered  all  the  good 
deeds  of  the  brethren  and  sisters.  This  vol- 
ume is  entitled  Livre  d'Honneur  de  I'Ordre  de 
la  Perseverance.  Ragon  intimates  that  this 
document  is  still  in  existence.  Thory  (Fon- 
dationG.  0.,  p.  383)  says  that  there  was  much 
mystification  about  the  establishment  of  the 
Order  in  Paris.  Its  institutors  contended 
that  it  originated  from  time  immemorial  in 
Poland,  a  pretension  to  which  the  King  of 
Poland  lent  his  sanction.  Many  persons  of 
distinction,  and  among  them  Madame  de 
Genlis,  were  deceived  and  became  its  mem- 

Persia.  Neither  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng 
land,  nor  any  other  of  the  European  Powers, 
seem  ever  to  have  organized  Lodges  in  the 
kingdom  of  Persia;  yet  very  strange  and  some- 
what incomprehensible  stories  are  told  by 
credible  authorities  of  the  existence  either  of 
the  Masonic  institution,  or  something  very 


much  like  it,  in  that  country.  In  1808,  on 
November  24th,  Askeri  Khan,the  Ambassa- 
dor of  Persia  near  the  court  of  France,  was  re- 
ceived into  the  Order  at  Paris  by  the  Mother 
Lodge  of  the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite,  on 
which  occasion  the  distinguished  neophyte 
presented  his  sword,  a  pure  Damascus  blade,  ' 
to  the  Lodge,  with  these  remarks "I  promise 
you,  gentlemen,  friendship,  fidelity,  and  es- 
teem. I  have  been  told,  and  I  cannot  doubt 
it,  that  Freemasons  were  virtuous,  charitable, 
and  full  of  love  and  attachment  for  their  sov- 
ereigns. Permit  me  to  make  you  a  present 
worthy  of  true  Frenchmen.  Receive  this 
sabre,  which  has  served  me  in 'twenty-seven 
battles.  May  this  act  of  homage  convince 
you  of  the  sentiments  with  which  you  have  in- 
spired me,  and  of  the  gratification  that  I  feel 
in  belonging  to  your  Order."  The  Ambassa- 
dor subsequently  seems  to  have  taken  a  great 
interest  in  Freemasonry  while  he  remained  in 
France,  and  consulted  with  the  Venerable  of 
the  Lodge  on  the  subject  of  establishing  a 
Lodge  at  Ispahan.  This  is  the  first  account 
that  we  have  of  the  connection  of  any  inhabi- 
tant of  Persia  with  the  Order.  Thory,  who 
gives  this  account  (Act.  LaL,  i.,  237),  does  not 
tell  us  whether  the  project  of  an  Ispahan 
Lodge  was  ever  executed.  But  it  is  probable 
that  on  his  return  home  the  Ambassador  in- 
troduced among  his  friends  some  knowledge  of 
the  Institution,  and  impressed  them  with  a 
favorable  opinion  of  it.  At  all  events,  the  Per- 
sians in  later  times  do  not  seem  to  have  been 
ignorant  of  its  existence. 

Mr.  Holmes,  in  his  Sketches  on  the  Shores  of 
the  Caspian,  gives  the  following  as  the  Persian 
idea  of  Freemasonry: 

"In  the  morning  we  received  a  visit  from 
the  Governor,  who  seemed  rather  a  dull  per- 
son, though  very  polite  and  civil.  He  asked  a 
great  many  questions  regarding  the  Feramoosh 
Khoneh,  as  they  called  the  Freemasons'  Hall 
in  London;  which  is  a  complete  mystery  to  all 
the  Persians  who  have  heard  of  it.  Very  often, 
the  first  question  we  have  been  asked  is, 
'What  do  they  do  at  the  Feramoosh  Khoneh? 
What  is  it? '  They  generally  believe  it  to  be  a 
most  wonderful  place,  where  a  man  may  ac- 
quire in  one  day  the  wisdom  of  a  thousand 
years  of  study;  but  every  one  has  his  own  pe- 
culiar conjectures  concerning  it.  Some  of 
the  Persians  who  went  to  England  became 
Freemasons;  and  their  friends  complain  that 
they  will  not  tell  what  they  saw  at  the  Hall, 
and  cannot  conceive  why  they  should  all  be  so 

And  now  we  have,  from  the  London  Free- 
mason (June  28,  1873),  this  further  account; 
but  the  conjecture  as  to  the  time  of  the  intro- 
duction of  the  Order  unfortunately  wants 

"Of  the  Persian  officers  who  are  present  in 
Berlin  pursuing  military  studies  and  making 
themselves  acquainted  with  Prussian  military 
organization  and  arrangements,  one  belongs 
to  the  Masonic  Order.  He  is  a  Mussulman. 
I  He  seems  to  have  spontaneously  sought  recog- 
I  nition  as  a  member  of  the  Craft  at  a  Berlin 


Lodge,  and  his  claim  was  allowed  only  after 
such  an  examination  as  satisfied  the  brethren 
that  he  was  one  of  the  brethren.  From  the 
statement  of  this  Persian  Mason  it  appears 
that  nearly  all  the  members  of  the  Persian 
Court  belong  to  the  mystic  Order,  even  as 
German  Masonry  enjoys  the  honor  of  count- 
ing the  emperor  and  crown  prince  among  its 
adherents.  The  appearance  of  this  Moham- 
medan Mason  in  Berlin  seems  to  have  excited 
a  little  surprise  among  some  of  the  brethren 
there,  and  the  surprise  would  be  natural 
enough  to  persons  not  aware  of  the  extent  to 
which  Masonry  has  been  diffused  over  the 
earth.  Account  for  it  as  one  may,  the  truth  is 
certain  that  the  mysterious  Order  was  estab- 
lished in  the  Orient  many  ages  ago.  Nearly 
all  of  the  old  Mohammedan  buildings  in  India, 
such  as  tombs,  mosques,  etc.,  are  marked 
with  the  Masonic  symbols,  and  many  of  these 
structures,  still  perfect,  were  built  in  the  time 
of  the  Mogul  Emperor  Akbar,  who  died  in 
1605.  Thus  Masonry  must  have  been  intro- 
duced into  India  from  Middle  Asia  by  the 
Mohammedans  hundreds  of  years  ago." 

Since  then  there  was  an  initiation  of  a  Per- 
sian in  the  Lodge  Clemente  Amitifi  at  Paris. 
There  is  a  Lodge  at  Teheran,  of  which  many 
native  Persians  are  members. 

Persian  Philosophical  Kite.  A  Rite 
which  its  founders  asserted  was  established  in 
1818,  at  Erzerum,  in  Persia,  and  which  was  in- 
troduced into  France  in  the  year  1819.  It 
consisted  of  seven  degrees,  as  follows:  1.  Lis- 
tening Apprentice;  2.  Fellow-Craft,  Adept, 
Esquire  of  Benevolence;  3.  Master,  Knight  of 
the  Sun:  4.  Architect  of  all  Rites,  Knight  of 
the  Philosophy  of  the  Heart;  5.  Knight  of 
Eclecticism  and  of  Truth:  6.  Master  Good 
Shepherd;  7.  Venerable  Grand  Elect.  This 
Rite  never  contained  many  members,  and  has 
been  long  extinct. 

Personal  Merit.  "All  preferment  among 
Masons  is  grounded  upon  real  worth  and  per- 
sonal merit  only,  that  so  the  Lords  may  be  well 
served,  the  Brethren  not  put  to  shame,  nor  the 
Royal  Craft  despised.  Therefore  no  Master 
or  Warden  is  chosen  by  seniority,  but  for  his 
merit."  Charges  of  1723.  (Constitutions,  1723, 
p.  51.) 

Peru.  Freemasonry  was  first  introduced 
into  Peru  about  the  year  1807,  during  the 
French  invasion,  and  several  Lodges  worked 
until  the  resumption  of  the  Spanish  authority 
and  the  Papal  influence,  in  1813,  when  then* 
existence  terminated.  In  1825,  when  the  in- 
dependence of  the  republic,  declared  some 
years  before,  was  completely  achieved,  several 
Scottish  Rite  Lodges  were  established,  first  at 
Lima  and  then  at  other  points,  by  the  Grand 
Orient  of  Colombia.  A  Supreme  Council  of 
the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Rite  was  instituted 
in  1830.  In  1831  an  independent  Grand 
Lodge,  afterward  styled  the  Grand  Orient  of 
Peru,  was  organized  by  the  Symbolic  Lodges 
in  the  republic.  Political  agitations  have, 
from  time  to  time,  occasioned  a  cessation  of 
Masonic  labor,  but  both  the  Supreme  Council 
and  the  Grand  Orient  are  now  in  successful 


operation.  The  Royal  Arch  Degree  was  in- 
troduced in  1852  by  the  establishment  of  a 
Royal  Arch  Chapter  at  Callao,  under  a  War- 
rant granted  by  the  Supreme  Chapter  of  Scot- 
land. , 

Petition  for  a  Charter.  The  next  step  in 
the  process  of  organizing  a  Lodge,  after  the 
Dispensation  has  Deen  granted  by  the  Grand 
Master,  is  an  application  for  a  Charter  or  War- 
rant of  Constitution.  The  application  may 
be,  but  not  necessarily,  in  the  form  of  a  peti- 
tion. On  the  report  of  the  Grand  Master, 
that  he  had  granted  a  Dispensation,  the  Grand 
Lodge,  if  the  new  Lodge  is  recommended  by 
some  other,  generally  the  nearest  Lodge,  will 
confirm  the  Grand  Master's  action  and  grant 
a  Charter;  although  it  may  refuse  to  do  so, 
and  then  the  Lodge  will  cease  to  exist.  Char- 
ters or  Warrants  for  Lodges  are  granted  only 
by  the  Grand  Lodge  in  America,  Ireland  and 
Scotland.  In  England  this  great  power  is 
Vested  in  the  Grand  Master.  The  Consti- 
tutions of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  say 
that  "every  application  for  a  Warrant  to  hold 
a  new  Lodge  must  be,  by  petition  to  the  Grand 
Master,  signed  by  at  least  seven  regularly 
registered  Masons."  Although,  in  the  United 
States,  it  is  the  general  usage  that  a  Warrant 
must  be  preceded  by  a  Dispensation,  yet  there 
is  no  general  law  which  would  forbid  the " 
Grand  Lodge  to  issue  a  Charter  in  the  first 
place,  no  Dispensation  having  been  previously 

The  rule  for  issuing  Charters  to  Lodges  pre- 
vails, with  no  modification  in  relation  to  grant- 
ing them  by  Grand  Chapters,  Grand  Councils, 
or  Grand  Commanderies  for  the  bodies  subor- 
dinate to  them. 

Petition  for  a  Dispensation.  When  it 
is  desired  to  establish  a  new  Lodge,  applica- 
tion by  petition  must  be  made  to  the  Grand 
Master.  This  petition  ought  to  be  signed  by 
at  least  seven  Master  Masons,  and  be  recom- 
mended by  the  nearest  Lodge;  and  it  should 
contain  the  proposed  name  of  the  Lodge  and 
the  names  of  the  three  principal  officers.  This 
is  the  usage  of  America;  but  it  must  be  re- 
membered that  the  Grand  Master's  preroga- 
tive of  granting  Dispensations  cannot  be 
rightfully  restricted  by  any  law.  Only, 
should  the  Grand  Master  grant  a  Dispensa- 
tion for  a  Lodge  which,  in  its  petition^  had  not 
complied  with  these  prerequisites,  it  is  not 
probable  that,  on  subsequent  application  to 
the  Grand  Lodge,  a  Warrant  of  Constitution 
would  be  issued. 

Petition  for  Initiation.  According  to 
American  usage  any  person  who  is  desirous  of 
initiation  into  the  mysteries  of  Masonry  must 
apply  to  the  Lodge  nearest  to  his  place  of 
residence,  by  means  of  a  petition  signed  by 
himself,  and  recommended  by  at  least  two 
members  of  the  Lodge  to  which  he  applies. 
The  application  of  a  Mason  to  a  Chapter. 
Council,  or  Commandery  for  advancement 
to  higher  degrees,  or  of  an  unaffiliated  Ma- 
son for  membership  in  a  Lodge,  is  also 
called  a  petition.  For  the  rules  that  govern 
the  disposition  of  these  petitions,  see  Dr. 



Mackey's  Text  Book  of  Masonic  Jurisprudence, 
Book  I.,  ch.  ii. 

Peuvret,  Jean  Eustache.  An  usher  of 
the  parliament  of  Paris,  and  Past  Master  of 
the  Lodge  of  St.  Pierre  in  Martinico,  and  af- 
terward a  dignitary  of  the  Grand  Orient  at 
France.  Peuvret  was  devoted  to  Hermetic 
Masonry,  and  acquired  some  reputation  by 
numerous  compilations  on  Masonic  subjects. 
During  his  life  he  amassed  a  valuable  library 
of  mystical,  alchemical,  and  Masonic  books, 
and  a  manuscript  collection  of  eighty-one 
degrees  of  Hermetic  Masonry  in  six  quarto 
volumes.  He  asserts  in  this  work  that  the 
degrees  were  brought  from5England  and  Scot- 
land; but  this  Thory  (Act.  Lot.,  L,  205)  denies, 
and  says  that  they  were  manufactured  in 
Paris.  Peuvret's  exceeding  seal  without 
knowledge  made  him  the  victim  of  every  char- 
latan who  approached  him.  He  died  at  Paris 
in  1800. 

Phalnoteletlan  Society.  (Sociite  Phaln- 
ot&ete.)  A  society  founded  at  Paris,  in  1840, 
by  Louis  Theodore  Juge,  the  editor  of  the 
Globe,  composed  of  members  of  all  rites  and 
degrees,  for  the  investigation  of  all  non-politi- 
cal  secret  associations  of  ancient  and  modern 
times.  The  title  is  taken  from  the  Greek,  and 
signifies  literally  the  society  of  the  explainers 
of  the  mysteries  of  initiation- 
Phallic  Worship.  The  Phallus  was  a 
sculptured  representation  of  the  membrum 
virile,  or  male  organ  of  generation;  and  the 
worship  of  it  is  said  to  have  originated  in 
Egypt,  where,  after  the  murder  of  Osiris  by 
Typhon,  which  is  symbolically  to  be  explained 
as  the  destruction  or  deprivation  of  the  sun's 
light  by  night,  Isis,  his  wife,  or  the  symbol  of 
nature,  in  the  search  for  his  mutilated  body,  is 
said  to  have  found  all  the  parts  except  the 
organs  of  generation,  which  myth  is  simply 
symbolic  of  the  fact  that  the  sun  having  set, 
its  fecundating  and  invigorating  power  had 
ceased.  The  Phallus,  therefore,  as  the  symbol 
of  the  male  generative- principle,  was  very 
universally  venerated  among  the  ancients,  and 
that  too  as  a  religious  rite,  without  the  slight- 
est reference  to  any  impure  or  lascivious  appli- 

As  a  symbol  of  the  generative  principle  of 
nature,  the  worship  of  the  Phallus  appears  to 
have  been  very  nearly  universal.  In  the  mys- 
teries it  was  carried  in  solemn  procession. 
The  Jews,  in  their  numerous  deflections  into 
idolatry,  fell  readily  into  that  of  this  symbol. 
And  they  did  this  at  a  very  early  period  of 
their  history,  for  we  are  told  that  even  in  the 
time  of  the  Judges  (Jud.  iii.  7)  they  "served 
Baalim  and  the  groves."  Now  the  word  trans- 
lated, here  and  elsewhere,  as  groves,  is  in  the 
original  Asfierah,  and  is  by  all  modern  inter- 
preters supposed  to  mean  a  species  of  Phallus. 
Thus  Movers  (Phdniz.,  p.  56)  says  that  Ash- 
erah  is  a  sort  of  Phallus  erected  to  the  telluric 
goddesB  Baaltes,  and  the  learned  Holloway 
(.Originals,  i.,  18)  had  long  before  come  to  the 
same  conclusion. 

But  the  Phallus,  or,  as  it  was  called  among 
the  Orientalists,  the  Lingam,  was  a  represen- 

tation of  the  male  principle  only.  To  perfect 
the  circle  of  generation,  it  is  necessary  to  ad- 
vance one  step  farther.  Accordingly  we  find 
in  the  Cteis  of  the  Greeks,  and  the  Font"  of  the 
Indians,  a  symbol  of  the  female  generative 
principle  of  coextensive  prevalence  with  the 
Phallus.  The  Cteis  was  a  circular  and  con- 
cave pedestal,  or  receptacle,  on  which  the 
Phallus  or  column  rested,  and  from  the  center 
of  which  it  sprang. 

The  union  of  these  two,  as  the  generative 
and  the  producing  principles  of  nature,  in  one 
compound  figure,  was  the  most  usual  mode  of 
representation.  And  here,  I  think,  we  un- 
doubtedly find  the  remote  origin  of  the  point 
within  a  circle,  an  ancient  symbol  which  was 
first  adopted  by  the  old  sun-worshipers,  and 
then  by  the  ancient  astronomers,  as  a  sym- 
bol of  .the  sun  surrounded  by  the  earth  or  the 
universe — the  sun  as  the  generator  and  the 
earth  as  the  producer^-and  afterward  modified 
in  its  signification  and  incorporated  into 
the  symbolism  of  Freemasonry.  (See  Point 
within  a  Circle.) 

Phallus.  Donegan  says  from  an  Egyptian 
or  Indian  root.    (See  Phallic  Worship.) 

Pharaxal.  A  significant  word  in  the  high 
degrees,  and  there  said,  in  the  old  rituals, 
to  signify  "we  shall  all  be  united,"  Belaunay 
gives  it  as  pharos  kol,  and  says  it  means  "all 
is  explained."  If  it  is  derived  from  S^B, 
and  the  adverbial  ?p,  kol,  "altogether,"  it 
certainly  means  not  to  be  united,  but  to  be 
separated,  and  has  the  same  meaning  as  its 
cognate  polkal.  This  incongruity  in  the  words 
and  then*  accepted  explanation  has  led  Bro. 
Pike  to  reject  them  both  from  the  degree  in 
which  they  are  originally  found.  And  it  is 
certain  that  the  radical  pal  and  phar  both  have 
everywhere  in  Hebrew  the  idea  of  separation. 
But  my  reading  of  the  old  rituals  compels  me 
to  believe  that  the  degree  in  which  these 
words  are  found  always  contained  an  idea 
of  separation  and  subsequent  reunion.  It 
is  evident  that  there  was  either  a  blunder  in 
the  original  adoption  of  the  word  pharaxal, 
or  more  probably  a  cortuption  by  subsequent 
copyists.  I  am  satisfied  that  the  ideas  of 
division,  disunion,  or  separation,  and  of  sub- 
sequent reunion,  are  correct;  but  I  am  equally 
satisfied  that  the  Hebrew  form  of  this  word  is 

Pharisees.  A  school  among  the  Jews 
at  the_  time  of  Christ,  so  called  from  the 
Aramaic  Peruskitn,  Separated,  because  they 
held  themselves  apart,  from  the  rest  of 
the  nation.  They  claimed  to  have  a  mys- 
terious knowledge  unknown  to  the  mass  of 
the  people,  and  pretended  to  the  exclusive 
possession  of  the  true  meaning  of  the  Scrip- 
tures, by  virtue  of  the  oral  law  and  the 
secret  traditions  which,  having  been  received 
by  Moses  on  Mount  Sinai,  had  been  trans- 
mitted to  successive  generations  of  initiates. 
They  are  supposed  to  have  been  essentially 
the  same  as  the  Assideans  or  Chasidim.  The 
character  of  their  organization  is  interesting 
to  the  Masonic  student.  They  held  a  secret 
doctrine,  of  which  the  dogma  of  the  resurrec- 


tion  was  an  important  feature;  they  met  in 
sodalities  or  societies,  the  members  of  which 
called  themselves  ehabirini,  fellows  or  asso- 
ciates; and  they  styled  all  who  were  outside 
of  their  mystical  association,  yam  hanaretz, 
or  people  of  the  land.       ...  , 

Phoenicia.  The  Latinized  form  of  the 
Greek  Phoinikia,  from  <M«I,  a  palm,  be- 
cause of  the  number  of  palms  anciently, 
but  not  now,  found  in  the  country.  A 
tract  of  country  on  the  north  of  Palestine, 
along  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,,  of 
which  Tyre  and  Sidon  were  the  principal 
cities.  The  researches  of  Gesenius  and 
other  modern  philologers  have  confirmed  the 
assertions  of  Jerome  and  Augustine,  that 
the  language  spoken  by  the  Jews  and  the 
Phoenicians  was  almost  identical;  a  statement 
interesting  to  the  Masonic  student  as  giving 
another  reason  for  the  bond  which  existed  be- 
tween Solomon  and  Hiram,  and  between 
the  Jewish  workmen  and  their  f  eltow-tafcorers 
of  Tyre,  in  the  construction  of  the  Temple 

(See  Tyre-i  ,     ,         ..     .      .  . 

Philadelphia.  Placed  on  the  imprint 
of  some  Masonic  works  of  the  last  century 
as  a  pseudonym  of  Paris.  .  . 

Phlladelphians,  Bite  of  the.  See  Pnmi- 

Philadelphes,  Lodge  of  the.  The  name 
of  a  Lodge  at  Narbonne,  in  France,  in  which 
the  Primitive  Rite  was  first  instituted ;  whence 
it  is  sometimes  called  the  "Rite  of  the  Phua- 
delphians."    (See  Primitive  Rite.) 

Philalethes,  Bite  of  the.  Called  also 
the  Seekers  of  Truth,  although  the  word 
literally  means  Friends  of  Truth.   It  was  a 
Rite  founded  in  1773  at  Paris,  m  the  Lodge  of 
Amis  Reunis,  by  Savalette  de  Langes,  keeper 
of  the  Royal  Treasury,  with  whom  were 
associated  the  Vicomte  de  Tavannes,  Court 
de  Gebelin,  M.  de  Sainte-Jamos,  the  President 
d'Hericourt,  and  the  Prince  of  Hesse.  The 
Rite,  which  was  principally  founded  on  the 
system  of  Martinism,  did  not  confine  itself 
to  any  particular  mode  of  instruction,  but  m 
its  reunions,  called  "convents,"  the  members 
devoted  themselves  to  the  study  of  all  kinds 
of  knowledge  that  were  connected  with  the 
occult  sciences,  and  thus  they  welcomed  to 
their  association  all  who  had  made  them- 
selves remarkable  by  the  singularity  ot  the 
novelty  of  their  opinions,  such  as  eaghostro, 
Mesmer,  and  Saint  Martin.   It  was  divided 
into  twelve  classes  or  chambers  of  instruction. 
The  names  of  these  classes  or  degrees  were  as 
follows:  1.  Apprentice;  2.  Fellow-Craft;  3. 
Master;  4.  fleet;  5.  Jcottish  Master;  6. 
Knight  of  the  East;  7.  Rose  Croix;  8.  Knight 
of  the  Temple;  9.  Unknown  Philosopher ;  10. 
Sublime  Philosopher;  11.  Initiate;  12.  Phila- 
lethes, or  Searcher  after  Truth.   The  first 
Bix  degrees  were  called  Petty,  and  the  last 
six  High  Masonry.   The  Rite  did  not  increase 



very  rapidly  ;  nine  years  after  its  institution, 
it  counted  only  twenty  Lodges  in  France  and 
in  foreign  countries  which  were  of  its  obedi- 
ence. In  1785  it  attempted  a  radical  reform 
ia  Masonry,  and  for  this  purpose  invited  the 


most  distinguished  Masons  of  all  countries 
to  a  congress  at  Paris.  But  the  project  failed, 
and  Savalette  de  Langes  dying  m  1788,  the 
Rite,  of  which  he  alone  was  the  soul,  ceased 
to  exist,  and  the  Lodge  of  Amis  Reunis  was 

dissolved.  ,  „,   -r.  ,  „  mav. 

Philip  IV.  Surnamed  "le  Bel,"  or  "the 
Fair,"  who  ascended  the  throne  of  France 
in  1285.  He  is  principally  distinguislied  in 
history  on  account  of  his  persecution  of  the 
Knights  Templar.  With  the  aid  of  his  willing 
instrument.  Pope  Clement  V.,  he  succeeded 
in  accomplishing  the  overthrow  of  the  Order. 
He  died  in  1314,  execrated  by  his  subjects, 
whose  hearts  he  had  alienated  by  the  cruelty, 
avarice,  and  despotism  of  his  administra- 

tl0philipplan  Order.  Finch  gives  this  as  the 
name  of  a  secret  Order  instituted  by  King 
Philip  "for  the  use  only  of  his  first  nobility 
and  principal  officers,  who  thus  formed  a  select 
and  secret  council  in  which  he  could  implicitly 
confide."  It  has  attracted  the  attention  of 
no  other  Masonic  writer,  and  was  probably 
no  more  than  a  coinage  of  a  charlatans 
brain.  ... 

Phllocoreltes,  Order  of.  An  androgy- 
nous secret  society  established  in  the  French 
army  in  Spain,  in  1808.  The  members  were 
called  Knights  and  Ladies  Philocoreites,  or 
Lovers  of  Pleasure.  It  was  not  Masonic  in 
character.  But  Thory  has  thought  it  worth 
a  long  description  in  his  History  of  the  Founda- 
tion  of  the  Grand  Orient  of  France. 

Philo  Judseus.  A  Jewish  philosopher 
of  the  school  of  Alexandria,  who  was  born 
about  thirty  years  before  Christ.  Philo 
adopted  to  their  full  extent  the  mystical 
doctrines  of  his  school,  and  taught  that  the 
Hebrew  Scriptures  contained,  in  a  system 
of  allegories,  the  real  source  of  all  religious 
and  philosophical  knowledge,  the  true  mean- 
ing of  which  was  to  be  excluded  from  the  vul- 
gar, to  whom  the  literal  signification  alone 
was  to  be  made  known.  Whoever,  says  he, 
has  meditated  on  philosophy,  has  purified 
himself  by  virtue,  and  elevated  himself  by  a 
contemplative  life  to  God  and  the  intellectual 
world,  receiving  their  inspiration,  thus  pierces 
the  gross  envelop  of  the  letter,  and  is  initiated 
into  mysteries  of  which  the  literal  instruction 
is  but  a  faint  image.  A  fact,  a  figure,  a  word, 
a  rite  or  custom,  veils  the  profoundest  truths, 
to  be  interpreted  only  by  him  who  has  the 
true  key  of  science.  Such  symbolic  views 
were  eagerly  seized  by  the  early  inventors 
of  the  high,  philosophical  degrees  of  Masonry, 
who  have  made  frequent  use  of  the  esoteric 
philosophy  of  Philo  in  the  construction  of  their 
Masonic  system. 

Philosopher,  Christian.  (PhUosophe 
Chrttien.)  The  Fourth  Degree  of  the  Order 
of  African  Architects. 

Philosopher,  Grand  and  Sublime  Her- 
metic. {Grand  et  SuUime  PhUosophe  Her- 
mttique.)  A  degree  in  the  manuscript  collec- 
tion of  Peuvret.  Twelve  other  degrees  of 
Philosopher  were  contained  in  the  same 
collection,  namely,  Grand  Neapolitan  Pmloso- 




pher  Grand  Practical  Philosopher,  Kab- 
bahstic  Philosopher,  Kabbalistic  Philosopher 
to  tiie  Number  5,  Perfect  Mason  Philosopher, 
Perfect  Master  Philosopher,  Petty  Neapolitan 

Philosopher,  Petty  Practical  Philosoph 
feubhme  Philosopher,  Sublime  Philosoph 


—  _  .  „„„„1,iiv,i ,  uuuumc  jruuoBopher 
to  the  Number  9,  and  Sublime  Practical  Phi- 
losopher. They  are  probably  all  Kabbalistic 
or  Hermetic  degrees. 

Philosopher  of  Hermes.  (PhUosophe 
a  Hermes.)  A  degree  contained  in  the  Ar- 
chives of  the  Lodge  of  St.  Louis  des  Amis 
Reunis  at  Calais. 

Philosopher,  Sublime.  (Sublime  Phi- 
hsophe s.)  1.  The  Fifty-third  Degree  of  the 
Rite  of  Mianum  2.  The  tenth  class  of  the 
Rite  of  the  Philalethes. 
7  Ph0»?°,Pher.  SubUme  Unknown.  (Svb- 
hm*.  Philosophe  Inconnu.)  The  Seventy- 
ninth  Degree  of  the  Metropolitan  Chapter 
of  France.  r 

Philosopher,  The  Little.  (U  ■petit  Phi- 
tosophe.)   A  degree  in  the  collection  of  Pyron. 

Philosopher,  Unknown.  (PhOosophe 
(n^rmu.)  The  ninth  class  of  the  Rite  of  the 
Wulalethes.  It  was  so  called  in  reference  to 
bt.  Martin,  who  had  adopted  that  title  as 
his  pseudonym,  and  was  universally  known 
by  it  among  his  disciples. 

Philosopher's  Stone.   It  was  the  doctrine 
of  the  alchemists,  that  there  was  a  certain 
mineral,  the  discovery  of  which  was  the  ob- 
ject of  their  art,  because,  being  mixed  with 
the  baser  metals,  it  would  transmute  these 
into  gold.   This  mineral,  known  only  to  the 
adepts,  they  called  lapis  philosophorum,  or 
the  philosopher's  stone.    Hitahcock,  who 
wrote  a  book  in  1857  (Alchemy  and  the  Al- 
chemists), to  maintain  the  proposition  that 
alchemy  was  a  symbolic  science,  that  its 
subject  was  Man,  and  its  object  the  per- 
fection of  men,  asserts  that  the  philosopher's 
stone  was  a  symbol  of  man.    He  quotes 
the  old  Hermetic  philosopher,  Isaac  Holland, 
as  saying  that  "though  a  man  be  poor,  yet 
may  he  very  well  attain  unto  it  [the  work  of 
perfection],  and  may  be  employed  in  making 
*ne  philosopher's  st<>ne."    And  Hitchcock 
(p.  7b),  in  commenting  on  this,  says:  "That  is, 
every  man,  no  matter  how  humble  his  voca- 
tion, may  do  the  best  he  can  in  his  place— 
^7  Ipve  mercy,  do  justly,  and  walk  humbly 
with  God';  and  what  more  doth  God  require 
of  any  man?"  ^ 

If  this  interpretation  be  correct,  then  the 
philosopher's  stone  of  the  alchemists,  and 
the  spiritual  temple  of  the  Freemasons  are 
identical  symbols. 

Philosophic  Degrees.  All  the  degrees 
of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite 
above  the  Eighteenth  and  below  the  Thirty- 
third  are  called  philosophic  degrees,  because, 
abandoning  the  symbolism  based  on  the 
1  emple,  they  seek  to  develop  a  system  of  pure 
theosophy.  Some  writers  have  contended 
that  the  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth  degrees 
should  be  classed  with  the  philosophic  degrees. 
But  this  is  not  correct,  since  both  of  those 
degrees  have  preserved  the  idea  of  the  Temple 

system.  They  ought  rather  to  be  called 
apocalyptic  degrees,  the  Seventeenth  espe- 
cially, because  they  do  not  teach  the  ancient 
philosophies,  but  are  connected  in  their 
symbolism  with  the  spiritual  temple  of  the 
New  Jerusalem. 

Philosophic  Scottish  Bite.  This  Rite 
consists  of  twelve  degrees,  as  follows:  1.  2.  3 
Knight  of  the  Black  Eagle  or  Rose  Croix  of 
Heredom,  divided  into  three  parts;  4.  Knight 
of  the  Phemx;  5.  Knight  of  the  Sun;  6.  Knight 
of  the  Rainbow;  7.  True  Mason;  8.  Knilht 

Fleece;  10.  Perfectly  Initiated  Grand  Inspec- 
v  '  ii"  Grand  Scottish  Inspector;  12.  Sub- 
hme  Master  of  the  Luminous  Ring. 

The  three  degrees  of  Ancient  Craft  Ma- 
sonry form  the  necessary  basis  of  this  sys- 
tem, although  they  do  not  constitute  a  part 
ot  the  Rite.   In  its  formation  it  expressly 
renounced  the  power  to  constitute  Symbolic 
Lodges,  but  reserved  the  faculty  of  affih'atine 
regularly  constituted  Lodges  into  its  hiiS 
degrees.    Thory  ipond.  du  G.  0.,  p.  162) 
seems  desirous  of  tracing  the  origin  of  the 
Kite  to  the  Rosicrucians  of  the  fourteenth 
century.    But  the  reasons  which  he  assigns 
tor  this  belief  are  by  no  means  satisfactory. 
1  he  truth  is,  that  the  Rite  was  founded  in 
1775,  in  the  celebrated  Lodge  of  the  Social 
Contract  (Contrat  Social),  and  that  its  prin- 
cipal founder  was  M.  Boileau,  a  physician  of 
£aris,  who  had  been  a  disciple  of  Pernetti, 
the  originator  of  the  Hermetic  Rite  at  Avignon 
whose  Hermetic  principles  he  introduced  into 
the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite.   Some  notion 
may  be  formed  of  the  nature  of  the  system 
which  was  taught  in  this  Rite,  from  the  name 
of  the  degree  which  is  at  its  summit.  The 

,  .i™1110118  Ring  is  a  Pythagorean  degree.  In 
1780,  an  Academy  of  the  Sublime  Masters 
of  the  Luminous  Ring  was  established  in 
France,  m  which  the  doctrine  was  taught 
that  Freemasonry  was  originally  founded  by 
Pythagoras,  and  in  which  the  most  impor- 
tant portion  of  the  lectures  was  engaged  in  an 
explanation  of  the  peculiar  dogmas  of  the  saee 
of  Samoa. 

The  chief  seat  of  the  Rite  had  always  been 
in  the  Lodge  of  Social  Contract  until  1792 
when,  m  common  with  all  the  other  Masonic 
bodies  of  France,  it  suspended  its  labors.  It 
was  resuscitated  at  the  termination  of  the 
Revolution,  and  in  1805  the  Lodge  of  the 
bocial  Contract,  and  that  of  St.  Alexander 
of  Scotland,  assumed  the  title  of  the  "Mother 
Lodge  of  the  Philosophic  Scottish  Rite  in 
France.  This  body  was  eminently  literary 
in  its  character,  and  in  1811  and  1812  pos- 
sessed a  mass  of  valuable  archives,  among 
which  were  a  number  of  old  charters,  manu- 
script rituals,  and  Masonic  works  of  great 
interest,  in  all  languages. 

Philosophus.  The  fourth  grade  of  the 
i<irst  Order  of  the  Society  of  Rosicrucians,  as 
practised  m  Europe  and  America. 

Philosophy  Sublime.  (Philosophic  Sub- 
lime.) The  Forty-eighth  Degree  of  the  Rite 
of  Mizraim. 


Phoenfx.   The  old  mythological  legend  of 
the  phoenix  is  a  familiar  one.    The  bird  was 
described  as  of  the  size  of  an  eagle,  with  a 
head  finely  crested,  a  body  covered  with 
beautiful  plumage,  and  eyes  sparkling  like 
stars.    She  was  said  to  live  six  hundred  years 
m  the  wilderness,  when  she  built  for  herself 
a  funereal  pile  Of  aromatic  woods,  which 
she  ignited  with  the  fanning  of  her  wines 
and  emerged  from  the  flames  with  a  new  life' 
Hence  the  phoenix  has  been  adopted  uni- 
versally as  a  symbol  of  immortality.  Hieeins 
(Anacalypsis,  11.,  441)  says  that  the  phoenix  is 
the  symbol  of  an  ever-revolving  solar  cycle 
of  six  hundred  and  eight  years,  and  refers  to 
the  Phoenician  word  phen,  which  signifies  a 
cycle.   Aumont,  the  first  Grand  Master  of 
the  lemplars  after  the  martyrdom  of  De  Mo- 
lay,  and  oaJled  the  "Restorer  of  the  Order  " 
took,  it  is  said,  for  his  seal,  a  phoenix  brooding 
on  the  flames,  with  the  motto, u  Ardet  ut  vivat n  I 
— -i>he  burns  that  she  may  live.   The  phoenix  | 
was  adopted  at  a  very  early  period  as  a 
Christian  symbol,  and  several  representations 
of  it  have  been  found  in  the  catacombs.  Its 
ancient  legend,  doubtless,  caused  it  to  be 
accepted  as  a  symbol  of  the  resurrection. 

Phylacteries.   The  second  fundamental 
principle  of  Judaism  is  the  wearing  of  phy- 
lacteries; termed  by  some  writers  Tataphoth, 
ornaments,"  and  refer  to  the  law  and  com- 
mandments, as  "Bind  them  about  thy  neck; 
write  them  upon ithe  table  of  thine  head" 
(Prov.  m.  3;  vi.  21:  viii.  3.)   The  phylacteries 
are  worn  on  the  forehead  and  arm,  and  are 
called  m  Hebrew  TephUlin,  from  Palal,  to 
pray.   These  consist  of  two  leathern  boxes. 
One  contains  four  compartments,  in  which 
are  enclosed  four  portions  of  the  law  written 
on  parchment  and  carefully  folded.    The  box 
is  made  of  leather  pressed  upon  blocks  of  wood 
specially  prepared,  the  leather  being  well 
soaked  in  water.   The  following  passages 
of  the  law  are  sewn  into  it:  Ex.  xiii.  1-10, 11- 
16;  Deut.  vi.  4-9;  xi.  13-21.   On  this  box  is 
the  letter  E?  (shin),  with  three  strokes  for 
the  right  side,  and  the  same  letter  with  four 
strokes  for  the  left  side  of  the  wearer.  The 
second  box  has  but  one  compartment,  into 
which  the  same  passages  of  Scripture  are 
sewed  with  the  sinews  of  animals,  specially 
prepared  for  this  object.   The  phylacteries 
are  bound  on  the  forehead  and  arm  by  long 
leathern  straps.   The  straps  on  the  head 
must  be  tied  in  a  knot  shaped  like  the  letter 
1  (dcUeth).   The  straps  on  the  arm  must  go 
round  it  seven  times,  and  three  times  round 
the  middle  finger,  with  a  small  surplus  over 
in  the  form  of  the  letter  ">  (yod).   Thus  we 
have  the  "HE?,- Shaddai,  or  Almighty.  The 
phylacteries  are  kept  in  special  bags,  with 
greatest  reverence,  and  the  Rabbis  assert 
that  the  single  precept  of  the  phylacteries 
is  equal  to  all  the  commandments." 

Physical  Qualifications.  The  physical 
qualifications  of  a  candidate  for  initiation 
into  Masonry  may  be  considered  under  the 
three  heads  of  Sex,  Age,  and  Bodily  Conforma- 
tion.  1.  As  to  Sex.   It  is  a  landmark  that  the 



candidate  shall  be  a  man.  This,  of  course 
prohibits  the  initiation  of  a  woman.  2 ™5 
to  Age  I  he  candidate  must,  say  the  Old 
Rations,  be  of  "mature'  anl  discreel 
™ «„MT he  n.tuaJ.  f°rblds  ^e  initiation  of 
an  old  man  in  his  dotage,  or  a  voune  man 
under  age."  The  man  who  hi  &  Z 
faculties  by  an  accumulation  of  years,  or  not 
yet  acquired  them  in  their  fufi  extent  by 
immaturity  of  age,  is  equally  incapable  of 
mixtion  (See  Dotage  Hand  *M X  Ag °) 
d.  As  to  Bodily  Conformation.  The  Gothic 
Constitutions  of  926,  or  what  is  said  to  be 
that  document,  prescribe  that  the  candidate 
must  be  without  blemish,  and  have  the  full 
and  proper  use  of  his  limbs5':  and  the  Charges 
3f,17?2  say  "that  he  must  have  no  maim  or 
defect  m  his  body  that  may  render  him  inca- 
pable of  learning  the  art,  of  serving  his  Mas- 
ter s  lord,  and  of  being  made  a  brother." 
(ConstUuhom,  1723,  p.  51.)  And  although  a 
few  jurists  have  been  disposed  to  interpret 
tnis  law  with  unauthorized  laxity,  the  general 
spirit  of  the  Institution,  and  of  all  its  authori- 

lies,  la  T.r»  nKconra  i4-  »-I™,n —    /a  j  i        *  ■ 

— -  --  — ~  — ....a™™,  ouu  ux  an  llB  aumon- 
ties,  is  to  observe  it  rigidly.  (See  the  subject 
fully  dicussed  in  Dr.  Mackey's  Text  Book  of 
Masonic  Jurisprudence,  pp.  100-113  ) 

Picart's  Ceremonies.  Bernard  Picart 
was  a  celebrated  engraver  of  Amsterdam, 
and  the  author  of  a  voluminous  work,  which 
was  begun  in  1723,  and  continued  after  his 
death,  until  1737,  by  J.  F.  Bernard,  entitled 
Ceremonies  Religieuses  de  tons  les  peupk  du 
monde.  A  second  edition  was  published  at 
Pans,  in  1741,  by  the  Abbe's  Banier  and  Le 
Mascrier,  who  entirely  remodeled  the  work; 
and  a  third  in  1783  by  a  set  of  free-thinkers, 
who  disfigured,  and  still  further  altered  the 
text  to  suit  their  own  views.  Editions,  pro- 
fessing to  be  reprints  of  the  original  one,  have 
been  subsequently  published  in  1807-9  and 
1816.  The  book  has  been  recently  deemed 
of  some  importance  by  the  investigators 
of  the  Masonic  history  of  the  last  century, 
because  it  contains  an  engraved  fist  in  two 
pages  of  the  English  Lodges  which  were  in 
existence  in  1735.  The  plate  .is,  however,  of 
no  value  as  an  original  authority,  since  it  is 
merely  a  copy  of  tie  Engraved  List  of  Lodges, 
published  by  J.  Pine  in  1735. 

Pickax.  An  instrument  used  to  loosen 
the  soil  and  prepare  it  for  digging.  It  is  one 
of  the  working-tools  of  a  Royal  Arch  Mason, 
and  symbolically  teaches  him  to  loosen  from 
his  heart  the  hold  of  evil  habits. 

Piece  of  Architecture.  (Morceau  d' Ar- 
chitecture.) The  French  so  call  a  discount 
poem,  or  other  production  on  the  subject  of 
Freemasonry.  The  definition  previously 
given  in  this  work  under  the  title  Architecture, 
in  being  confined  to  the  minutes  of  the  Lodge, 
is  not  sufficiently  comprehensive. 

Pike,  Albert.  Born  at  Boston,  Mass., 
December  29>  1809,  and  died  April  2,  1891. 
After  a  sojourn  in  early  life  in  Mexico,  he 
returned  to  the  United  States  and  settled  in 
Little  Rock,  Arkansas,  as  an  editor  and 
lawyer.  Subsequent  to  the  War  of  the 
Rebellion,  in  which  he  had  cast  his  fortunes 



with  the  South,  he  located  m  Washington. 
DC,  uniting  with  ex-Senator  Robert  Johnson 
in  the  profession  of  the  law,  making  his  home, 
ver,  in  Alexandria.   His  library,  m  ex- 

however,  m  Aiexanarat.  xxm  ~~ 
tent  and  selections,  was  a  marvel,  .especially 
in  all  that  pertains  to  the  wonders  in  ancient 
literature.  Pro.  Pike  was  the  Sov.  G.  Com- 
mander of  the  Southern  Supreme  Council, 
A.  A.  Scottish  Rite,  having  been  elected  m 
1859.  He  was  Prov.  G.  Master  of  the  U. 
Lodge  of  the  Royal  Order  of  Scotland  in  the 
U.  S.,  and  an  honorary  member  of  almost 
every  Supreme  Council  in  the  world.  His 
standing  as  a  Masonic  author  and  historian, 
and  withal  as  a  poet,  was  most  distinguished, 
and  his  untiring  zeal  was  without  a  parallel. 

Pilgrim*  A  pilgrim  (from  the  Italian 
pelegrino,  and  that  from  the  Latin  peregnnus, 
signifying  a  traveler)  denotes  one  who  visits 
holy  places  from  a  principle  of  devotion. 
Dante  (Vita  Nuova)  distinguishes  pilgrims 
from  palmers  thus:  palmers  were  those  who 
went  beyond  the  sea  to  the  East,  and  often 
brought  baek  staves  of  palm-wood;  while 
pilgrims  went  only  to  the  shrine  of  St.  J  ago, 
in  Spain.  But  Sir  Walter  Scott  says  that 
the  palmers  were  in  the  habit  of  passing  from 
shrine  to  shrine,  living  on  charity ;  but  pilgrims 
made  the  journey  to  any  shrine  only  once; 
and  this  is  the  more  usually  accepted  dis- 
tinction of  the  two  classes. 

In  the  Middle  Ages,  Europe  was  filled 
with  pilgrims  repairing  to  Palestine  to  pay 
their  veneration  to  the  numerous  spots  con- 
secrated in  the  annals  of  Holy  writ,  more 
especially  to  the  sepulcher  of  our  Lord 

"It  is  natural,"  says  Robertson  (.Hist.,  ch. 
v.,  i.,  19),  "to  the  human  mind,  to  view  those 

E laces  which  have  been  distinguished  by 
eing  the  residence  of  any  illustrious  per- 
sonage, or  the  scene  of  any  great  transaction, 
with  some  degree  of  delight  and  veneration. 
From  this  principle  flowed  the  superstitious 
devotion  with  which  Christians,  from  the 
earliest  ages  of  the  church,  were  accustomed 
to  visit  that  country  which  the  Almighty 
had  selected  as  the  inheritance  of  his  favorite 
people,  and  in  which  the  Son  of  God  bad 
accomplished  the  redemption  of  mankind. 
As  this  distant  pilgrimage  could  hot  be 
performed  without  considerable  expense, 
fatigue,  and  danger,  it  appeared  the  more 
meritorious,  and  came  to  be  considered  as  an 
expiation  for  almost  every  crime." 

Hence,  by  a  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land 
or  to  the  shrine  of  some  blessed  martyr,  the 
thunders  of  the  church,  and  the  more  quiet, 
but  not  less  alarming,  reproaches  of  conscience 
were  often  averted.  Aid  as  this  was  an  act 
of  penance,  sometimes  voluntarily  assumed; 
but  oftener  imposed  by  the  command  of  a. 
religious  superior,  the  person  performing  it  was 
called  a  "  Pilgrim  Penitent." 

While  the  Califs  of  the  East,  a  race  of 
monarchs  equally  tolerant  and  sagacious, 
retained  the  sovereignty  of  Palestine,  the 
oenitents  were  undisturbed  in  the  performance 
Jt  their  pious  pilgrimages.  In  fact,  then- 
visits  to  Jerusalem  were  rather  encouraged 


by  these  sovereigns  as  a  <»mmerce  which, 
hi  the  language  of  the  author  already  quoted, 
"brought  mto  their  dominions  gold  and  silver, 
and  carried  nothing  out  of  them  but  relics 
and  consecrated  trinkets."  , 

But  in  the  eleventh  century,  the  Turks, 
whose  bigoted  devotion  to  their  own  creed 
was  only  equaled  by  their  hatred  of  every 
other  form  of  faith,  but  more  especially  of 
Christianity,  having  obtained  possession  of 
Syria,  the  pilgrim  no  longer  found  safety 
or  protection  in  his  pious  journey,  lie 
who  would  then  visit  the  sepulcher  of  his 
Lord  must  be  prepared  to  encounter  tne 
hostile  attacks  of  ferocious  Saracens,  and 
the  "Pilgrim  Penitent,"  laying  aside  his 
peaceful  garb,  his  staff  and  russet  cloak,  was 
compelled  to  assume  the  sword  and  coat 
of  mail  and  become  a  "Pilgrim  Warrior." 

Having  at  length,  through  all  the  perils 
of  a  distant  journey,  accomplished  the  great 
object  of  his  pilgrimage,  and  partly  begged 
his  way  amid  poor  or  inhospitable  regions, 
where  a  crust  of  bread  and  a  draft  of  water 
were  often  the  only  alms  that  he  received, 
and  partly  fought  it  amid  the  gleaming 
scimitars  of  warlike  Turks,  the  Pflgnm  Pern- 
tent  and  Pilgrim  Warrior  was  enabled  to  kneel 
at  the  sepulcher  of  Christ,  and  Offer  up  his 
devotions  on  that  sacred  spot  consecrated  in 
his  pious  mind  by  so  many  religious  associa- 

But  the  experience  which  he  had  so  dearly 
bought  was  productive  of  a  noble  and.  a 
generous  result.  The  Order  of  Knights 
Templar  was  established  by  some  of  those 
devoted  heroes,  who  were  determined  to 
protect  the  pilgrims  who  followed  them 
from  the  dangers  and  difficulties  through 
which  they  themselves  had  passed,  at  tunes 
with  such  remote  prospects  of  success. 
Many  of  the  pilgrims  having  performed  their 
vow  of  visiting  the  holy  shrine,  returnedJnome, 
to  live  upon  the  capital  of  piety  which  their 
penitential  pilgrimage  had  gained  for  them; 
but  others,  imitating  the  example  of  the 
defenders  of  the  sepulcher,  doffed  their 
pilgrim's  garb  and  united  themselves  with 
the  knights  who  were  contending  with  their 

infidel  foes,  and  thus  the  Pilgrim  Pemteni, 
having  by  force  of  necessity  become  a  Pilgrim 
Warrior,  ended  his  warlike  pilgrimage  by 
assuming  the  vows  of  a  Knights  Templar. 

In  this  brief  synopsis,  the  modern  and 
Masonic  Knights  Templar  will  find  a  rational 
explanation  of  the  ceremonies  of  that  degree. 

Pilgrim  Penitent.  A  term  in  the  ritual 
of  Masonic  Templarism.  It  refers  to  the 
pilgrimage,  made  as  a  penance  for  sin,  to  the 
sepulcher  of  the  Lord;  for  the  church  prom- 
ised the  remission  Of  sins  and  various  spiritual 
advantages  as  the  reward  of  the  pious  and 
faithful  pilgrim.  (See  Pilgrim.) 
Pilgrim's  Shell.  See  ScaUop  Shell 
Pilgrim's  Weeds.  The  costume  of  a 
pilgrim  was  thus  called.  It  may  be  described 
as  follows:  In  the  first  place,  he  wore  a 
sclavina,  or  long  gown,  made  of  the  darkest 
colors  and  the  coarsest  materials,  bound  by  a 




leathern  girdle,  as  an  emblem  of  bis  humility 
and  an  evidence  of  his  poverty;  a  bmmton.,  or 
staff,  in  the  form  of  a  long  walking  stick, 
with  two  knobs  at  the  top,  supported  his 
weary  steps:  the  fomy  and  cross,  suspended 
from  his  neck,  denoted  the  religious  character 
he  had  assumed ;  a  scrip,  or  bag,  neld  his  scanty 
supply  of  provisions;  a  pair  of  sandals  on  his 
feet,  and  a  coarse  round  hat  turned  before,  m 
the  front  of  which  was  fastened  a  scallop  shell, 
completed  the  rude  toilet  of  the  pilgrim  of 
the  Middle  Ages.  Spenser's  description,  m 
the  Fairie  Quern  (B.  X,  c.  vi.,  st.  35),  of  a  pil- 
grim's weeds,  does  not  much  differ  from  this: 

"A  silly  man  in  simple  weeds  forsworn. 

And  soiled  with  dust  of  the  long  dried  way; 

His  sandals  were  with  toilsome  travel  torne, 
And  faceall  tann'd  with  scorching  sunny  ray; 

As  he  had  travell'd  many  a  summer's  day. 
Through  boiling  sands  of  Araby  and  Inde; 

And  in  his  hand  a  Jacob's  staff  to  stay 
His  weary  limbs  upon;  and  eke  behind 
His  scrip  did  hang,  in  Which  his  needments 
he  did  bind." 

Pilgrim  Templar.  The  part  of  the  pil 
grim  represented  in  the  ritual  of  the  Masonic 
Knights  Templar  Degree  is  a  symbolic  refer- 
ence to  the  career  of  the  pilgrim  of  the  Middle 
Ages  in  his  journey  to  the  sepuleher  in  the 
Holy  Land._JSee  PQgrvm.)  . 

Pilgrim  Warrior.  A  term  m  the  ritual 
of  Masonic  Tempferism.  It  refers  to  the 
pilgrimage  of  the  knights  to  secure  possession 
of  the  holy  places.  This  was  considered  a 
pious  duty.  "Whoever  goes  to  Jerusalem," 
says  one  of  the  canons  of  the  Council  of  Cler- 
mont, "for  the  liberation  of  the  Church  of 
God,  in  a  spirit  of  devotion  only,  and  not  for 
the  sake  of  glory  or  of  gain,  that  journey  shall 
be  esteemed  a  substitute  for  every  kind  of 
penance."  The  difference  between  the  pil- 
grim penitent  and  the  pilgrim  warrior  was 
this:  that  the  former  bore  only  his  staff,  but 
the  latter  wielded  his  sword. 

Filler.  The  title  given  to  each  of  the 
conventual  bailiffs  or  heads  of  the  eight 
languages  of  the  Order  of  Malta,  andlby 
which  they  were  designated  in  all  official 
records.  It  signifies  a  pillar  or  support  of 
an  edifice,  and  was  metaphorically  apphed 
to  these  dignitaries  as  if  they  were  the  sup- 
ports of  the  Order. 

Pillar.  In  the  earliest  times  it  was  cus- 
tomary to  perpetuate  remarkable  events,  or 
exhibit  gratitude  for  providential  favors, 
by  the  erection  of  piflara,'  which  by  the 
idolatrous  races  were  dedicated  to  their  spuri- 
ous gods.  Thus  Sanconiatho  tells  us  that 
Hypsourianos  and  Ousous,  who  .lived  before 
the  flood,  dedicated  two  pillars  to  the  elements 
fire  and  air.  Among  the  Egyptians  the  pillars 
were,  in  general,  in  the  form  of  obelisks  from 
fifty  to  one  hundred  feet  high,  and  exceedingly 
slender  in  proportion.  Upon  their  four  sides 
hieroglyphics  were  often  engraved.  Accord- 
ing to  Herodotus,  they  were  first  raised  m 
honor  of  the  sun,  and  their  pointed  form  was 
intended  to  represent  his  rays.  Many  of 
these  monuments  still  remain. 

In  the  antediluvian  ages,  the  posterity  of 
Seth  erected  pillars;  "for/'  says  the  Jewish 
historian,  "that  their  inventions  might  not 
be  tost  before  they  were  sufficiently  known, 
upon  Adam's  prediction,  that  the  world 
was  to  be  destroyed  at  one  time  by  the  force 
of  fire,  and  at  another  time  by^  the  violence 
of  water,  they  made  two  pillars,  the  one  of 
brick,  the  other  of  stone;  they  insoribed 
their  discoveries  on  them  both,  that  in  case 
the  pillar  of  brick  should  be  destroyed  by 
the  flood,  the  pillar  of  stone  might  remain, 
and  exhibit  those  discoveries  to  mankind, 
and  also  inform  them  that  there  was  another 
pillar  of  brick  erected  by  them."  Jacob 
erected  a  pillar  at  Bethel,  to  commemorate 
his  remarkable  vision  of  the  latter,  and 
afterward  another  one  at  Gfaleed  as  a  me- 
morial of  his  alliance  with  Laban.  Joshua 
erected  one  at  Gflgal  to  perpetuate  the  re- 
membrance of  his  miraculous  crossing  of  the 
Jordan.  Samuel  set  up  a  pillar  between 
Mizpeh  and  Shen,  on  account  of  a  defeat  of 
the  Philistines,  and  Absalom  erected  another 
in  honor  of  himself.  ' 

The  doctrine  of  gravitation  was  unknown 
to  the  people  of  the  primitive  ages,  and 
they  were  unable  to  refer  the  support  of 
the  earth  in  its  place  to  this  principle.  Hence 
they  looked  to  some  other  cause,  and  none 
appeared  to  their  simple  and  unphilosophic 
minds  more  plausible  than  that  it  was 
sustained  by  pillars.  The  Old  Testament 
abounds  with  reference  to  this  idea.  Hannah, 
in  her  song  of  thanksgiving,  exclaims:  "The 
pillars  of  the  earth  are  the  Lord's,  and  he 
hath  set  the  world  upon  them."  (1  Sam.  ii. 
8.)  The  Psalmist  signifies  the  same  doctrine 
in  the  following  text:  "The  earth  and  all  the 
inhabitants  thereof  are  dissolved;  I  bear  up 
the  pillars  of  it."  (Ps.  lxxv.  3.)  And  Job 
says:  "He  shaketh  the  earth  out  of  her 
places,  and  the  pillars  thereof  tremble." 
(xxvi.  7.)  All  the  old  religions  taught  the 
same  doctrine;  and  hence  pillars  being  re- 
garded as  the  supporters  of  the  earth,  they 
were  adopted  as  the  symbol  of  strength  and 
firmness.  To  this,  Dudley  (Naology,  123) 
attributes  the  origin  of  pillar  worship,  which 
prevailed  so  extensively  among  the  idolatrous 
nations  of  antiquity.  "The  reverence," 
says  he,  "shown  to  columns,  as  symbols  of 
the  power  of  the  Deity,  was  readily  converted 
into  worship  paid  to  them  as  idols  of  the 
real  presence."  But  here  he  seems  to  have 
fallen  into  a  mistake.  The  double  pillars  or 
columns,  acting  as  an  architectural  support, 
were,  it  is  true,  symbols  derived  from  a  natural 
cause  of  strength  and  permanent  firmness. 
But  there  was  another  more  prevailing  sym- 
bology.  The  monolith,  or  circular  pillar, 
standing  alone,  was,  to  the  ancient  mmd, 
a  representation  of  the  Phallus,  the  symbol 
of  the  creative  and  generative  energy  of 
Deity,  and  it  is  in  these  Phallic  pillars  that 
we  are  to  find  the  true  origin  of  pillar  worship, 
which  Was  only  one  form  of  Phallic  worship, 
the  most  predominant  of  all  the  cults  to  which 
the  ancients  were  addicted. 




Pillars  of  Cloud  and  Fire.  The  pillar 
of  cloud  that  went  before  the  Israelites  by 
day,  and  the  pillar  of  fire  that  preceded  them 
by  night,  in  their  journey  through  the  wilder- 
ness, are  supposed  to  be  alluded  to  by  the 
pillars  of  Jachin  and  Boaz  at  the  porch  of 
Solomon's  Tempte.  We  find  this  symbolism 
at  a  very  early  period  in  the  last  century, 
having  been  incorporated  into  the  lecture 
of  the  Second  Degree,  where  it  still  remains. 

The  pillar  on  the  right  hand,"  says  Calcott 
(Cand.  Disg.,  66),  ^represented  the  pillar 
of  the  cloud,  and  that  on  the  left  the  pillar 
of  fire."  If  this  symbolism  be  correct,  the 
pillars  of  the  porch,  like  those  of  the  wilder- 
ness, would  refer  to  the  superintending  and 
protecting  power  of  Deity. 

Pillars  of  Enoch.  Two  pillars  which 
were  erected  by  Enoch,  for  the  preservation 
of  the  antediluvian  inventions,  and  which  are 
repeatedly  referred  to  in  the  ''Legend  of  the 
Craft/'  contained  in  the  Old  Constitutions, 
and  in  the  high  degrees  of  modern  times. 
(See  Enoch.) 

Pillars  of  the  Porch.  The  pillars  most 
remarkable  in  Scripture  history  were  the  two 
erected  by  Solomon  at  the  porch  of  the  Tem- 
ple, and  which  Josephus  (AnHq.,  lib.  i.,  cap.  ii.) 
thus  describes:  "Moreover,  this  Hiram  made 
two  hollow  pillars,  whose  outsides  were  of 
brass,  and  the  thickness  of  the  brass  was  four 

fingers'  breadth,  and  the  height  of  the  pillars 
was  eighteen  cubits,  (27feetJ  and  the  circum- 
ference twelve  cubits.  (18  feet;)  but  there  was 
cast  with  each  of  their  chapiters  lily-work, 
that  stood  upon  the  pillar,  and  it  was  elevatec 
five  cubits,  (7J3  feet,)  round  about  which 
there  was  net-work  interwoven  with  small 
palms  made  of  brass,  and  covered  the  lily- 
work.  To  this  also  were  hung  two  hundred 
pomegranates,  in  two  rows.  The  one  of  these 
pillars  he  set  at  the  entrance  of  the  porch  on 
the  right  hand,  (or  south,)  and  called  it  Jachin. 
and  the  other  at  the  left  hand,  (or  north,)  and 
called  it  Boaz." 

#  It  has  been  supposed  that  Solomon,  in  erect- 
ing these  pillarsj  had  reference  to  the  pillar  of 
cloud  and  the  pillar  of  fire  which  went  before 
the  Israelites  in  the  wilderness,  and  that  the 
right  hand  or  south  pillar  represented  the  pil- 
lar of  cloud,  and  the  left  hand  or  north  pillar 
represented  that  of  fire.  Solomon  did  not 
simply  erect  them  as  ornaments  to  the  Tem- 
ple, but  as  memorials  of  God's  repeated  prom- 
ises of  support  to  his  people  of  Israel.  For 
the  pillar  f  3'  (Jachin),  derived  from  the  words 
rr  (Jah),  "Jehovah,"  and  pfl  (achin),  "to  es- 
tablish," signifies  that  "God  will  establish  his 
house  of  Israel";  while  the  pillar  tj>3  (Boaz), 
compounded  of  3  (6),  "in*  and  W  (oaz), 
"strength,"  signifies  that  "in  strength  shall  it 
be  established."  And  thus  were  the  Jews,  in 
passing  through  the  porch  to  the  Temple, 
daihr  reminded  of  the  abundant  promises  of 
God,  and  inspired  with  confidence  in  his  pro- 
tection and  gratitude  for  his  many  acts  of 
kindness  to  his  chosen  people. 

The  construction  of  these  piMars. — There  is 
no  part  ol  the  architecture  of  the  ancient  Tern-  i 

pie  which  is  so  difficult  to  be  understood  in  its 
details  as  the  Scriptural  accountof  these  mem- 
orable pillars.  Freemasons,  in  general,  inti- 
mately as  their  symbolical  signification  is 
connected  with  some  of  the  most  beautiful 
portions  of  their  ritual,  appear  to  have  but  a 
confused  notion  of  their  construction  and  of 
the  true  disposition  of  the  various  parts  of 
which  they  are  composed.  Mr.  Ferguson 
says  (Smith,  Diet.  Bib.)  that  there  are  no  fea- 
tures connected  with  the  Temple  which  have 
given  rise  to  so  much  controversy,  or  been  so 
difficult  to  explain,  as  the  form  of  these  two 
pillars.  • 

Their  situation,  according  to  Lightfoot,  was 
within  the  porch,  at  its  very  entrance,  and  on 
each  side  of  the  gate.  They  were  therefore 
seen,  one  on  the  right  and  the  other  on  the 
left,  as  soon  as  the  visitor  stepped  within  the 
porch.  And  this,  it  will  be  remembered,  in 
confirmation,  is  the  very  spot  in  which  Ezek- 
jel  (a.  49)  places  the  pillars  that  he  saw  in 
his  vision  of  the  Temple.  "  The  length  of  the 
porch  was  twenty  cubits,  and  the  breadth 
eleven  cubits;  and  he  brought  me  by  the 
steps  whereby  they  went  up  to  it,  and  there 
were  pillars  by  the  posts,  one  on  this  side,  and 
another  on  that  side."  The  assertion  made  by 
some  writers,  that  they  were  not  columns  in- 
tended to  support  the  roof,  but  simply  obelisks 
for  ornament,  is  not  sustained  by  sufficient 
authority;  and  as  Ferguson  very  justly  says, 
not  only  would  the  high  roof  look  painfully 
weak,  but  it  would  have  been  impossible  to 
construct  it,  with  the  imperfect  science  of 
those  days,  without  some  such  support. 

These  pillars,  we  are  told,  were  of  brass,  as 
well  as  the  chapiters  that  surmounted  them, 
and  were  cast  hollow.  The  thickness  of  the 
brass  of  each  pillar  was  "four  fingers,  or  a 
hand's  breadth,"  which  is  equal  to  three 
niches.  According  to  the  accounts  in  1  Kings 
viii.  15,  and  in  Jeremiah  lii.  21,  the  circumfer- 
ence of  each  pillar  was  twelve  cubits.  Now, 
according  to  the  Jewish  computation,  the 
cubit  used  in  the  measurement  of  the  Temple 
buildings  was  six  hands'  breadth,  or  eighteen 
inches.  According  to  the  tables  of  Bishop 
Cumberland,  the  cubit  was  rather  more,  he 
making  it  about  twenty-two  inches;  but  I  ad- 
here to  the  measure  laid  down  by  the  Jewish 
writers  as  probably  more  correct,  and  cer- 
tainly more  simple  for  calculation.  The 
circumference  of  each  pillar,  reduced  by  this 
scale  to  English  measure,  would  be  eighteen 
feet,  and  its  diameter  about  six. 

The  reader  of  the  Scriptural  accounts  of 
these  pillars  will  be  not  a  little  puzzled  with 
the  apparent  discrepancies  that  are  found  in 
the  estimates  of  their  height  as  given  in  the 
Books  of  Kings  and  Chronicles.  In  the  for- 
mer book,  it  is  said  that  their  height  was 
eighteen  cubits,  and  in  the  latter  it  was  thirty- 
five,  which  latter  height  Whiston  observes 
would  be  contrary  to  all  the  rules  of  archi- 
tecture. But  the  discrepancy  is  easily  recon- 
ciled by  supposing — which,  indeed,  must  have 
been  the  case — that  in  the  Book  of  Kings  the 
pillars  are  spoken  of  separately,  and  that  in 


Chronicles  their  aggregate  height  is  calculated; 
and  the  reason  why,  in  this  latter  book,  their 
united  height  is  placed  at  thirty-five  cubits 
instead  of  thirtynsix,  which  would  be  the 
double  of  eighteen,  is  because  they  are  there 
measured  as  they  appeared  with  the  chapitere 
upon  them.  Now  half  a  cubit  of  each  pillar 
was  concealed  in  what  Lightfoot  calls  "the 
whole  of  the  chapiter,"  that  is,  half  a  cubit's 
depth  of  the  lower  edge  of  the  chapiter  covered 
the  top  of  the  pillar,  making  each  pillar,  ap- 

Earently,  only  seventeen  and  a  half  cubits' 
igh,  or  the  two  thirty-five  cubits  as  laid  down 
in  the  Book  of  Chronicles. 

This  is  a  much  better  method  of  reconcil- 
ing the  discrepancy  than  that  adopted  by  Cal- 
cott,  who  supposes  that  the  pedestals  of  the 
pillars  were  seventeen  cubits  high — a  viola- 
tion of  every  rule  of  architectural  proportion 
with  which  we  would  be  reluctant  to  charge 
the  memory  of  so  "cunning  a  workman"  as 
Hiram  the  Builder.  The  account  in  Jeremiah 
agrees  with  that  in  the  Book  of  Kings.  The 
height,  therefore,  of  each  of  these  pillars  was, 
in  English  measure,  twenty-seven  feet.  The 
chapiter  or  pommel  was  five  cubits,  or  seven 
and  a  half  feet  more;  but  as  half  a  cubit,  or 
nine  inches,  was  common  to  both  pillar  and 
chapiter,  the  whole  height  f rota  the  ground  to 
the  top  of  the  chapiter  was  twenty-two  cubits 
and  a  naif,  or  thirty-three  feet  and  nine  inches. 

Mr.  Ferguson  has  come  to  a  different  con- 
clusion. He  says  in  the  article  Temple,  in 
Smith's  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,  that  "accord- 
ing to  1  Kings  vii.  15,  the  pillars  were  eighteen 
cubits  high  and  twelve  in  circumference,  with 
capitals  five  cubits  in  [height.  Above  this 
was  (ver.  19)  another  member,  called  also 
chapiter  of  lily-work,  four  cubits  in  height, 
but  which,  from  the  second  mention  of  it  in 
ver.  22,  seems  more  probably  to  have  been  an 
entablature,  which  is  necessary  to  complete 
the  order.  As  these  members  make  out 
twenty-seven  cubits,  leaving  three  cubits,  or 
4  y%  feet,  for  the  slope  of  the  roof,  the  whole  de- 
sign seems  reasonable  and  proper."  He  cal- 
culates, of  course,  on  the  authority  of  the 
Book  of  Kings,  that  the  height  of  the  roof  of 
the  porch  was  thirty  cubits,  and  assumes  that 
these  pillars  were  columns  by  which  it  was 
supported,  and  connected  with  it  by  an  en- 

Each  of  these  pillars  was  surmounted  by  a 
chapiter,  which  was  five  cubits,  or  seven  and  a 
half  feet  in  height.  The  shape  and  construc- 
tion of  this  chapiter  require  some  considera- 
tion. The  Hebrew  word  which  is  used  in  this 
place  is  iWfO  (koteref).  Its  root  is  to  be  found 
in  the  word  VD  (keter),  which  signified  "a 
crown,"  and  is  so  used  in  Esther  vi.  8,  to  des- 
ignate the  royal  diadem  of  the  King  of  Persia. 
The  Chaldaic  version  expressly  calls  the  chap- 
iter "a  crown";  but  Rabbi  Solomon,  in  his 
commentary,  uses  the  word  ^"'MIE  (pomel), 
signifying  "a  globe  or  spherical  body,"  and 
Rabbi  Gershom  describes  it  as  "like  two 
crowns  joined  together."  Lightfoot  says,  "it 
was  a  huge,  great  oval,  five  cubits  high,  and 
did  not  only  sit  upon  the  head  of  the  pillars, 


but  also  flowered  or  spread  them,  being 
larger  about,  a  great  deal,  than  the  pillars 
themselves."  The  Jewish  commentators  say 
that  the  two  lower  cubits  of  its  surface  were 
entirely  plain,  but  that  the  three  upper  were 
richly  ornamented.  To  this  ornamental  part 
we  now  come. 

In  the  1st  Book  of  Kings,  ch.  vii.,  verses 
17,  20,  22,  the  ornaments  of  the  chapiters  are 
thus  described: 

"  And  nets  of  checker-work  and  wreaths  of 
cham-work,  for  the  chapiters  which  were  upon 
the  tops  of  the  pillars;  seven  for  the  one  chap- 
iter, and  seven  for  the  other  chapiter. 

"And  he  made  the  pillars,  and  two  rows 
round  about  upon  the  one  net-work,  to  cover 
the  chapiters  that  were  upon  the  top,  with 
pomegranates;  and  so  did  he  for  the  other 

'  And  the  chapiters  that  were  upon  the  top 
of  the  pillars  were  of  lily-work  in  the  porch, 
four  cubits. 

"And  the  chapiters  upon  the  two  pillars 
had  pomegranates  also  above,  over  against 
the  belly,  which  was  by  the  net-work;  and  the 
pomegranates  were  two  hundred  in  rows, 
round  about  upon  the  other  chapiter. 

"And  upon  the  top  of  the  pillars  was  lily- 
work;  so  was  the  work  of  the  pillars  fin- 

Let  us  endeavor  to  render  this  description, 
which  appears  somewhat  confused  and  unin- 
telligible, plainer  and  more  comprehensible. 

The  "nets  of  checker-work"  is  the  first  or- 
nament mentioned.  The  words  thus  trans- 
lated are  in  the  original  D"03»  ."13327  flWtt, 
which  Lightfoot  prefers  rendering  "thickets 
of  branch  work";  and  he  thinks  that  the  true 
meaning  of  the  passage  is,  that  "the  chapiters 
were  curiously  wrought  with  branch  work, 
seven  goodly  branches  standing  up  from  the 
belly  of  the  oval,  and  their  boughs  and  leaves 
curiously  and  lovelily  mtermingled  and  inter- 
woven one  with  another."  He  derives  his 
reason  for  this  version  from  the  fact  that  the 
same  word,  is  translated  "thicket"  in 

the  passage  in  Genesis  (xxii.  13);  where  the  ram 
is  described  as  being  "caught  in  a  thicket  by 
his  horns";  and  in  various  other  passages  the 
word  is  to  be  similarly  translated.  But,  on 
the  other  hand,  we  find  it  used  in  the  Book  of 
Job,  where  it  evidently  signifies  a  net  made  of 
meshes :  "  For  he  is  cast  into  a  net  by  his  own 
feet  and  he  walketh  upon  a  Snare."  (Job  xvii. 
8.)  In  2  Kings  i.  2,  the  same  word  is  used, 
where  our  translators  have  rendered  it  a  lat- 
tice; "Ahaziah  fell  down  through  a  lattice  in 
his  upper  chamber."  I  am,  therefore,  not  in- 
clined to  adopt  the  emendation  of  Light- 
foot, but  rather  coincide  with  the  received 
version,  as  well  as  the  Masonic  tradition,  that 
this  ornament  was  a  simple  network  or  fabric 
consisting  of  reticulated  lines — in  other  words, 
a  lattice-work. 

The  "wreaths  of  chain-work"  that  are  next 
spoken  of  are  less  difficult  to  be  understood. 
The  word  here  translated  "wreath"  is  "IS, 
and  is  to  be  found  in  Deuteronomy  xxii.  12, 
where  it  distinctly  means  fringes:  "Thou  shalt 


make  thee  fringes  upon  the  four  quarters  of 
thy  vesture."  Fringes  it  should  also  be  trans- 
lated here.  "The  fringes  of  chain-work," 
I  suppose,  were  therefore  attached  to,  and 
hung  down  from,  the  network  spoken  of 
above,  and  were  probably  in  this  case,  as  when 
used  upon  the  garments  of  the  Jewish  high 
priest,  intended  as  a  "memorial  of  the  law. 

The  "lily-work"  is  the  last  ornament  that 
demands  our  attention.  And  here  the  descrip- 
tion of  Lightfoot  is  so  clear  and  evidently  cor- 
rect, that  I  shall  not  hesitate  to  quote  it  at 
length.  "At  the  head  of  the  pillar,  even  at 
the  setting  on  of  the  chapiter,  there  was  a  curi- 
ous and  a  large  border  or  circle  of  lily-work, 
which  stood  out  four  cubits  under  the  chap- 
iter, and  then  turned  down,  every  lily  or  long 
tongue  of  brass,  with  a  neat  bending,  and  so 
seemed  as  a  flowered  crown  to  the  head  of  the 
pillar,  and  as  a  curious  garland  whereon  the 
chapiter  had  its  seat." 

There  is  a  very  common  error  among  Ma- 
sons, which  has  been  fostered  by  the  plates 
in  our  Monitors,  that  there  were  on  the  pil- 
lars chapiters,  and  that  these  chapiters  were 
again  surmounted  by  globes.  The  truth, 
however,  is  that  the  chapiters  themselves 
were  "the  pomels  or  globes,"  to  which  our 
lecture,  in  the  Fellow-Craft's  Degree,  alludes. 
This  is  evident  from  what  has  already  been 
said  in  the  first  part  of  the  preceding  de- 
scription. The  hly  here  spoken  of  is  not 
at  all  related,  as  might  be  supposed,  to  the 
common  lily — that  one  spoken  of  in  the 
New  Testament.  It  was  a  species  of  the  lotus, 
the  Nymphsea  lotos,  or  lotus  of  the  Nile.  This 
was  among  the  Egyptians  a  sacred  plant, 
found  everywhere  on  their  monuments,  and 
.  used  in  their  architectural  decorations.  It  is 
evident,  from  their  description  in  Kings,  that 
the  pillars  of  the  porch  of  King  Solomon's 
Temple  were  copied  from  the  pillars  of  the 
Egyptian  temples.  The  maps  of  the  earth 
and  the  charts  of  the  celestial  constellations 
which  are  sometimes  said  to  have  been  en- 
graved upon  these  globes,  must  be  referred  to 
the  pillars,  where,  according  to  Oliver,  a  Ma- 
sonic tradition  places  them— an  ancient  cus- 
tom, instances  of  which  we  find  in  profane  his- 
tory. This  is,  however,  by  no  means  of  any 
importance,  as  the  symbolic  allusion  is  per- 
fectly well  preserved  in  the  shapes  of  the  chap- 
iters, without  the  necessity  of  any  such  geo- 
graphical or  astronomical  engraving  upon 
them.  For  being  globular,  or  nearly  so,  they 
may  be  justly  said  to  have  represented  the 
celestial  and  terrestrial  spheres. 

The  true  description,  then,  of  these  mem- 
orable pillars,  is  simply  this.  Immediately 
within  the  porch  of  the  Temple,  and  on  each 
side  of  the  door,  were  placed  two  hollow  brazen 
pillars.  The  height  of  each  was  twenty-seven 
feet,  the  diameter  about  six  feet,  and  the  thick- 
ness of  the  brass  three  inches.  Above  the 
pillar,  and  covering  its  upper  part  to  the 
depth  of  nine  inches,  was  an  oval  body  or 
chapiter  seven  feet  'and  a  half  in  height. 
Springing  out  from  the  pillar,  at  the  junction 
of  the  chapiter  with  it, was  a  row  of  lotus  pet- 


als,  which,  first  spreading  around  the  chapi- 
ter, afterward  gently  curved  downward  toward 
the  pillar,  something  like  the  Acanthus  leaves 
on  the  capital  of  a  (Xrinthian  column.  About 
two-fifths  of  the  distance  from  the  bottom  of 
the  chapiter,  or  just  below  its-  most  bulging 
part,  a  tissue  of  network  was  carved,  which 
extended  over  its  whole  upper  surface.  To 
the  bottom  of  this  network  was  suspended  a 
series  of  fringes,  and  on  these  again  were 
carved  two  rows  of  pomegranates,  one  hun- 
dred being  in  each  row. 

This  description,  it  seems  to  me,  is  the  only 
one  that  can  be  reconciled  with  the  various 
passages  in  the  Books  of  Kings,  Chronicles, 
and  Josephus,  which  relate  to  these  pillars, 
and  the  only  one  that  can  give  the  Masonic 
student  a  correct  conception  of  the  architec- 
ture of  these  important  symbols. 

And  now  as  to  the  Masonic  symbolism  of 
these  two  pillars.  As  symbols  they  have  been 
very  universally  diffused  and  are  to  be  found 
in  all  rites.  Nor  are  they  of  a  very  recent  date, 
for  they  are  depicted  on  the  earliest  tracing- 
boards,  and  are  alluded  to  in  the  catechisms 
before  the  middle  of  the  last  century.  Nor 
is  this  surprising:  for  as  the  symbolism  of 
Freemasonry  is  founded  on  the  Temple  of 
Solomon,  it  was  to  be  expected  that  these 
important  parts  of  the  Temple  would  be  nat- 
urally included  in  the  system.  But  at  first 
the  pillars  appear  to  have  been  introduced 
into  the  lectures  rather  as  parts  of  an  historical 
detail  than  as  significant  symbols — an  idea 
which  seems  gradually  to  have  grown  up. 
The  catechism  of  1731  describes  their  name, 
their  size,  and  their  material,  but  says  nothing 
of  their  symbolic  import.  Yet  this  had  been 
alluded  to  in  the  Scriptural  account  of  them, 
which  says  that  the  names  bestowed  upon 
them  were  significant. 

What  was  the  original  or  Scriptural  symbol- 
ism of  the  pillars  has  been  very  well  explained 
by  Dudley,  in  his  Naohgy.  He  says  (p.  121) 
that  "the  pillars  represented  the  sustaining 
power  of  the  great  God.  The  flower  of  the 
lotus  or  water-Ely  rises  from  a  root  growing  at 
the  bottom  of  the  water,  and  maintains  its 
position  on  the  surface  by  its  columnar  stalk, 
which  becomes  more  or  less  straight  as  occa- 
sion requires;  it  is  therefore  aptly  symbolical 
of  the  power  of  the  Almighty  constantly 
employed  to  secure  the  safety  of  all  the  world. 
The  chapiter  is  the  body  or  mass  of  the 
earth;  the  pomegranates,  fruits  remarkable 
for  the  number  of  their  seeds,  are  symbols 
of  fertility;  the  wreaths,  drawn  variously 
over  the  surface  of  the  chapiter  or  globe, 
indicate  the  courses  of  the  heavenly  bodies  in 
the  heavens  around  the  earth,  and  the  variety 
of  the  seasons.  The  pillars  were  properly 
placed  in  the  porch  or  portico  of  the  Temple, 
for  they  suggested  just  ideas  of  the  power  of 
the  Almighty,  of  the  entire  dependence  of  man 
upon  him,  the  Creator;  and  doing  this,  they 
exhorted  all  to  fear,  to  love,  and  obey  him  * 
It  was,  however,  Hutchinson  who  first  in- 
troduced the  symbolic  idea  of  the  pillars  into 
the  Masonic  system.   He  says:  "The  pillars 


erected  at  the  porch  of  the  Temple  were not 
only  ornamental,  but  also  carried  with  them 
an  emblematical  import  in  their  names:  Boaz 
being,  in  its  literal  translation,  in  thee  is 
strength;  and  Jachin,  it  shall  be  established, 
which,  by  a  very  natural  transposition,  may 
be  put  thus:  O  Lord,  thou  art  mighty,  and 
thy  power  is  established  from  everlasting  to 

Preston  subsequently  introduced  the  sym- 
bolism, considerably  enlarged,  into  his  system 
of  lectures.  He  adopted  the  reference  to  the 
pillars  of  fire  and  cloud,  which  is  still  retained. 

The  Masonic  symbolism  of  the  two  pillars 
may  be  considered,  without  going  into  minute 
details,  as  being  twofold.  First,  in  reference 
to  the  names  of  the  pillars,  they  are  symbols 
of  the  strength  and  stability  of  the  Institution: 
and  then  in  reference  to  the  ancient  pillars  of 
fire  and  cloud,  they  are  symbolic  of  our  de- 
pendence on  the  superintending  guidance  of 
the  Great  Architect  of  the  Universe,  by  which 
alone  that  strength  and  stability  are  secured. 

Pinceau.  French,  a  pencil;  but  in  the 
technical  language  of  French  Masonry  it  is  a 
pen.  Hence,- m  toe  minutes  of  French  Lodges, 
ienir  le  pinceau  means  to  act  as  Secretary. 

Pine-Cone.  The  tops  or  points  of  the  rods 
of  deacons  are  often  surmounted  by  a  pine- 
oone  or  pineapple.  This  is  in  imitation  of  the 
Thyrsus,  or  sacred  staff  of  Bacchus,  which  was 
a  lance  or  rod  enveloped  in  leaves  of  ivy,  and 
having,  on  the  top  a  cone  or  apple  of  the  pine. 
To  it  surprising  virtues  were  attributed,  and 
it  was  introduced  into  the  Dionysiac  mysteries 
as  a  sacred  symbol. 

Pinnacles.  Generally  ornamented  ter- 
minations much  used  in  Gothic  architecture. 
They  are  prominently  referred  to  in  the 
Eleventh  Degree  of  the  A.  A.  Scottish  Rite, 
where  the  pinnacles  over  the  three  gates  sup- 
port the  warning  to  all  evil-doers,  and  give 
evidence  of  the  certainty  of  punishment  fol- 
lowing crime. 

Plrlet.  The  name  of  a  tailor  of  Paris,  who. 
in  1762,  organized  a  body  called  "Council  of 
Knights  of  the  East,"  in  opposition  to  the 
Council  of  Emperors  of  the  East  and  West. 

Pltaka.  (''Basket.")  The  Bible  of  Bud- 
dhism, containing  116  volumes,  divided  into 
three  elasses,  collectively  known  as  the  Trip- 
itaka  or  Pitakattayan,  that  is,  the  "Triple 
Basket";  the  Soutras,  or  discourses  of  Bud- 
dha; the  Vinaga,  or  Discipline:  and  the  Ab- 
hadnarma,  or  Metaphysics.  The  canon  was 
fixed  about  240  B.C.,  and  commands  a  follow- 
ing of  more  than,  one-third  of  the  human  race 
— the  estimates  vary  from  340,000,000  to 
500,000,000.  Masomcally  considered,  this 
indeed  must  be  a  great  Light  or  Trestle- 
Board,  if  it  .  is  the  guide  of  the  conduct  and 
practise  of  so  vast  a  number  of  our  brethren; 
for  are  not  all  men  our  brethren? 

Pitdah.  (Heb.  nitSD.)  One  of  the  twelve 
stones  in  the  breastplate  of  the  high  priest,  of 
a  yellow  color.  The  Sanskrit  for  yellow  is 

Pltris.  Spirits.  Among  the  Hindus,  Pit- 
lie  were  spirits;  so  mentioned  in  the  Agrotir 

PLOT  569 

chada  Parihhd,  the  philosophical  compen- 
dium of  the  Hindu  spiritists,  a  scientific  worlc 
giving  an  account  of  the  creation  and  the  Mer- 
caba,  and  finally  the  Zohar:  the  three  prin- 
cipal parts  of  which  treat  "of  the  attributes  of 
God,"  "of  the  world,"  and  "of  the  human 
soul."  A  fourth  part  sets  forth  the  relevancy 
of  souls  to  each  other,  and  the  evocation  of 
Pitris.  The  adepts  of  the  occult  sciences 
were  said  by  the  votaries  of  the  Pitris  of  India 
to  have  "entered  the  garden  of  delights." 
(See  Parikchai,  Agrouchada;  also,  Indische 

Pius  VII.  On  the  13th  of  August,  1814, 
Pope  Pius  VII.  issued  an  edict  forbidding  the 
meetings  of  all  secret  societies,  and  especially 
the  Freemasons  and  Carbonari,  under  heavy- 
corporal  penalties,  to  which  were  to  be  added, 
according  to  the  malignity  of  the  cases,  partial 
or  entire  confiscation  of  goods,  or  a  pecuniary 
fine.  The  edict  also  renewed  the  bull  of  Clem- 
ent XJL,  by  which  the  punishment  of  death 
was  incurred  by  those  who  obstinately  per- 
sisted in  attending  the  meetings  of  Free- 

Place.  In  strict  Masonic  ritualism  the 
positions  occupied  by  the  Master  and  Wardens 
are  called  stations;  those  of  the  other  officers, 
places.  This  distinction  is  not  observed  in 
the  higher  degrees.   (See  Stations.) 

Planehe  Tracee.  The  name  by  which 
the  minutes  are  designated  in  French  Lodges. 
IiteraIly,pZancfte  is  a  board,  and  trade,  delin- 
eated. The  planehe  trade  is  therefore  the 
board  on  which  the  plans  of  the  Lodge  have 
been  delineated. 

Plans  and  Designs.  The  plans  and  de- 
signs on  the  Trestle-Board  of  the  Master,  by 
which  the  building  is  erected,  are,  in  Specu- 
lative Masonry,  symbolically  referred  to  the 
moral  plans  and  designs  of  life  by  which  we 
are  to  construct  our  spiritual  temple,  and  in 
the  direction  of  which  we  are  to  be  instructed 
by  some  recognized  Divine  authority.  (See 

Platonic  Academy.  See  Academy,  Pla- 

Plenty.  Theearof  corn,  or  sheaf  of  wheat, 

Sin  the  Masonic  system,  the  symbol  of 
enty.  In  ancient  iconography,  the  goddess 
Plenty  was  represented  by  a  young  nymph 
crowned  with  flowers,  and  holding  in  the  right 
hand  the  horn  of  Amalthea,  the  goat  that 
suckled  Jupiter,  and  in  her  left  a  bundle  of 
sheaves  of  wheat,  from  which  the  ripe  grain  is 
falling  profusely  to  the  ground.  There  have 
been  some  differences  in  the  representation  of 
the  goddess  on  various  medals;  but,  asMont- 
faucon  shows,  the  ears  of  corn  are  an  indis- 
pensable part  of  the  symbolism.  (See  Shib- 

Plot  Manuscript.  Dr.  Plot,  in  his  Nat- 
uralHistory  of  Staffordshire,  published  in  1686, 
speaks  of  "a  scrole  or  parchment  volume,"  in 
the  possession  of  the  Masons  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  in  which  it  is  stated  that  the 
"charges  and  manners  were  after  perused  and 
approved  by  King  Henry  VI."  Dr.  Oliver 
(Golden  Remains,  hi.,  35)  thinks  that  Plot  here 

570  PLOT 

referred  to  what  is  known  as  the  Leland  MS., 
which,  if  true,  would  be  a  proof  of  the  au- 
thenticity of  that  document.  But  Oliver 
gives  no  evidence  of  the  correctness  of  his 
assumption.  It  is  more  probable  that  the 
manuscript  which  Dr.  Plot  loosely  quotes  has 
not  yet  been  recovered. 

Plot,  Robert,  M.D.  Born  in  1651,  and 
died  in  1696.  He  was  a  Professor  of  Chemis- 
try at  Oxford,  and  Keeper  of  the  Ashmolean 
Museum,  to  which  position  he  had  been  ap- 

Eointed  by  Elias  Ashmole,  to  whom,  however, 
e  showed  but  little  gratitude.  Dr.  Plot  pub- 
lished, in  1686,  The  Natural  History  of  Staf- 
fordshire, a  work  in  which  he  went  out  of  his 
way  to  attack  the  Masonic  institution.  An 
able  defense  against  this  attack  will  be  found 
in  the  third  volume  of  Oliver's  Golden  Remains 
of  the  Early  Masonic  Writers.  The  work  of 
Dr.  Plot  is  both  interesting  and  valuable  to  the 
Masonic  student,  as  it  exhibits  the  condition 
of  Freemasonry  m  the  latter  part  of  the  sev- 
enteenth century,  certainly,  if  not  at  a  some- 
what earlier  period,  and  is  an  anticipated  an- 
swer to  the  assertions  of  the  iconoclasts  who 
would  give  Freemasonry  its  birth  in  1717. 
For  this  purpose,  I  insert  so  much  of  his  ac- 
count as  refers  to  the  customs  of  the  society  in 

"They  have  a  custom  in  Staffordshire,  of 
admitting  men  into  the  Society  of  Freemasons, 
that  in  the  moorelands  of  this  county  seems  to 
be  of  greater  request  than  anywhere  else, 
though  I  find  the  custom  spread  more  or  less 
all  over  the  nation;  for  here  I  found  persons  of 
the  most  eminent  quality  that  did  not  disdain 
to  be  of  this  fellowship.  Nor,  indeed,  need 
they,  were  it  of  that  antiquity  and  honor,  that 
is  pretended  in  a  large  parchment  volum  they 
have  amongst  them,  containing  the  history 
and  rules  of  the  Craft  of  Masonry.  Which  is 
there  deduced  not  only  from  sacred  writ,  but 
profane  story;  particularly  that  it  was  brought 
Into  England  by  St.  Amphibal,  and  first  com- 
municated to  St.  Alban,  who  set  down  the 
charges  of  Masonry,  and  was  made  paymaster 
and  governor  of  the  king's  works,  and  gave 
them  charges  and  manners  as  St.  Amphibal 
had  taught  him.  Which  were  after  con- 
firmed by  King  Athelstan,  whose  youngest 
eon  Edwyn  loved  well  Masonry,  took  upon 
him  the  charges,  and  learned  the  manners,  and 
obtained  for  them  of  his  father  a  free  charter. 
Whereupon  he  caused  them  to  assemble  at 
York,  and  to  bring  all  the  old  books  of  their 
Craft,  and  out  of  them  ordained  such  charges 
and  manners  as  they  then  thought  fit;  which 
charges  in  the  said  Schrole,  or  parchment  vol- 
um, are  in  part  declared;  and  thus  was  the 
Craft  of  Masonry  grounded  and  confirmed  in 
England.  It  is  also  there  declared  that  these 
charges  and  manners  were  after  perused  and 
approved  by  King  Henry  VI.  and  his  council, 
both  as  to  Masters  and  fellows  of  this  Right 
Worshipful  Craft. 

"Into  which  Society,  when  they  are  ad- 
mitted, they  call  a  meeting  (or  Lodg,  as  they 
term  it  in  some  places), which  must  consist  at 
lest  of  five  or  six  of  the  ancients  of  the  Order, 


whom  the  candidates  present  with  gloves,  and 
so  likewise  to  their  wives,  and  entertain  with 
a  collation,  according  to  the  custom  of  the 
place:  this  ended,  they  proceed  to  the  admis- 
sion of  them,  which  chiefly  consists  in  the  com- 
munication of  certain  secret  signes,  whereby 
they  are  known  to  one  another  all  over  the 
nation,  by  which  means  they  have  mainte- 
nance whither  ever  they  travel,  for  if  any  man 
appear,  though  altogether  unknown,  that  can 
show  any  of  these  signs  to  a  fellow  of  the  Soci- 
ety, whom  they  otherwise  call  an  Accepted 
Mason,  he  is  obliged  presently  to  come  to  him, 
from  what  company  or  place  soever  he  be  in; 
nay,  though  from  the  top  of  a  steeple  {what 
hazard  or  inconvenience  soever  he  run),  to 
know  his  pleasure  and  assist  him;  viz.,  if  he 
want  work,  he  is  bound  to  find  him  some;  or 
if  he  cannot  do  that,  to  give  him  mony,  or 
otherwise  support  him  till  work  can  be  had, 
which  is  one  of  their  articles;  and  it  is  an- 
other, that  they  advise  the  masters  they  work 
for  according  to  the  best  of  their  skill,  ac- 
quainting them  with  the  goodness  or  badness 
of  their  materials,  and  if  they  be  any  way  out 
in  the  contrivance  of  the  buildings,  modestly 
to  rectify  them  in  it,  that  Masonry  be  not  dis- 
honored; and  many  such  like  that  are  com- 
monly known;  but  some  others  they  have  (to 
which  they  are  sworn  after  their  fashion)  that 
none  know  but  themselves."  (Nat.  Hist,  of 
Staffordshire,  ch.  viii.,  p.  316.) 

Plumb.  An  instrument  used  by  Opera- 
tive Masons  to  erect  perpendicular  fines,  and 
adopted  in  Speculative  Masonry  as  one  of  the 
working-tools  of  a  Fellow-Craft.  It  is  a  sym- 
bol of  rectitude  of  conduct,  and  inculcates 
that  integrity  of  life  and  undeviating  course 
of  moral  uprightness  which  can  alone  dis- 
tinguish the  good  and  just  man.  As  the  oper- 
ative workman  erects  his  temporal  building 
with  strict  observance  of  that  plumb-line, 
which  will  not  permit  him  to  deviate  a  hair's 
breadth  to  the  right  or  to  the  left,  so  the  Spec- 
ulative Mason,  guided  by  the  unerring  prin- 
ciples of  right  and  truth  inculcated  in  the  sym- 
bolic teachings  of  the  same  implement,  is 
steadfast  in  the  pursuit  of  truth,  neither  bend- 
ing beneath  the  frowns  of  adversity  nor  yield- 
ing to  the  seductions  of  prosperity. 

To  the  man  thus  just  and  upright,  the  Scrip- 
tures attribute,  as  necessary  parts  of  his  char- 
acter, kindness  and  liberality,  temperance  and 
moderation,  truth  and  wisdom;  and  the  Pagan 
poet  Horace  (lib.  iii.,  od.  3)  pays,  in  one  of  his 
most  admired  odes,  an  eloquent  tribute  to  the 
stern  immutability  of  the  man  who  is  upright 
and  tenacious  of  purpose. 

It  is  worthy  of  notice  that,  in  most  lan- 
guages, the  word  which  is  used  in  a  direct 
sense  to  indicate  straightness  of  course  or  per- 
pendicularity of  position,  is  also  employed  in 
a  figurative  sense  to  express  uprightness  of 
conduct.  Such  are  the  Latin  "rectum," 
which  signifies  at  the  same  time  a  right  line 
and  honesty,  or  integrity;  the  Greek,  ipiM*. 
which  means  straight,  standing  upright,  ana 
also  equitable,  Just,  true;  and  the  Hebrew 
tsedeh,  which  in  a  physical  sense  denotes  right- 


ness,  straightness,  and  in  a  moral,  what  is  right 
and  just.  Our  own  word  RIGHT  partakes  of 
this  peculiarity,  right  being  not  wrong,  as  well 
as  not  crooked. 

As  to  the  name,  it  may  be  remarked  that 
plumb  is  the  word  used  in  Speculative  Ma- 
sonry. Webster  says  that  as  a  noun  the  word 
is  seldom  used  except  in  composition.  Its 
constant  use,  therefore,  in  Masonry,  is  a  pe- 

Plumb-Line.   A  line  to  which  a  piece  of 
lead  is  attached  so  as  to  make  it  hang  per- 
pendicularly. The  plumb-line,  some- 
times called  simply  the  line,  is  one  of 
the  working-tools  of  the  Past  Master. 
According  to  Preston,  it  was  one  of  the 
instruments  of  Masonry  which  was  pre- 
sented to  the  Master  of  a  Lodge  at  his 
installation,  and  he  defines  its  sym- 
bolism as  follows :  "The  line  teaches  the 
criterion  of  rectitude,  to  avoid  dissimu- 
lation in  conversation  and  action,  and 
to  direct  our  steps  in  thepath  which 
'  I      leads  to  immortality."   This  idea  of 
the  immortal  life  was  always  connected  in 
symbology  with  that  of  the  perpendicular — 
something  that  rose  directly  upward.  Thus 
in  the  primitive  church,  the  worshiping  Chris- 
tians stood  up  at  prayer  on  Sunday,  as  a  refer- 
ence to  the  Lord's  resurrection  on  that  day. 
This  symbolism  is  not,  however,  preserved  m 
the  verse  of  the  prophet  Amos  (vii.  7),  which 
is  read  in  this  country  as  the  Scripture  pas- 
sage of  the  Second  Degree,  where  it  seems 
rather  to  refer  to  the  strict  justice  which  God 
will  apply  to  the  people  of  Israel.   It  there 

I coincides  with  the  first  Masonic  defini- 
tion that  the  line  teaches  the  criterion 
of  moral  rectitude. 
Plumb-Rule.  A  narrow  board, 
having  a  plumb-line  suspended  from 
its  top  and  a  perpendicular  mark 
through  its  middle.  It  is  one  of  the 
working-tools  of  a  Fellow-Craft,  but 
in  Masonic  language  is  called  the 
Plumb,  which  see. 
Plurality  Of  Votes.  See  Majority. 
Poetry  of  Masonry-  Although  Freema- 
sonry has  been  distinguished  more  than  any 
other  single  institution  for  the  number  of 
verses  to  which  it  has  given  birth,  it  has  not 
produced  any  poetry  of  a  very  high  order, 
except  a  few  lyrical  effusions.  Rime,  al- 
though not  always  of  transcendent  merit,  has 
been  a  favorite  form  of  conveying  its  instruc- 
tions. The  oldest  of  the  Constitutions,  that 
known  as  the  Halliwell  or  Regius  MS.,  is 
written  in  verse;  and  almost  all  the  early 
catechisms  of  the  degrees  were  in  the  form  of 
rime,  which,  although  often  doggerel  in 
character,  served  as  a  convenient  method  of 
assisting  the  memory.  But  the  imagination, 
which  might  have  been  occupied  in  the  higher 
walks  of  poetry,  seems  in  Freemasonry  to  have 
been  expended  in  the  construction  of  its  sym- 
bolism, which  may,  however,  be  considered 
often  as  the  results  of  true  poetic  genius. 
There  are,  besides  the  songs,  of  which  the 
number  in  all  languages  is  very  great,  an 


abundance  of  prologues  and  epilogues,  of  odes 
and  anthems,  some  of  which  are  not  discred- 
itable to  their  authors  or  to  the  Institution. 
But  there  are  very  few  poems  on  Masonic 
subjects  of  any  length.  The  French  have  in- 
dulged more  than  any  other  nation  in  this  sort 
of  composition,  and  the  earliest  Masonic  poem 
known  is  one  published  at  Frankfort,  1756, 
with  the  title  of  Noblesse  des  Franc-Macons 
ou  Institution  de  lew  Soci^U  avant  le  deluge 
universel  et  de  son  renouveUement  aprhs  le 

It  was  printed  anonymously,  but  the  au- 
thorship of  it  is  attributed  to  M.  Jartigue.  It 
is  a  transfer  to  verse  of  all  the  Masonic  myths 
contained  in  the  "Legend  of  the  Craft"  and 
the  traditional  history  of  Anderson,  Neither 
the  material  nor  the  execution  exempt  the 
author  from  Horace's  denunciation  of  poetic 

Pointed  Cubical  Stone.  The  "  Broached 
Thurnel"  (a.  ».)  mentioned  by  Dr.  Oliver  and 
others  in  the  Tracing-Board  of  an  Entered 
Apprentice,  and  known  to  the  French  Mason 
as  the  pierre  cvtnque,  has  an  ax  inserted  in 
the  apex.  Bro.  William  S.  Rockwell  consid- 
ered this  feature  in  the  Tracing-Board  re- 
markable and  suggestive  of  curious  reflections, 
and  thus  reasoned:  "The  cubic  stone  pointed 
with  an  axe  driven  into  it;  is  strikingly  similar 
to  a  peculiar  hieroglyphic  of  the  Egyptians. 

The  name  of  one  of  their  gods  is  written  with  a 
determinative  sign  affixed  to  it,  consisting  of  a 
smooth  rectangular  stone  with  a  knife  over  it; 
but  the  most  singular  portion  of  the  circum- 
stance is,  that  this  hieroglyphic,  which  is  read 
by  Egyptologists,  Seth,  is  the  symbol  of  false- 
hood and  error,  in  contradistinction  to  the 
rough  (Brute)  stone,  which  is  the  symbol  of 
faith  and  truth.  The  symbol  of  error  was  the 
soft  stone,  which  could  be  cut:  the  symbol  of 
truth,  the  hard  stone,  on  which  no  tool  could 
be  used." 

Seth  is  the  true  Egyptian  name  of  the  god 
known  afterward  by  the  name  of  Typhon,  at 
one  time  devoutly  worshiped  and  profoundly 
venerated  in  the  culniinating  epoch  of  the 
Pharaonic  empire,  as  the  monuments  of  Kar- 
nac  and  Medmet-Abou  testify.  But  in  time 
his  worship  was  overthrown,  his  shrines  dese- 
crated, his  name  and  titles  chiseled  from  the 
monumental  granite,  and  he  himself,  from 
being  venerated  as  the  giver  of  life  and  bless- 
ings to  the  rulers  of  Egypt,  degraded  from  his 
position,  treated  as  a  aestroying  demon,  and 
shunned  as  the  personification  of  evil.  This 
was  not  long  before  the  exode  of  the  children 
of  Israel.  Seth  was  the  father  of  Judseus  and 
Palestinus,  is  the  god  of  the  Semitic  tribes  who 

572  POINTS 

rested  on  the  seventh  day,  and  bears  the 
swarthy  complexion  of  the  hated  race.  Seth 
is  also  known  by  other  names  in  the  hiero- 
glyphic legends,  among  the  most  striking  of 
which  is  Bar,  that  is  Bal,  known  to  us  in  sa- 
cred history  as  the  fatal  stumbling-block  of 
idolatry  to  the  Jewish  people.  (See  Triangle 
and  Square.)  [C.  T.  McClenachan.] 

Points.  In  the  Old  Constitutions  known  as 
the  Halliwell  or  Regius  MS.,  there  are  fifteen 
regulations  which  are  called  points.  The  fif- 
teen articles  which  precede  are  said  to  have 
been  in  existence  before  the  meeting  at  York, 
and  then  only  collected  after  search,  while  the 
fifteen  points  were  then  enacted.  Thus  we 
are  told— 

"Fifteen  artycuhis  they  there  sougton,  (sought, 
found  out,) 

And  fifteen  poyntys  there  they  wrogton,  (wrought, 

The  points  referred  to  in  the  ritualistic 
phrase,  "arts,  parts,  and  points  of  the  hidden 
mysteries  of  Masonry,"  are  the  rules  and  reg- 
ulations of  the  Institution.  Phillips's  New 
World  of  Words  (edit.  1706)  defines  point  as 
"an  head  or  chief  matter."  It  is  in  this  sense 
that  we  speak  of  the  "points  of  Masonry." 

Points  of  Entrance,  Perfect.  In  the 
earliest  lectures  of  the  last  century  these  were 
called  "Principal  Points."  The  designation 
of  them  as  "Perfect  Points  of  Entrance"  was 
of  a  later  date.  They  are  described  both  in 
the  English  and  the  American  systems.  Their 
specific  names,  and  their  allusion  to  the  four 
cardinal  virtues,  are  the  same  in  both;  but  the 
verbal  explanations  differ,  although  not  sub- 
stantially. They  are  so  called  because  they 
refer  to  four  important  points  of  the  initia- 
tion. The  Guttural  refers  to  the  entrance 
upon  the  penal  responsibilities;  the  Pectoral, 
to  the  entrance  into  the  Lodge;  the  Manual, 
to  the  entrance  on  the  covenant;  and  the 
Pedal,  to  the  entrance  on  the  instructions  in 
the  northeast. 

j  Points  of  Fellowship,  Fire.  There  are 
duties  owing  by  every  Mason  to  his  breth- 
ren, which,  from  then*  symbolic  allusion  to 
certain  points  of  the  body,  and  from  the  lesson 
of  brotherly  love  which  they  teach,  are  called 
the  "Five  Points  of  Fellowship."  They  are 
symbolically  illustrated  in  the  Third  Degree, 
and  have  been  summed  up  by  Oliver  as  "as- 
sisting a  brother  in  his  distress,  supporting 
him  in  his  virtuous  undertakings,  praying  for 
his  welfare,  keeping  inviolate  his  secrets,  and 
vindicating  his  reputation  as  well  in  his  ab- 
sence as  in  his  presence."    (Landm.,  I,  185.) 

Cole,  in  the  Freemasons'  Library  (p.  190), 
gives  the  same  ideas  in  diffuser  language,  as 

"First.  When  the  necessities  of  a  brother 
call  for  my  aid  and  support,  I  will  be  ever 
ready  to  lend  him  such  assistance,  to  save  him 
from  sinking,  as  may  not  be  detrimental  to 
myself  or  connections,  if  I  find  him  worthy 

"Second.  Indolence  shall  not  cause  my 
footsteps  to  halt,  nor  wrath  turn  them  aside; 


but  forgetting  every  selfish  consideration,  I 
will  be  ever  swift  of  foot  to  serve,  help,  and 
execute  benevolence  to  a  feBow-oreature  in 
distress,  and  more  particularry  to  &  brother 

"Third-  When  I  offer  up  my  ejaculations 
to  Almighty  God,  a  brother's  welfare  I  will 
remember  as  my  own;  for  as  the  voices  of 
babes  and  sucklings  ascend  to  the  Throne  of 
Grace,  so  most  assuredly  will  the  breathings  of 
a  fervent  heart  arise  to  the  mansions  of  bliss, 
as  our  prayers  are  certainly  required  of  each 

"  Fourth.  A  brother's  secrets,  delivered  to 
me  as  such,  I  will  keep  as  I  would  my  own;  as 
betraying  that  trust  might  be  doing  him  the 
greatest  injury  he  could  sustain  in  this  mortal 
life;  nay,  it  would  be  like  the  viDany  of  an 
assassin,  who  lurks  in  darkness  to  stab  his  ad- 
versary, when  unarmed  and  least  prepared  to 
meet  an  enemy. 

"Fifth.  A  brother's  character  I  will  support 
in  his  absence  as  I  would  in  his  presence:  I 
will  not  wrongfully  revile  him  myself,  nor  will 
I  suffer  it  to  be  done  by  others,  if  in  my  power 
to  prevent  it." 

The  enumeration  of  these  Points  by  some 
other  more  recent  authorities  differs  from 
Cole  s,  apparently,  only  in  the  order  in  which 
the  Points  are  placed.  The  latter  order  is 
given  as  follows  in  Mackey's  Lexicon  of  Free- 

"First.  Indolence  should  not  cause  our 
footsteps  to  halt,  or  wrath  turn  them  aside; 
but  with  eager  alacrity  and  swiftness  of  foot, 
we  should  press  forward  in  the  exercise  of 
charity  and  kindness  to  a  distressed  fellow- 

"Secondly.  In  our  devotions  to  Almighty 
God,  we  should  remember  a  brother's  welfare 
as  our  own;  for  the  prayers  of  a  fervent  and 
sincere  heart  will  find  no  less  favor,  in  the  sight 
of  Heaven,  because  the  petition  for  seSTis 
mingled  with  aspirations  of  benevolence  for  a 

"Thirdly.  When  a  brother  intrusts  to  our 
keeping  the  secret  thoughts  of  his  bosom,  pru- 
dence and  fidelity  should  place  a  oacred  seal 
upon  our  hps,  lest,  in  an  unguarded  moment, 
we  betray  the  solemn  trust  confided  to  our 

"Fourthly.  When  adversity  has  visited  our 
brother,  and  his  calamities  call  for  our  aid,  we 
should  cheerfully  and  liberally  stretch  forth 
the  hand  of  kindness,  to  save  him  from  sink- 
ing, and  to  relieve  his  necessities. 

"Fifthly.  While  with  candor  and  kindness 
we  should  admonish  a  brother  of  his  faults,  we 
should  never  revile  his  character  behind  his 
back,  but  rather,  when  attacked  by  others, 
support  and  defend  it." 

The  difference  here  is  apparently  only  in  the 
order  of  enumeration,  but  really  there  is  an  im- 
portant difference  in  the  symbols  on  which  the 
instructions  are  founded.  In  the  old  system, 
the  symbols  are  the  hand,  the  foot,  the  knee, 
the  breast,  and  the  back.  In  the  new  system, 
the  first  symbol  or  the  hand  is  omitted,  and  the 
mouth  and  the  ear  substituted.   There  is  no 




doubt  that  this  omission  of.  the  first  and  in- 
sertion of  the  last  are  innovations^  which 
sprung  up  in  1842  at  the  Baltimore  Conven- 
tion, and  the  enumeration  given  by  Cole  is 
the  old  and  genuine  one,  which  was  originally 
taught  in  England  by  Preston,  and  in  this 
country  by  Webb.      ■  .  _  „  , 

Points,  The  Five.  See  Chromatic  Calm- 


Points,  Twelve  Gkmd.  See  Twelve  Origi- 
nal Points  of  Masonry.        ^  .  .  ,  , 

Point  within  a  Circle.  This  is  a  symbol 
of  great  interest  and  importance,  and  brings 
us  into  close  connection  with  the  early  sym- 
bolism of  the  solar  orb  and  the  universe,  which 
was  predominant  in  the  ancient  sun-worship. 
The  lectures  of  Freemasonry  give  what  mod- 
ern Monitors  have  made  an  exoteric  explana- 
tion of  the  symbol,  in  telling  us  that  the  point 
represents  an  individual  brother,  the  circle  the 
boundary  line  of  his  duty  to  God  and  man,  and 
the  two  perpendicular  parallel  lines  the  patron 
saints  of  the  Order— St.  John  the  Baptist  and 
St.  John  the  EvangeUBt.  , 

But  that  this  Was  not  always  its  symbolic 
signification,  we  may  collect  from  the  true  his- 
tory of  its  connection  with  the  phallus  of  the 
Ancient  Mysteries.  The  phallus,  as  I  have 
already  shown  under  the  word,  was  among  the 
Egyptians  the  symbol  of  fecundity,  expressed 
by  the  male  generative  principle.  It  was 
communicated  from  the  rites  of  Osiris  to  the 
religious  festivals  of  Greece.  Among  the 
Asiatics  the  same  emblem,  under  the  name  of 
lingam,  was,  in  connection  with  the  female 

Erinciple,  worshiped  as  the  symbols  of  the 
treatFather  and  Mother,  or  producing  causes 
of  the  human  race,  after  then-  destruction  by 
the  deluge.   On  this  subject,  Captain  WiM ord 
(Asiat.  Res.)  remarks  "that  it  was  believed  in 
India,  that,  at  the  general  deluge,  everything 
was  involved  in  the  common  destruction  ex- 
cept the  male  and  female  principles,  or  organs 
of  generation,  which  were  destined  to  produce 
a  new  race,  and  to  repeople  the  earth  when  the 
waters  had  subsided  from  its  surface.  The 
female  principle, symbolized  by  the  moon, .as- 
sumed the  form  of  a  lunette  or  crescent;  while 
the  maleprineiple,  symbolised  by  the  sun,  as- 
suming the  form  of  the  lingam,  placed  himself 
erect  in  the  center  of  the  lunette,  like  the  mast 
of  a  ship.  The  two  principles,  m  this  united 
form,  floated  on  the  surface  of  the  waters  dur- 
ing tie  period  of  their  prevalence  on  the  earth; 
and  thus  became  the  progenitors  of  a  new  race 
of  men."   Here,  then,  was  the  first  outline  of 
the  point  within  a  circle,  representing  the  prin- 
ciple of  fecundity,  and  doubtless  the  symbol, 
connected  with  a  different  history,  that, 
namely,  of  Osiris,  was  transmitted  by  the  In- 
dian philosophers  to  Egypt,  and  to  the  other 
nations,  who  derived,  as  I  have  elsewhere 
shown,  all  their  rites  from  the  East. 

It  was  in  deference  to  this  symbolism  that, 
as  Biggins  remarks  (Anacal.,  ii.,  306),  circular 
temples  were  in  the  very  earliest  ages  univer- 
sally erected  in  cyclar  numbers  to  do  honor  to 
the  Deity. 

Ia  India,  stone  circles,  or  rather  their  rums, 

are  everywhere  found;  among  the  oldest  of 
which,  according  to  Moore  (Panth.,  242),  is 
that  of  Dipaldiana,  and  whose  execution  will 
compete  with  that  of  the  Greeks.  In  the  old- 
est monuments  of  the  Druids  we  find,  as  at 
Stonehenge  and  Abury,  the  circle  of  stones. 
In  fact,  afl  the  temples  of  the  Druids  were  cir- 
cular, with  a  single  stone  erected  in  the  center. 
A  Druidical  monument  in  Pembrokeshire, 
called  Y  Cromlech,  is  described  as  consisting  . 
of  several  rude  stones  pitched  on  end  in  a  cir- 
cular order,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  circle  a 
vast  stone  placed  on  several  pillars.  Near 
Keswick,  in  Cumberland,  says  Oliver  (Sions 
and  Symbols,  174),  ia  another  specimen  of  this 
Druidical  symbol.  On  a  hill  stands  a  circle  of 
forty  stones  placed  perpendicularly,  of  about 
five  feet  and  a  half  in  height,  and  one  stone  in 
the  center  of  greater  altitude. 

Among  the  Scandinavians,  the  hall  of  Odin 
contained  twelve  seats,  disposed  in  the  form  of 
a  circle,  for  the  principal  gods,  with  an  ele- 
vated seat  in  the  center  for  Odin.  Scandina- 
vian monuments  of  this  form  are  still  to  be 
found  in  Scania,  Zealand,  and  Jutland. 

But  it  is  useless  to  multiply  examples  of  the 
prevalence  of  this  symbol  among  the  ancients. 
And  now  let  us  apply  this  knowledge  to  the 
Masonic  symbol. 

We  have  seen  that  the  phallus  and  the  point 
within  a  circle  come  from  the  same  source,  and 
must  have  been  identical  in  signification. 
But  the  phallus  was  the  symbol  of  fecundity, 
or  the  male  generative  principle,  which  by 
the  ancients  was  supposed  to  be  the  sun  (they 
looking  to  the  creature  and  not  to  the  Creator), 
because  by  the  sun's  heat  and  light  the  earth  is 
made  prolific,  and  its  productions  are  brought 
to  maturity.  The  point  within  the  circle  was 
then  originally  the  symbol  of  the  sun;  and  as 
the  lingam  of  India  stood  in  the  center  of  the 
lunette,  so  it  stands  within  the  center  of  the 
Universe,  typified  by  the  circle,  impregnating 
and  vivifying  it  with  its  heat.  And  thus  the 
astronomers  have  been  led  to  adopt  the  same 
figure  as  their  symbol  of  the  sun. 

Now  it  is  admitted  that  the  Lodge  repre- 
sents the  world  or  the  universe,  and  the  Master 
and  Wardens  within  it  represent  the  sun  in 
three  positions.  Thus  we  arrive  at  the  true 
interpretation  of  the  Masonic  symbolism  of 
the  point  within  the  circle.  It  is  the  same 
thing,  but  under  a  different  form,  as  the  Mas- 
ter and  Wardens  of  a  Lodge.  The  Master  and 
Wardens  are  symbols  of  the  sun,  the  Lodge  of 
the  universe,  or  world,  just  as  the  point  is  the 
symbol  of  the  same  sun,  and  the  surrounding 
circle  of  the  universe.  . 

*An  addition  to  the  above  may  be  given,  by 
referring  to  one  of  the  oldest  symbols  among 
the  Egyptians,  and  found  upon  then-  monu- 
ments, which  was  a  circle  centered  by  an 
A  TJ  M,  supported  by  two  erect  parallel  ser- 
pents; the  circle  being  expressive  of  the  col- 
lective people  of  the  world,  protected  by  the 
parallel  attributes,  the  Power  and  Wisdom  of 

♦  From  this  point  the  article  is  by  C.  T.  Mc- 





the  Creator.  The  Alpha  and  Omega,  or  the 
1AM2J2.  representing  the  Egyptian  omnipo- 
tent God>  surrounded  by  His  creation,  having 
for  a  boundary  no  other  limit  than  what  may 
come  within  his  boundless  scope,  his  Wisdom 
and  Power.  At  times  this  circle  is  represented 

by  the  Ananta  (Sanskrit,  eternity),  a  serpent 
with  its  tail  in  its  mouth.  The  parallel  ser- 
pents were  of  the  cobra  species. 

It  has  been  suggestively  said  that  the  Ma 
sonic  symbol  refers  to  the  circuits  or  cir 
cumambulation  of  the  initiate  about  the 
sacred  Altar,  which  supports  the  three  Great 
lights  as  a  central  point,  while  the  brethren 
stand  m  two  parallel  lines. 

Poland.  Freemasonry  was  introduced  into 
Poland,  m  1736,  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng- 
land; but  in  1739  the  Lodges  were  closed  in 
consequence  of  the  edict  of  King  Augustus  II 
whoenforced  the  bull  of  Pope  Clement  XII. 
From  1742  to  1749  Masonry  was  revived  and 
several  Lodges  erected,  which  flourished  for  a 
tune,  but  afterward  fell  into  decay.  In  1766 
Count  Mosrvnski  sought  to  put  it  on  a  better 
footing,  and  in  1769  a  Grand  Lodge  was 
formed,  of  which  he  was  chosen  Grand  Master, 
lhe  Grand  Lodge  of  England  recognized  this 
body  as  a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge.  On  the 
first  division  of  Poland,  the  labors  of  the 
Grand  Lodge  were  suspended;  but  they  were 

irel111  I773,  bY  Count  Bl^.  whoyintro! 
duced  the  ritual  of  the  Strict  Observance,  es- 
tablished several  new  Lodges,  and  acknowl- 
edged the  supremacy  of  the  United  Lodges  of 
Germany.  There  was  a  Lodge  in  Warsaw, 
working  m  the  French  Rite,  under  the  au- 
thority of  the  Grand  Orient  of  France,  and  an- 
other under  the  English  system.  These  dif- 
ferences of  Rites  created  many  dissensions, 

«?*  w  ^St'  1781->  the  Lod«0  Catherine  of 
the  North  Star  received  a  Warrant  as  a  Pro- 
vincial Grand  Lodge  and  on  December  27th 
of  the  same  year  the  body  was  organized,  and 
fimatius  Pococki  elected  Grand  Master  of  all 
roJisa  and  Lithuanian  Lodges,  the  English 

system  being  provisionally  adopted.  In  1794 
with  the  dissolution  of  the  kingdom,  the 
lodges  in  the  Russian  and  Austrian  portions 
oi  the  partition  were  suppressed,  and  those 
only  in  Prussian  Poland  continued  their  ex- 
istence. Upon  the  creation,  by  Napoleon,  of 
the  Grand  Duchy  of  Warsaw,  a  Grand  Orient 
of  Poland  was  immediately  established.  This 
body  continued  in  operation  until  1823,  with 
more  than  forty  Lodges  under  its  obedience. 
In  November  of  that  year  the  Order  was  inter- 
dicted in  consequence  of  the  ukase  of  the  Em- 
peror Alexander  prohibiting  all  secret  societies, 
and  ail  the  Lodges  were  thereon  closed.  Dur- 
ing the  revolt  of  1830  a  few  Lodges  arose,  but 
they  lasted  only  until  the  insurrection  was 

Politics.   There  is  no  charge  more  fre- 
quently made  against  Freemasonry  than  that 
ol  its  tendency  to  revolution,  and  conspiracy, 
and  to  political  organizations  which  may  af- 
fect the  peace  of  society  or  interfere  with  the 
rights  of  governments.   It  was  the  substance 
of  all  Barruel's  and  Robison's  accusations, 
that  the  Jacobinism  of  France  and  Germany 
was  nurtured  in  the  Lodges  of  those  countries : 
it  was  the  theme  of  all  the  denunciations  of 
the  anti-Masons  of  America,  that  the  Order 
was  seeking  a  political  ascendancy  and  an 
undue  influence  over  the  government;  it  has 
been  the  unjust  accusation  of  every  enemy  of 
the  Institution  in  all  times  past,  that  its  ob- 
ject and  aim  is  the  possession  of  power  and 
™W  m  the  affairs  of  state.   It  is  in  vain 
that  history  records  no  instance  of  this  unlaw- 
ful connection  between  Freemasonry  and  pol- 
itics: it  is  in  vain  that  the  libeler  is  directed 
to  the  Ancient  Constitutions  of  the  Order 
which  expressly  forbid  such  connection;  the 
libel  is  still  written,  and  Masonry  is  again  and 
again  condemned  as  a  political  club. 

Polkal.  A  significant  word  in  the  high 
degrees,  which  means  altogether  separated,  in 
allusion  to  the  disunited  condition  of  the  Ma- 
sonic Order  at  the  time,  divided  as  it  was  into 
various  and  conflicting  rites.  The  word  is 
corrupted  from  palcol,  and  is  derived  from  the 
radical  ?D,  pal,  which,  as  Gesenius  says,  every- 
whereimplies  separation,  and  the  adverbial 
73,  kol,  wholly,  altogether. 

PolFchronlcon.  Ranulf  ffigden,  a  monk 
of  Chester,  wrote,  about  1350,  under  this  title 
a  Latin  chronicle,  which  was  translated  into 
English i  m  1387  by  John  Trevisa,  and  pub- 
lishedby  William  Caxton,  in  1482,  as  The 
Polychromcon;  "conteynyng  the  Berynges 
andDedesofmanyTymes."  Another  edition 
was  published  (though,  perhaps,  it  was  the 
same  book  with  a  new  title)  by  Wynkyn  de 
Woorde,  m  1485,  as  Policronicon,  in  which 
booke  ben  comprysed  bryefly  many  wonderful 
hystoryes,  Englished  by  one  Trevisa,  vicarye  of 
JZn %,?to->  a  of  which  sold  in  1857  for 
£61.  ihere  was  another  translation  in  the 
same  century  by  an  unknown  author.  The 
two  translations  made  the  book  familiar  to 
the  English  public,  with  whom  it  was  at  one 
time  a  favorite  work.  It  was  much  used  by 
the  compiler  or  compilers  of  the  Old  Constu 


tutions  now  known  as  the  Cooke  Manuscript. 
Indeed,  there  is  very  little  doubt  that  the 
writers  of  the  old  Masonic  records  borrowed 
from  the  Polychronicon  many  of  their  early 
legends  of  Masonry.  In  1865  there  was  pub- 
lished at- London,  under  the  authority  of  the 
Master  of  the  Rolls,  an  edition  of  the  original 
Latin  chronicle,  with  both  the  English  trans- 
lations, that  of  Trevisa  and  that  of  the  un- 
known writer. 
Pomegranate.   The  pomegranate,  as  a 

rbol,  was  known  to  and  highly  esteemed  by 
nations  of  antiquity.  In  the  description 
of  the  pillars  which  stood  at  the  porch  of  the 
Temple  ^see  1  Kings  vti.  15),  it  is  said  that  the 
artificer  "made  two  chapiters  of  molten  brass 
to  set  upon  the  tops  of  the  pillars."  Now  the 
Hebrew  word  mpmorim,  which  has  been  trans- 
lated "chapiters,"  and  for  which,  in  Amos  ix. 
1,  the  word  "lintel"  has  been  incorrectly  sub- 
stituted (though  the  marginal  reading  cor- 
rects the  error),  signifies  an  artificial  large 
pomegranate,  or  globe.  The  original  meaning 
is  not  preserved  in  the  Septuagint,  which  has 
aipaipwrnp,  nor  in  the  Vulgate,  which  uses 
"sphserula,"  both  meaning  simply  "a  round 
ball."  But  Josephus,  in  his  Antiquities,  has 
kept  to  the  literal  Hebrew.  It  was  customary 
to  place  such  ornaments  upon  the  tops  or 
heads  of  columns,  and  in  other  situations. 
The  skirt  of  Aaron's  robe  Was  ordered  to  be 
decorated  with  golden  bells  and  pomegranates, 
and  they  were  among  the  ornaments  fixed 
upon  the  golden  candelabra.  There  seems, 
therefore,  to  have  been  attached  to  this  fruit 
some  mystic  signification,  to  which  it  is  in- 
debted for  the  veneration  thus  paid  to  it.  If 
so,  this  mystic  meaning  should  be  traced  into 
Spurious  Freemasonry;  for  there,  after  all,  if 
there  be  any  antiquity  in  our  Order,  we  shall 
find  the  parallel  of  all  its  rites  and  ceremonies. 

The  Syrians  at  Damascus  worshiped  an 
idol  which  they  called  Rimmon.  This  was 
the  same  idol  that  was  worshiped  by  Naaman 
before  his  conversion,  as  recorded  in  the  Sec- 
ond Book  of  Kings.  The  learned  have  not  been 
able  to  agree  as  to  the  nature  of  this  idol, 
whether  he  was  a  representation  of  Helios  or 
the  Sun,  the  god  of  the  Phoenicians,  or  of 
Venus,  or  according  to  Grotius,  in  his  com- 
mentary on  the  passage  in  Kings,  of  Saturn,  or 
what,  according  to  Statius,  seems  moreprob- 
able,  of  Jupiter  Gassius.  But  it  is  sufficient 
for  thepresent  purpose  to  know  that  Rimmon 
is  the  Hebrew  and  Syriac  for  pomegranate. 

Cumberland,  the  learned  Bishop  of  Peter- 
borough (Orig.Gent^Ant.,  p.  60),  quotes  Achil- 
les Statius,  a  converted  Pagan,  and  Bishop  of 
Alexandria,  as  saying  that  on  Mount  Cas- 
sius  Ywhich  Bochart  places  between  Canaan 
and  Egypt)  there  was  a  temple  wherein  Jupi- 
ter's image  held  a  pomegranate  in  his  hand, 
which  Statius  goes  on  to  say,  "had  a  mystical 
meaning."  Sanconiathon  thinks  this  temple 
was  built  by  the  descendants  of  the  Cabiri. 
Cumberland,  attempts  to  explain  this  mystery 
thus:  "Agreeably  hereunto  I  guess  that  the 
pomegranate  in  the  hand  of  Jupiter  or  Juno, 
(because,  when  it  is  opened,  it  discloses  a 


great  number  of  seeds,)  signified  only,  that 
those  deities  were,  being  long-lived,  the  parents 
of  a  great  many  children,_  and  families  that 
soon  grew  into  nations,  which  they  planted  in 
large  possessions,  when  the  world  was  newly 
begun  to  be  peopled,  by  giving  them  laws  and 
other  useful  inventions  to  make  their  lives 

Pausanias  (Corinthiaca,  p.  59)  says  he  saw, 
not  far  from  the  ruins  of  Mycenae,  an  image  of 
Juno  holding  in  one  hand  a  scepter,  and  in  the 
other  a  pomegranate;  but  he  likewise  declines 
assigning:  any  explanation  of  the  emblem, 
merely  declaring  that  it  was  lmoppirr6rtpos 
Kiyos — "a  forbidden  mystery."  That  is,  one 
which  was  forbidden  by  the  Cabiri  to  be  di- 

In  the  festival  of  the  Thesmophoria,  ob- 
served in  honor  of  the  goddess  Ceres,  it  was 
held  unlawful  for  the  celebrants  (who  were 
women)  to  eat  the  pomegranate.  Clemens 
Alexandrinus  assigns  as  a  reason,  that  it  was 
supposed  that  this  fruit  sprang  from  the  blood 
of  Bacchus. 

Bryant  (Anc.  Myth.,  in.,  237)  says  that  the 
Ark  was  looked  upon  as  the  mother  of  man- 
kind, and  on  this  account  it  was  figured  under 
the  semblance  of  a  pomegranate;  for  as  this 
fruit  abounds  with  seeds,  it  was  thought  no 
improper  emblem  of  the  Ark,  which  con- 
tained the  rudiments  of  the  future  world.  In 
fact,  few  plants  had  among  the  ancients  a 
more  mythical  history  than  the  pomegranate. 

From  the  Hebrews,  who  used  it  mystically 
at  the  Temple,  it  passed  over  to  the  Masons, 
who  adopted  it  as  the  symbol  of  plenty,  for 
which  it  is  well  adapted  by  its  swelling  and 
seed-abounding  fruit. 

Pomme  Verte  (Green  Apple),  Order  of 
the.  An  androgynous  Order,  instituted  in 
Germany  in  1780,  and  afterward  introduced 
into  France.    (Thory,  ActaLat.,  i.,  333.) 

Pommel.  A  round  knob;  a  term  applied 
to  the  globes  or  balls  on  the  top  of  the  pillars 
which  stood  at  the  porch  of  Solomon's  Temple. 
It  was  introduced  into  the  Masonic  lectures 
from  Scriptural  language.  The  two  pommels 
of  the  chapiters  is  in  2  Chron.  iv.  13.  It  is, 
however,  an  architectural  term,  thus  defined 
by  Parker  (Gloss.  Arch*,  p.  365):  "Pommel  de- 
notes generally  any  ornament  of  a  globular 

Pontlfes  Freres.   See  Bridge  Builders. 

Pontifex.    See  Bridge  Builders. 

Pontiff.  In  addition  to  what  has  been  said 
of  this  word  in  the  article  on  the  "Bridge 
Builders  of  the  Middle  Ages,"  the  following 
from  Athanase  Coquerel,  fils,  in  a  recent 
essay  entitled  The  Rise  and  Decline  of  the  Rom- 
ish Church,  will  be  interesting. 

"What  is  the  meaning  of  'pontiff'?  '  Pon- 
tiff' means  bridge  maker,  bridge  builder. 
Why  are  they  called  in  that  way?  Here  is  the 
explanation  of  the  fact :  In  the  very  first  years 
of  the  existence  of  Rome,  at  a  time  of  which 
we  have  a  very  fabulous  history  and  but  few 
existing  monuments;  the  little  town  of  Rome, 
not  built  on  seven  hills,  as  is  generally  sup- 
posed— there  are  eleven  of  them  now;  then 


there  were  within  the  town  less  than  seven, 
even — that  little  town  had  a  great  deal  to  f  ear 
from  an  enemy  which  should  take  one  of  the 
hills  that  Were  out  of  town — the  Janiculum — 
because  the  Janiculum.  is  higher  than  the 
others,  and  from  that  hill  an  enemy  could  very 
easily  throw  stones,  fire,  or  any  means  of  de- 
struction into  the  town.  The  Janiculum  was 
separated  from  the  town  by  the  Tiber.  Then 
the  first  necessity  for  the  defense  of  that  little 
town  of  Rome  was  to  have  a  bridge.  They 
had  built  a  wooden  bridge  over  the  Tiber,  and 
a  great  point  of  interest  to  the  town  was,  that 
this  bridgeshould  be  kept  always  in  good  order, 
so  that  at  any  moment  troops  could  pass  over. 
Then,  with  the  special  genius  of  the  Romans, 
of  which  we  have  other  instances,  they  or- 
dained, curiously  enough,  that  the  men,  who 
were  a  corporation,  to  take  care  of  that  bridge 
should  be  sacred;  that  their  function,  neces- 
sary to  the  defense  of  the  town,  should  be  con- 
sidered holy;  that  they  should  be  priests;  and 
the  highest  of  them  was  called '  the  high  bridge 
maker.'  So  it  happened  that  there  was  in 
Rome  a  corporation  of  bridge  makers — pon- 
tifices — of  whom  the  head  was  the  most  sacred 
of  all  Romans;  because  in  those  days  his  life 
and  the  life  of  his  companions  was  deemed 
necessary  to  the  safety  of  the  town." 

And  thus  it  is  that  the  title  of  Pontifex  Max- 
imus,  assumed  by  the  Pope  of  Rome,  literally 
means  the  Grand  Bridge  Builder. 
Pontiff,  'Grand.  See  Grand  Pontiff, 
Poor  Fellow-Soldiers  of  Jesus  Christ. 
(Pduperea  commilitones  Jesu  ChHsti.)  This 
was  the  title  first  assumed  by  the  Knights 

Pooroosh.  The  spirit  or  essence  of  Brahm 
in  the  Indian  religious  system. 

Poppy.  In  the  mysteries  of  the  ancients, 
the  poppy  was  the  symbol  of  regeneration. 
The  somniferous  qualities  of  the  plant  ex- 
pressed the  idea  of  quiescence;  but  the  seeds 
of  a  new  existence  which  it  contained  were 
thought  to  show  that  nature,  though  her  pow- 
ers were  suspended,  yet  possessed  the  capabil- 
ity of  being  called  into  a  renewed  existence. 
Thus  the  poppy  planted  near  a  grave  sym- 
bolized the  idea  of  a  resurrection.  Hence,  it 
conveyed  the  same  sjnmbolism  as  the  ever- 
green or  sprig  of  acacia  does  in  the  Masonic 

Porch  of  the  Temple.   See  Temple  of 


Porta,   Gambattlsta.   A  physicist  of 
Naples,  who  was  born  in  1545  and  died  in  1615. 
He  was  the  founder  of  the  Segreti,  or  "Acad- 
emy of  Secrets, "  which  see.    He  devoted  ( 
himself  to  the  study  of  the  occult  sciences,  was  ' 
the  inventor  of  the  camera  obscura,  and  the  1 
author  of  several  treatises  on  Magic,  Physi- 
ognomy, and  Secret  Writing.   De  Feller  i 
{Biog.    Univ.)  classes  him  with  Cornelius  1 
Agrippa,  Cardan,  Paracelsus,  and  other  dis-  i 
cipies  of  occult  philosophy. 

Portiforlum.  A  banner  like  unto  the  gon- 
falon, used  as  an  ensign  in  cathedrals,  and  < 
borne  at  the  head  of  rehgioos  processions. 
■  Portugal.  Freemasonry  was  introduced  i 


,  into  Portugal  in  1736,  when  a  Lodge  was  in- 

■  stituted  at  Lisbon,  under  a  Deputation  to 
s  George  Gordon  from  Lord  Weymouth,  Grand 
•  Master  of  England.  An  attempt  was  made 
i  by  John  Coustos  to  establish  a  second  in  1743, 

■  but  he  and  his  companions  Were  arrested  by 

■  the  Inquisition,  and  the  Lodge  suppressed, 
i  Freemasonry  must,  however,  have  continued 

to  exist,  although  secretly  practised,  for  in 
i  1776  other  arrests  of  Freemasons  were  made 
by  the  Holy  Office.  But  through  the  whole 
of  the  eighteenth  century  the  history  of  Ma- 
sonry in  Portugal  was  the  history  of  an  unin- 
terrupted persecution  by  the  Church  and  the 
State.  In  1805  a  Grand  Lodge  was  estab- 
lished at  Lisbon,  and  Egaz-Moritz  was  elected 
Grand  Master.  John  VI.,  during  his  exile, 
issued  from  Santa  Cruz,  in  1818.  a  decree 
against  the  Masons,  which  declared  that 
every  Mason  who  should  be  arrested  should 
suffer  death,  and  his  property  be  confiscated  to 
the  State;  and  this  law  was  extended  to  for- 
eigners residing  hi  Portugal,  as  well  as  to  na- 
tives. This  bigoted  sovereign,  on  his  res- 
toration to  the  throne,  promulgated  in  1823 
another  decree  against  the  Order,  and  Free- 
masonry fell  into  abeyance;  but  in  1834  the 
Lodges  were  again  revived.  But  dissensions 
in  reference  to  Masonic  authority  unfortu- 
nately arose  among  the  Fraternity  of  Portugal, 
which  involved  the  history  of  the  Order  in 
that  country  in  much  confusion.  There  were 
in  a  few  years  no  less  than  four  bodies  claim- 
ing Masonic  jurisdiction,  namely,  a  Grande 
Oriente  Lusitano,  which  had  existed  for  more 
than  a  quarter  of  a  century,  and  which,  in 
1846,  received  Letters-Patent  from  the  Su- 
preme Council  of  Brazil  for  the  establishment 
of  a  Supreme  Council;  a  Provincial  Grand 
Lodge,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Iceland,  with  a  Chapter  of  Rose 
Croix  working  under  the  authority  of  the 
Grand  Council  of  Rites  of  Ireland;  and  two 
Grand  Orients  working  under  contending 
Grand  Masters.  Many  attempts  were  made 
to  reconcile  these  opposing  bodies,  but  without 
success;  and,  to  add  to  the  difficulty,  we  find, 
about  1862,  another  body  calling  itself  the 
Orient  of  the  Masonic  Confederation.  But 
all  embarrassments  were  at  length  removed 
by  the  alliance,  in  1871,  of  the  United  Grand 
Orient  with  the  Supreme  Council,  and  the 
Masonic  interests  of  Portugal  are  now  pros- 

Eerously  conducted  by  the  "Grande  Oriente 
usiteno  Unido,  Supremo  Conselho  de  Ma- 
conaria  Portugueza." 

Postulant.  The  title  given  to  the  candi- 
date in  the  degree  of  Knight  Kadosh.  From 
the  Latin  poshdans,  asking  for,  wishing  to 

Pot  Of  Ineense.  As  a  symbol  of  the  sacri- 
fice which  should  be  offered  up  to  Deity,  it  has 
been  adopted  in  the  Third  Degree.  (See  In- 

Pot  of  Manna.   See  Manna,  Pot  of '. 
Poursulvant.    More  correctly,  Pursui- 
vant, which  see. 

Practiciis.  The  Third  Degree  of  the  Ger- 
man Rose  Croix. 


Praxoeans.  The  followers  of  Praxeas  in 
the  second  century,  who  proclaimed  a  unity 
in  God,  and  that  He  had  suffered  upon  the 

cross.  . 

Prayer.  Freemasonry  is  a  religious  insti- 
tution, and  hence  its  regulations  inculcate  the 
use  of  prayer  "as  a  proper  tribute  of  grati- 
tude," to  borrow  the  language  of  Preston,  to 
the  beneficent  Author  of  Life."  Hence  it  is 
of  indispensable  obligation  that  a  Lodge,  a 
Chapter,  or  any  other  Masonic  body,  should 
be  both  opened  and  closed  with  prayer;  and 
in  the  Lodges  working  in  the  English  and 
American  systems  the  obligation  is  strictly 
observed.  The  prayers  used  at  opening  and 
closing  in  America  differ  in  language  from  the 
eariyformulas  found  in  the  second  edition  of 
Preston,  and  for  the  alterations  we  are  prob- 
ably indebted  to  Webb,  The  prayers  used  m 
the  middle  and  perhaps  the  beginrongof  the 
eighteenth  century  are  to  be  found  in  Preston 
(ed.  1775),  and  are  as  follows: 

At  Opening.— "May  the  favor  of  Heaven 
be  upon  this  our  happy  meeting;  may  it  be 
begun,  carried  on,  and  ended  m  order,  har- 
mony, and  brotherly  love:  Amen." 

At  Closing.— "May  the  blessing  of  Heaven 
be  with  us  and  all  regular  Masons,  to  beautify 
and  cement  us  with  every  moral  and  social 
virtue:  Amen." 

There  is  also  a  prayer  at  the  initiation  of 
a  candidate,  which  bas;  at  the  present  day. 
been  very  slightly  varied  from  the  original 
form.  This  prayer,  but  in .a  very  different 
form,  is  much  older  than  Preston,  who 
changed  and  altered  the  much  longer  for- 
mula which  had  been  used  previous  to  his 
day.  It  was  asserted  by  Dermott  that  the 
prayer  at  initiation  was  a  ceremony  only 
m  use  among  the  "Ancients"  or  Atholl 
Masons,  and  that  it  was  omitted  by  the 
"Modems."  But  this  cannot  be  so,  as  is 
proved  by  the  insertion  of  it  in  the  earliest 
editions  of  Preston.   We  have  moreover  a 
form  of  prayer  "to  be  used  at  the  admis- 
sion of  a  brother,"  contained  in  the  Pocket 
Companion,  published  in  1754,  by  John 
Scott,  an  adherent  of  the  "Moderns,''  which 
proves  that  they  as  well  as  the  "Ancients 
observed  the  usage  of  prayer  at  an  initiation. 
There  is  a  still  more  ancient  formula  of 
"Prayer  to  be  used  of  Christian  Masons  at 
the  empointmg  of  a  brother,"  said  to  have 
been  used  in  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.,  from 
1461  to  1483,  which  is  as  follows: 

"The  might  of  God.  Hie  Father  of  Heaven, 
with  the  wisdom  of  his  glorious  Son  through 
the  goodness  of  the  Holy  Ghpst,  that  hath 
been  three  persons  in  one  Godhead,  be  with 
us  at  our  beginning,  give  us  grace  to  govern 
in  bur  living  here,  that  we  may  only  come  to 
his  bliss  that  shall  never  have  an  end.  _ 

The  custom  of  commencing  and  ending 
labor  with  prayer  was  adopted  at  an  early 
period  by  the  Operative  Freemasons  of  Eng- 
land. Findel  says  (Hist.,  p.  78),  that  "their 
Lodges  were  opened  at  sunrise,  the  Master 
taking  his  station  in  the  East  and  the  brethren 
forming  a  half  circle  around  him.  After 

prayer,  each  craftsman  had  his  daily  work 
pointed  out  to  him,  and  received  his  instruc- 
tions. At  sunset  they  again  assembled  after 
labor,  prayer  was  offered,  and  their  wages  paid 
to  them."  We  cannot  doubt  that  the  German 
Stone-Masons,  who  were  even  more  religiously 
demonstrative  than  their  English  brethren, 
must  have  observed  the  same  custom. 

As  to  the  posture  to  be  observed  in  Masonic 
prayer,  it  may  be  remarked  that  in  the  lower 
degrees  the  usual  posture  is  standing.  At 
an  initiation  the  candidate  kneels,  but  the 
brethren  stand.  In  the  higher  degrees  the 
usual  posture  is  to  kneel  on  the  right  knee. 
These  are  at  least  the  usages  which  are 
:nerally  practised  in  America. 
Preadamlte.  A  degree  contained  in  the 
Archives  of  the  Mother  Lodge  of  the  Philo- 
sophic Scottish  Rite.  ,  ,  . 

Precaution.  In  opening  and  closing  the 
Lodge,  in  the  admission  of  visitors,  in  con- 
versation with  or  in  the  presence  of  strangers, 
the  Mason  is  charged  to  use  the  necessary 
precaution,  lest  that  should  be  communicated 
io  the  profane  which  should  only  be  known 
to  the  initiated.  •    ,  m  «, 

Precedency  of  Lodges.  The  precedency 
of  Lodges  is  always  derived  from  the  date 
of  their  Warrants  of  Constitution,  the  oldest 
Lodge  ranking  as  No.  1.  As  this  precedency 
confers  certain  privileges,  the  number  of  the 
Lodge  is  always  determined  by  the  Grand 
Lbdge,  while  the  name  is  left  to  the  selection 
of  the  members.  , 
Preceptor.  Grand  Preceptor,  or  Grand 
Prior,  or  Preceptor,  or  Prior,  was  the  title 
indifferently  given  by  the  Knights  Templar 
to  the  officer  who  presided  over  a  province  or 
kingdom,  as  the  Grand  Prior  or  Grand  Pre- 
ceptor of  England,  who  was  called  in  the  East 
the  Prior  or  Preceptor  of  England.  The 
principal  of  these  Grand  Preceptors  were  those 
of  Jerusalem,  Tripolis,  and  Antioch. 

Preceptory.  The  houses  or  residences  of 
the  Knights  Templar  were  called  Preceptories1, 
and  the  superior  of  such  a  residence  was 
called  the  Preceptor.   Some  of  the  residences 
were  also  called  Commanderies.   The  latter 
name  has  been  adopted  by  the  Masonic 
Templars  of  America.  ,  An  attempt  was  made 
in  1856,  at  the  adoption  of  a  new  Constitution 
by  the  Grand  Encampment  of  the  United 
States,  which  met  at  Hartford,  to  abolish  the 
title  ^Commanderies,"  and  adopt  that  of 
"Preceptories,"  for  the  Templar  organiza- 
tions; a  change  which  would  undoubtedly 
have  been  more  in  accordance  with  history, 
but  unfortunately  the  effort  to  effect  the 
change  was  not  successful. 
Precious  Jewels.   See  Jewels,  Precious. 
Preferment.   In  all  the  Old  Constitutions 
we  find  a  reference  made  to  ability  and 
skill  as  the  only  claims  for  preferment  or 
promotion.   Thus  in  one  of  them,  the  Lans- 
downe  Manuscript,  whose  date  is  about 
1560,  it  is  said  that  Nimrod  gave  a  charge  to 
the  Masons  that  "they  should  ordaine  the 
most  wise  and  cunninge  man  to  be  Master 
of  the  King  or  Lord's  worke  that  was  amongst 


them,  and  neither  for  love,  riches,  nor  favour, 
to  sett  another  that  liad  little  cunninge  to  be 
Master  of  that  worke,  whereby  the  Lord 
should  bee  ill  served  and  the  science  ill  de- 
famed." And  again,  in  another  part  of  the 
same  Manuscript,  it  is  ordered,  "that  noe 
Mason  take  on  him  noe  Lord's  worke  nor 
other  man's  but  if  he  know .  himself e  well 
able  to  performe  the  worke,  so  that  the  Craft 
have  noe  slander."  Charges  to  the  same 
effect,  almost,  indeed,  in  the  same  words,  are 
to  be  found  in  all  the  Old  Constitutions.  So 
Anderson,  when  he  compiled  The  Charges  of  a 
Freemason,  which  he  says  were  "extracted 
from  the  ancient  records,"  and  which  he 
published  in  1723,  in  the  first  edition  of  the 
Book  of  Constitutions,  lays  down  the  rule  of 
preferment  in  the  same  spirit,  and  in  these 

"All  preferment  among  Masons  is  grounded 
upon  real  worth  and  personal  merit  only; 
that  so  the  Lords  may  be  well  served,  the 
brethren  not  put  to  shame,  nor  the  royal 
Craft  despised ;  therefore  no  Master  or  Warden 
is  chosen  by  seniority,  but  for  his  merit." 

And  then  he  goes  on  to  show  how  the 
skilful  and  qualified  Apprentice  may  in  due 
time  become  a  Fellow-Craft,  and,  "when 
otherwise  qualified,  arrive  to  the  Honour  of 
being  the  Warden,  and  then  the  Master  of 
the  Lodge,  the  Grand  Warden,  and  at  length 
the  Grand  Master  of  all  the  Lodges,  according 
to  his  merit."  (Constitutions,  1723,  p.  51.) 
This  ought  to  be  now,  as  it  has  always  been, 
the  true  law  of  Masonry;  and  when  ambitious 
men  are  seen  grasping  for  offices,  and  seeking 
for  positions  whose  duties  they  are  not 
qualified  to  discharge,  one  is  inclined  to  regret 
that  the  Old  Charges  are  not  more  strictly 

Prelate.  The  fourth  officer  in  a  Comman- 
dery  of  Knights  Templar  and  in  a  Council 
of  Companions  of  the  Red  Cross.  His  duties 
are  to  conduct  the  religious  ceremonies  of 
the  organization.  His  jewel  is  a  triple  tri- 
angle, the  symbol  of  Deity,  and  within  each 
of  the  triangles  is  suspended  a  cross,  in  allu- 
sion to  the  Christian  character  of  the  chiv- 
alric  institution  of  which  he  is  an  officer. 
The  corresponding  officer  in  a  Grand  Com- 
mandery  and  in  the  Grand  Encampment 
is  called  a  Grand  Prelate. 

Prelate  of  Lebanon.  (Prilat  duIAban.) 
A  mystical  degree  in  the  collection  of  Pyron. 

Prentice.  An  archaism,  or  rather  a  vul- 
garism for  Apprentice,  constantly  found  in 
the  Old  Records.   It  is  now  never  used. 

Prentice  Pillar.  In  the  southeast  part 
of  the  Chapel  of  Roslyn  Castle,  in  Scotland, 
is  the  celebrated  column  which  goes  by  this 
name,  and  with  which  a  Masonic  legend  is 
connected.  The  pillar  is  a  plain  fluted  shaft, 
having  a  floral  garland  twined  around  it,  all 
carved  out  of  the  solid  stone.  The  legend 
is,  that  when  the  plans  of  the  chapel  were 
sent  from  Rome,  the  master  builder  did  not 
clearly  understand  about  this  pillar,  or,  as 
another  account  states,  had  lost  this  particular 
portion  of  the  plans,  and,  in  consequence,  had 


to  go  to  Rome  for  further  instructions  or  to 
procure  a  fresh  copy.  During  his  absence, 
a  clever  apprentice,  the  only  son  of  a  widow, 
either  from  memory  or  from  his  own  invention, 
carved  and  completed  the  beautiful  pillar. 
When  the  master  returned  and  found  the 
work  completed,  furious  with  jealous  rage, 
he  killed  the  apprentice,  by  striking  him  a 
frightful  blow  on  the  forehead  with  a  heavy 
setting-maul.  In  testimony  of  the  truth  of 
the  legend,  the  visitor  is  shown  three  heads 
in  the  west  part  of  the  chapel — the  master's, 
the  apprentice's  (with  the  gash  on  his  fore- 
head), and  the  widow's.  There  can  be  but 
little  doubt  that  this  legend  referred  to  that 
of  the  Third  Degree,  which  is  thus  shown  to 
have  existed,  at  least  substantially,  at  that 
early  period. 

Preparation  of  tbe  Candidate.  Great 
care  was  taken  of  the  personal  condition  of 
every  Israelite  who  entered  the  Temple  for 
Divine  worship.  The  Talmudic  treatise  en- 
titled Baracoth,  which  contains  instructions 
as  to  the  ritual  worship  among  the  Jews, 
lays  down  the  following  rules  for  the  prepara- 
tion of  all  who  visit  the  Temple:  "No  man 
shall  go  into  the  Temple  with  his  staff,  nor 
with  shoes  on  his  feet,  nor  with  his  outer 
garment,  nor  with  money  tied  up  in  his 
purse."  There  are  certain  ceremonial  usages 
m  Freemasonry  which  furnish  what  may  be 
called  at  least  very  remarkable  coincidences 
with  this  old  Jewish  custom. 

The  preparation  of  the  candidate  for  in- 
itiation in  Masonry  is  entirely  symbolic. 
It  varies  in  the  different  degrees,  and  there- 
fore the  symbolism  varies  with  it.  Not 
being  arbitrary  and  unmeaning,  but,  on  the 
contrary,  conventional  and  full  of  significa- 
tion, it  cannot  be  altered,  abridged,  or 
added  to  in  any  of  its  details,  without  affect- 
ing its  esoteric  design.  To  it,  in  its  fullest 
extent,  every  candidate  must,  without  excep- 
tion, submit. 

The  preparation  of  a  candidate  is  one  of  the 
most  delicate  duties  we  have  to  perform  and 
care  should  be  taken  in  appointing  the  officer, 
who  should  bear  in  mind  that  "that  which  is 
not  permittible  among  gentlemen  should  be 
impossible  among  Masons."      [E.  E.  C  ] 

Preparing  Brother.  The  brother  who 
prepares  the  candidate  for  initiation.  In 
English,  he  has  no  distinctive  title.  In 
French  Lodges  he  is  called  "Frere  terrible," 
and  in  German  he  is  called  "Vorbereitender 
Bruder,"  or  "FUrchterlicher  Bruder."  His 
duties  require  him  to  have  a  competent 
knowledge  of  the  ritual  of  reception,  and 
therefore  an  experienced  member  of  the 
Lodge  is  generally  selected  to  discharge  the 
functions  of  this  office.  In  most  jurisdictions 
in  America  this  is  performed  by  the  Master 
of  Ceremonies. 

President.  The  presiding  officer  in  a 
convention  of  High  Priests,  according  to  the 
American  system,  is  so  called.  The  second 
officer  is  styled  Vice-President.  On  Sep- 
tember 6,  1871,  the  Grand  Orient  of  France, 
in  violation  of  the  landmarks,  abolished  the 


office  of  Grand  Master,  and  conferred  his 
powers  on  a  Council  of  the  Order.  The 
President  of  the  Council  is  now  the  official 
representative  of  the  Grand  Orient  and  the 
Craft,  and  exercises  several  of  the  preroga- 
tives hitherto  administered  by  the  Grand 

Presiding  Officer.  Whoever  acts,  al- 
though temporarily  and  pro  hoc  trice,  as 
the  presiding  officer  of  a  Masonic  body,  as- 
sumes for  the  time  all  the  powers  and  func- 
tions of  the  officer  whom  he  represents. 
Thus,  in  the  absence  of  the  Worshipful 
Master,  the  Senior  Warden  presides  over 
the  Lodge,  and  for  the  time  is  invested  with 
all  the  prerogatives  that  pertain  to  the 
Master  of  a  Lodge,  and  can,  while  he  is 
in  the  chair,  perform  any  act  that  it  would 
be  competent  for  the  Master  to  perform 
were  he  present. 

Press,  Masonic.  The  number  of  the 
Masonic  press  throughout  the  world  is  small, 
but  the  literary  ability  commands  attention. 
In  every  nation  Masonry  has  its  advocate 
and  newsbearer,  in  the  form  of  a  weekly  or 
semi-monthly  chronicle  of  events,  or  the  more 
sedate  magazine  or  periodical,  sustaining  the 
literature  of  the  Fraternity. 

Preston,  William.  This  distinguished 
Mason  was  born  at  Edinburgh  on  the  7th  of 
August,  1742.  The  usual  statement,  that 
he  was  born  on  the  28th  of  July,  refers  to  old 
style,  and  requires  therefore  to  be  amended. 
He  was  the  son  of  William  Preston,  Esq., 
a  writer  to  the  Signet,  and  Helena  Cumming. 
The  elder  Preston  was  a  man  of  much  intel- 
lectual culture  and  abilities,  and  in  easy 
circumstances,  and  took,  therefore,  pains  to 
bestow  upon  his  son  an  adequate  education. 
He  was  sent  to  school  at  a  very  early  age, 
and  having  completed  his  preliminary  educa- 
tion in  English  under  the  tuition  of  Mr. 
Stirling,  a  celebrated  teacher  in  Edinburgh, 
he  entered  the  High  School  before  he  was 
six  years  old,  and  made  considerable  progress 
in  the  Latin  tongue.  From  the  High  School 
he  went  to  college,  where  he  acquired  a 
knowledge  of  the  rudiments  of  Greek. 

After  the  death  of  his  father  he  retired 
from  college,  and  became  the  amanuensis 
of  that  celebrated  linguist,  Thomas  Ruddi- 
man, to  whose  friendship  his  father  had 
consigned  him.  Mr.  Ruddiman  having  greatly 
impaired  and  finally  lost  his  sight  by  his 
intense  application  to  his  classical  studies, 
Preston  remained  with  him  as  his  secretary 
until  his  decease.  His  patron  had,  however, 
previously  bound  young  Preston  to  his 
brother,  Walter  Ruddiman,  a  printer,  but 
on  the  increasing  failure  of  his  sight,  Mr. 
Thomas  Ruddiman  withdrew  Preston  from 
the  printing-office,  and  occupied  him  in  read- 
ing to  him  and  translating  such  of  his  works 
as  were  not  completed,  and  in  correcting  the 
proofs  of  those  that  were  in  the  press.  Sub- 
sequently Preston  compiled  a  catalogue  of 
Ruddiman's  books,  under  the  title  of  Biblio- 
theca  Ruddimana,  which  is  said  to  have  ex- 
hibited much  literary  ability. 


After  the  death  of  Mr.  Ruddiman,  Pres- 
ton returned  to  the  printing-office,  where  he 
remained  for  about  a  year;  but  his  inclina- 
tions leading  him  to  literary  pursuits,  he, 
with  the  consent  of  his  master,  repaired  to 
London  in  1760,  having  been  furnished  with 
several  letters  of  introduction  by  his  friends 
in  Scotland.  Among  them  was  one  to  Will- 
iam Strahan,  the  king's  printer,  in  whose 
service,  and  that  of  his  son  and  successor, 
he  remained  for  the  best  years  of  bis  life 
as  a  corrector  of  the  press,  devoting  him- 
self, at  the  same  time,  to  other  literary 
vocations,  editing  for  many  years  the  London 
Chronicle,  and  furnishing  materials  for  various 
periodical  publications. 

Mr.  Preston's  critical  skill  as  a  corrector 
of  the  press  led  the  literary  men  of  that  day 
to  submit  to  his  suggestions  as  to  style 
and  language;  and  many  of  the  most  dis- 
tinguished authors  who  were  contemporary 
with  him  honored  him  with  their  friend- 
ship. As  an  evidence  of  this,  there  were 
found  in  his  library,  at  his  death,  presenta- 
tion copies  of  their  works,  with  their  auto- 
graphs, from  Gibbon,  Hume,  Robertson, 
Blair,  and  many  others. 

It  is,  however,  as  a  distinguished  teacher 
of  the  Masonic  ritual,  and  as  the  founder 
of  a  system  of  lectures  which  still  retain 
their  influence,  that  William  Preston  more 
especially  claims  our  attention. 

Stephen  Jones,  the  disciple  and  intimate 
friend  of  Preston,  published  in  1795,  in  the 
Freemasons'  Magazine,  a  sketch  of  Preston's 
life  and  labors;  and  as  there  can  be  no  doubt, 
from  the  relations  of  the  author  and  the 
subject,  of  the  authenticity  of  the  facts 
related,  I  shall  not  hesitate  to  use  the  lan- 
guage of  this  contemporary  sketch,  inter- 
polating such  explanatory  remarks  as  I  may 
deem  necessary. 

Soon  after  Preston's  arrival  in  London, 
a  number  of  brethren  from  Edinburgh  re- 
solved to  institute  a  Freemasons*  Lodge  in 
that  city,  under  the  sanction  of  a  Constitu- 
tion from  Scotland;  but  not  having  suc- 
ceeded in  their  application,  they  were  recom- 
mended by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Scotland 
to  the  ancient  Lodge  in  London,  which  imme- 
diately granted  them  a  Dispensation  to  form 
a  Lodge  and  to  make  Masons.  They  accord- 
ingly met  at  the  White  Hart  in  the  Strand, 
and  Mr.  Preston  was  the  second  person 
initiated  under  that  Dispensation.  This  was 
in  1762.  Lawrie  records  the  application  as 
having  been  in  that  year  to  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  Scotland.  It  thus  appears  that  Preston 
was  made  a  Mason  under  the  Dermott  sys- 
tem. It  will  be  seen,  however,  that  he  sub- 
sequently went  over  to  the  legitimate  Grand 

The  Lodge  was  soon  after  regularly  con- 
stituted by  the  officers  of  the  ancient  Grand 
Lodge  in  person.  Having  increased  con- 
siderably in  numbers,  it  was  found  necessary 
to  remove  to  the  Horn  Tavern  in  Fleet 
Street,  where  it  continued  some  time,  till, 
that  house  being  unable  to  furnish  proper 


accommodations,  it  was  removed  to  Scots' 
Hall,  Blackfriars.  Here  it  continued  to 
flourish  about  two  years,  when  the  decayed 
state  of  that  building  obliged  it  to  remove 
to  the  Half  Moon  Tavern,  Cheapside,  where 
it  continued  to  meet  for  a  considerable  time. 

At  length  Mr.  Preston  and  some  others 
of  the  members  having  joined  the  Lodge, 
under  the  regular  EogBsh  Constitution;  at 
the  Talbot  San,  in  the  Strand,  they  ire- 
vailed  on  the  rest  of  the  Lodge  at  the  Half 
Moon  Tavern  to  petition  for  a  Constitution. 
Lord  Blaney,  at  that  time  Grand  Master, 
readily  acquiesced  with  the  desire  of  the 
brethren,  and  the  Lodge  was  soon  after 
constituted  a  second  time,  in  ample  form, 
by  the  name  of  "The  Caledonian  Lodge." 
The  ceremonies  observed,  and  the  numerous 
assembly  of  respectable  brethren  who  attended 
the  Grand  Officers  on  that  occasion,  were 
long  remembered  to  the  honor  of  the  Lodge. 

This  circumstance,  added  to  the  absence 
of  a  very  skilful  Mason,  to  whom  Mr.  Pres- 
ton was  attached,  and  who  had  departed  for 
Scotland  on  account  of  his  health,  induced 
him  to  turn  his  attention  to  the  Masonic 
lectures;  and  to  arrive  at  the  depths  of  the 
science,  short  of  which  he  did  not  mean  to 
stop,  he  spared  neither  pains  nor  expense. 

Preston's  own  remarks  on  this  subject,  in 
the  introduction  to  his  Illustrations  of  Ma- 
sonry, are  well  worth  the  perusal  of  every 
brother  who  intends  to  take  office.  "When," 
says  he,  "I  first  had  the  honor  to  be  elected 
Master  of  a  Lodge,  I  thought  it  proper  to 
inform  myself  fully  of  the  general  rules  of 
the  society,  that  I  might  be  able  to  fulfil 
my  own  duty,  and  officially  enforce  obedi- 
ence in  others.  The  methods  which  I 
adopted,  with  this  view,  excited  in  some  of 
superficial  knowledge  an  absolute  dislike 
of  what  they  considered  as  innovations; 
and  in  others,  who  were  better  informed,  a 
jealousy  of  pre-eminence,  which  the  prin- 
ciples of  Masonry  ought  to  have  checked. 
Notwithstanding  these  discouragements,  how- 
ever, I  persevered  in  my  intention  of  sup- 
porting the  dignity  of  the  society,  and  of 
discharging  with  fidelity  the  trust  reposed 
in  me."  Masonry  has  not  changed.  We 
still  too  often  find  the  same  mistaking  of 
research  for  innovation,  and  the  same  un- 
generous jealousy  of  preeminence  of  which 
Preston  complains. 

Wherever  instruction  could  be  acquired, 
thither  Preston  directed  his  course;  and 
with  the  advantage  of  a  retentive  memory.' 
and  an  extensive  Masonic  connection,  added 
to  a  diligent  literary  research,  he  so  far  suc- 
ceeded in  his  purpose  as  to  become  a  com- 
petent master  of  the  subject.  To  increase 
the  knowledge  he  had  acquired,  he  solicited 
the  company  and  conversation  of  the  most 
experienced  Masons  from  foreign  countries; 
and,  in  the  course  of  a  literary  correspond- 
ence with  the  Fraternity  at  home  and  abroad, 
made  such  progress  in  the  mysteries  of  the 
art  as  to  become  very  useful  in  the  connections 
he  had  formed.   He  was  frequently  heard  to 


say,  that  in  the  ardor  of  his  inquiries  he 
had  explored  the  abodes  of  poverty  and 
wretchedness,  and,  where  it  ought  have 
been  least  expected,  acquired  very  valuable 
scraps  of  information.  The  poor  brother  in 
return,  we  are  assured,  had  no  cause  to  think 
his  time  or  talents  ill  bestowed.  He  was 
also  accustomed  to  convene  his  friends  once 
or  twice  a  week,  in  order  to  illustrate  the  lec- 
tures; on  which  occasion  objections  were 
started,  and  explanations  given,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  mutual  improvement.  At  last,  with 
the  assistance  of  some  zealous  friends,  he  was 
enabled  to  arrange  and  digest  the  whole  of  the 
first  lecture.  To  establish  its  validity,  ha 
resolved  to  submit  to  the  society  at  large 
the  progress  he  had  made;  and  for  that 
purpose  he  instituted,  at  a  very  considerable 
expense,  a  grand  gala  at  the  Crown  and 
Anchor  Tavern,  in  the  Strand,  on  Thursday, 
May  21,  1772,  which  was  honored  with  the 
presence  of  the  then  Grand  Officers,  and 
many  other  eminent  and  respectable  breth- 
ren. On  this  occasion  he  delivered  an  ora- 
tion on  the  Institution,  which,  having  met 
with  general  approbation,  was  afterward 
printed  in  the  first  edition  of  the  Illustrations 
of  Masonry,  published  by  him  the  same  year. 

Having  thus  far  succeeded  in  his  design, 
Mr.  Preston  determined  to  prosecute  the 
plan  he  had  formed,  and  to  complete  the 
lectures.  He  employed,  therefore,  a  num- 
ber of  skilful  brethren,  at  his  own  expense, 
to  visit  different  town  and  country  Lodges, 
for  the  purpose  of  gaining  information; 
and  these  brethren  communicated  the  re- 
sult of  their  visits  at  a  weekly  meeting. 

When  by  study  and  application  he  had 
arranged  his  system,  he  issued  proposals 
for  a  regular  course  of  lectures  on  all  the 
degrees  of  Masonry,  and  these  were  publicly 
delivered  by  him  at  the  Miter  Tavern,  in 
Fleet  Street,  in  1774. 

For  some  years  afterward,  Mr.  Preston 
indulged  his  friends  by  attending  several 
schools  of  instruction,  and  other  stated 
meetings,  to  propagate  the  knowledge  of 
the  science,  which  had  spread  far  beyond 
his  expectations,  and  considerably  enhanced 
the  reputation  of  the  society.  Having  ob- 
tained the  sanction  of  the  Grand  Lodge, 
he  continued  to  be  a  lealous  encourager 
and  supporter  of  all  the  measures  of  that 
assembly  which  tended  to  add  dignity  to 
the  Craft,  and  in  all  the  Lodges  in  which 
his  name  was  enrolled,  which  were  very- 
numerous,  he  enforced  a  due  obedience  to 
the  laws  and  regulations  of  that  body.  By 
these  means  the  subscriptions  to  the  charity 
became  much  more  considerable;  and  daily 
acquisitions  to  the  society  were  made  of 
some  of  the  most  eminent  and  distinguished 
characters.  At  last  he  was  invited  by  his 
friends  to  visit  the  Lodge  of  Antiquity, 
No.  1,  then  held  at  the  Miter  Tavern,  in 
Fleet  Street,  when  on  June  15,  1774,  the 
brethren  of  that  Lodge  were  pleased  to  admit 
him  a  member,  and,  what  was  very  unusual,, 
elected  him  Master  at  the  same  meeting. 




He  had  bee.  Master  of  Afgrand  &r5#S°K 

Lodge  at  the  Queen's  Head,  Gray ^TnMaSsr.  ' 

gate,  Holbotn,  for  over  ^Jf™>  ^Vt  8 Mr  Weston's  exclusion,  he  seldom 
n*Wr  Wees  before  that  tune.   But  curing jwf  •  " ™      ,  .    t^™*.  thoueh 

pemded  his  conduct  on;aU ^  occasions; and  to  the m™»8^",ge  of  p^ton  we  get 
ne  was  frequently  seen  voluntary  to  assume  So  much  «^Lg  sketch  of  Stephen 
the  subordinate  offices  of  .an  assembly, ,  over  Irom  tne  ^      mugt  ^  for 

which  he  had  long  presided,  on  occas ions  Jo m,   ^Pg^  of  ^  0f  the  circum- 
where,  from  the  absence  of  the  P^P^J  *t™  ^Hch  he  has  so  concisely  related, 
sons,  he  had  conceived  that  hisservices  would  sta^f  e3ion  of  such  a  mai  as  Preston 
promote  the  purposes  of.thf,m^K-  from  the  Order  was  a  disgrace  to  the  Grand 

*  To  the  Lodge  of  Antiquity he  now  "XTkich  inflicted  it.   It  was,  to  use 

o&ge^of  Antiquity  he  now  ^?  "^rinflicted  iT  It  was,  to  use 

-r— -  irmtice.  "a  very  ungrateful  and  inadequate 

unproved  in  its  finances.  .  H™™*5'.  a,  / 

Sa^ship  of  Mr  Thomf  ^ench,  Wg^g"?  f^  ^only  torn  Ihe 
under  ^he  auspices  of  the  ^eo :  Beaufort Atirn^  ^f&iS  Lodge  wS  helS;  a  protest 
then  Grand  Master,  JjfdJ>«»me  *  useful  ™ft|e  members  was  entered  against 

assistant  in  arranging  the  general  /egu&twns  01  a  iw. m  w»  festival.   In  come- 

of  the  society,  and  revivmg  the  foreign  and  it  on  the  day  <* tne  'm  b  attended, 
country  correspondence^  Saving  teenap-  ^^^Jcdffi  themselves  as  Masons 
pointed  to  the  office  of  DeputyW Secre-  w bo, tevmg  .   the  ^  pew  md 

tary  under  James  Heseltine,  Esq.,  he  com-  m  tne  vestryroom ,  »  they  crossed 

various  memoranda  he  had  made,  to  ^  WYifi  to  the  regulations 
the  History  of  Masonry,  which  was  after-  the  ma tter  ol  P^Tlt  ^  for  maintain- 

TftpJtt  g^The  SrS 
^tfo^unate  d^ute  havm™  in 

at  tfa*  to.  was  ckcumstantially.nan-ated  *«^tJ^^5^atJ<Swf  the 
in  a  well-written  pamphlet,  printed  by     But  ten  ^  it  had  corn- 

Mr.  Preston  at  his  own  emense,  and  cir-  Grand  ^p^^^^tored  with  all 
culated  among  his  friends,  out  never  pub-  mitt ,ed  and ""g^^g1^  new  Grand 
lushed,  and  the  leading circumstances  were  h«°f°Xw  ^nrnow%hile  the  name 
recorcied  in  some  of  the  later  ^10™  ^  rffEJSrtimoWn  and  revered  by  all  who 
the  Illustrations  of  Masonry. .  Ten  years  o^J^^^^SnT  the  names  of  att  his 
afterward,  however,  on  a  ^mvestigafaon  value  M«^c ^^^J^  ^  Noor. 

£1i±1o",3ES*  ffi^"SST-*  «o  a  wl-des^rved  oh- 

j^tfetfbv  members  of  the  Lodge  of  An-  Iivion. 




Preston  had  no  sooner  been  restored  to 
his  Masonic  rights  than  he  resumed  his  labors 
for  the  advancement  of  the  Order.   In  1787 
he  organized  the  Order  of  Harodim.  a  society 
in  which  it  was  intended  to  thoroughly 
teach  the  lectures  which  he  had  prepared. 
Uf  this  Order  some  of  the  most  distinguished 
Masons  of  the  day  became  members,  and  it 
is  said  to  have  produced  great  benefits  by  its 
« "TS^?  plan  of  Masonic  instruction. 
But  William  Preston  is  best  known  to  us 
by  his  mvaluable  work  entitled  Illustrations 
of  Masonry.  The  first  edition  of  this  work 
was  published  in  1772.   Although  it  is  spoken 
of  m  some  resolutions  of  a  Lodge,  published 
in  the  second  edition,  as  "a  very  ingenious 
and  elegant  pamphlet,"  it  was  really  a  work 
of  some  size,  consisting,  in  its  introduction 
and  text,  of  288  pages.   It  contained  an 
account  of  the  "grand  gala,"  or  banquet, 
given  bjr  the  author  to  the  Fraternity  in 
May,  1772,  when  he  first  proposed  his  system 
of  lectures.   This  account  was  omitted  in 
the  second  and  all  subsequent  editions  "to 
make  room  for  more  useful  matter."  The 
second  edition,  enlarged  to  324  jpages,  was 
published  m  1775,  and  this  was  followed  bv 

"^SJ177^1781'  1788>  1792>  1799,  1801, 
afd  1812.  There  must  have  been  three 
other  editions,  of  which  I  can  find  no  account 
VL;    j-  iDbo8«»Phies,  for  Wilkie  calls  his 
JfVi  ^tion  the  tenth,  and  the  edition  of 
1812,  the  last  published  by  the  author,  is 
called   the  twelfth.   The  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  editions  were  published  after  the 
author's  death,  with  additions— the  former 
by  Stephen  Jones  in  1821,  and  the  latter  by 
Dr.  Oliver  in  1829.   Other  English  editions 
have  been  subsequently  published.  [The 
last  being  edited  by  Dr.  Oliver  in  1861.]  The 
work  was  translated  into  German,  and  two 
editions  published,  one  in  1776  and  the  other 
m  1  ,  \  *n  America,  two  editions  were 
published  in  1804,  one  at  Alexandria,  in  Vir- 
ginia, and  the  other,  with  numerous  important 
additions,  by  George  Eichards,  at  Ports- 
mouth, New  Hampshire.   Both  claim,  on  the 
titte-page,  to  be  the  "first  American  edition"; 
and  it  is  probable  that  both  works  were  pub- 
lished by  their  respective  editors  about 
the  same  time,  and  while  neither  had  any 

Knowledge  of  the  existence  of  a  rival  copy. 

Preston  died,  after  a  long  illness,  in  Dean 
Street,  Fetter  Lane,  London,  on  April  1, 
1818,  at  the  age  of  seventy-six,  and  was 
buried  m  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  In  the 
latter  years  of  his  life  he  seems  to  have  taken 
no  active  public  part  in  Masonry,  for  in 
the  very  full  account  of  the  proceedings  at 
the  union  in  1813  of  the  two  Grand  Lodges, 
his  name  does  not  appear  as  one  of  the 
actors,  and  his  system  was  then  ruthlessly 
surrendered  to  the  newer  but  not  better 
one  of  Dr.  Hemming.  But  he  had  not  lost 
his  interest  in  the  Institution  which  he  had 
served  so  well  and  so  long,  and  by  which 
he  bad  been  so  illy  requited.  For  he  be- 
queathed at  his  death  £300  in  Consols 
the  interest  of  which  was  to  provide  for 

the  annual  delivery  of  a  lecture  according 
to  his  system.   He  also  left  £500  to  the 

cMdren,  and  a  like  sum  to  the  General 
Charity  Fund  of  the  Grand  Lodgt  He 

onTv  K  married'  and  left  beh&l  hto 
arX^f  name  88  a  .g">at  Masonic  teacher 
and  the  memory  of  his  services  to  the  Craft 

IT?.?  if*  on  of  ^  Prions  !ontal 
an  excellently  engraved  likeness  of  him  by 
Ridley,  from  an  original  portrait  said  to 
ThPr/;s  U  rUmm°nd'  ^  Academician. 

L  thi  p  earIlef  f ?graved  Ukeness  of  him 
in  the  freemasons'  Magazine  for  1795,  from 

taLTm^oT^0  be  by  D™°nd-  ™« 
Jfr,"1  1794s.  ,They  Present  the  differences 

to  f£2  W^°h  Ty  .naturally  be  ascribed 
mhft  tej ?  .  tw«nty"slx.years-  The  latter 
print  is  said,  by  those  who  personally  knew 
him,  to  be  an  excellent  likeness. 

Prestonlan  Lecture.   In  1818,  Bro.  Pres- 
ton, the  author  of  the  Illustrations  of  Masonry, 
bequeathed  £300  in  Consols,  the  mterestof 
which  was  to  provide  for  the  annual  delivery 
of  a  lecture  according  to  the  system  which  he 
had  elaborated.    The  appointment  of  the 
Lecturer  was  left  to  the  Grand  Master  for 
the  time  being.   Stephen  Jones,  a  Past 
Master  of  the  Lodge  of  Antiquity,  and  an 
intimate  friend  of  Preston,  received  the 
first  appointment;  and  it  was  subsequently 
given  to  Bro.  Laurence  Thompson,  the  only 
surviving  pupil  of  Preston.   He  held  it  until 
his  death,  after  which  no  appointment  of  a 
Lecturer  was  made  until  1857.  when  the 
W.  M.  of  the  Royal  York  Lodge  was  re- 
quested by  Lord  Zetland,  Grand  Master,  to 
deliver  the  lecture,  which  he  did  in  January, 
1858;  twice  again  in  the  same  year  the  lecture 
was  delivered,  and  again,  in  subsequent  years 
until  1862,  since  which  time  the  lecture 
seems  to  have  been  abandoned. 

1•77<?el»t0,?aI,  **c.tur?S'.  About  the  year 
■  'ZL  pIeston  submitted  his  course  of  lectures 
on  the  first  three  degrees  to  the  Craft  of  Eng- 
land These  lectures  were  a  revision  of  those 
which  had  been  practised,  with  various 
modifications,  since  the  revival  of  1717  and 
were  intended  to  confer  a  higher  literary 
character  on  the  Masonic  ritual.  Preston 
had  devoted  much  time  and  labor  to  the 
compilation  of  these  lectures,  a  syllabus  of 
which  will  be  found  in  his  Illustrations.  They 
were  adopted  eagerly  by  the  English  Frater- 
nity, and  continued  to  be  the  authoritative 
system  of  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  until 
the  union  m  1813,  when,  for  the  sake  of  secur- 
ing uniformity,  the  new  and  inferior  system 
of  Dr.  Hemming  was  adopted.  But  the 
iTestoman  lectures  and  ritual  are  still  used 
by  many  Lodges  in  England.  In  America 
they  were  greatly  altered  by  Webb,  and  are 
no  longer  practised  there. 

Pretender.  James  Stuart,  the  son  of 
James  II.,  who  abdicated  the  throne  of  Great 
Britain,  and  Charles  Edward,  his  son,  are 
known  in  history  as  the  Old  and  the  Young 
Pretender.  Their  intrigues  with  Masonry, 
which  they  are  accused  of  attempting  to 




use  aa  an  instrument  to  aid  in  a  restoration 
to  the  toone,  *^itute  a  very  mteres^S 
grisode  in  the  history  of  the  Order.  (See 

M^oLyTSd  it  would  be  always  out  of  order 
to  move  it  in  a  Masonic  body.  .  , 

Priehard,   Samuel.    'An  unpnnapled 
and  needy  brother,"  as  Oliver  <^J^«*° 
published  at  London,  in  M  a  book  with  the 
following  title:  Masonry  Dissected;  being  a 
Universal  and  6enuim_  Des^ptim  ofMJs 
Branches,  from  the  Original  to  thus  Present 
Time:  as  it  is  delivered  in  the  instituted, 
regular  Lodges,  both  in  CUy  and  Country, 
according  to  the  several  Degrees  of  Admission, 
giving  an  impartial  account  of  _««r- Wta' 
Proceedings  in  initiating  their  New  Members 
in  the  whole  Three  Degrees  of  Masonry,  , 
I.  Entered  Prentice;  II.  Felhw  Craft, ; III. 
Master.  To  which  is  added,  The  Author  s 
Vindication  of  Himself,  by  Samuel  Pnchard, 
Late  Member  of  a  constituted  Lodge.  Ibis 
work,  which  contained  a  great  deal  of  plau- 
sible matter,  mingled  with  some  truth  as 
well  as  falsehood,  passed  through  a  great 
many  editions,  was  translated  into  the  Frencn, 
German,  and  Dutch  languages,  and  became 
the  basis  or  model  on  which  all  the  subsequent 
so-called  expositions,  such  as  Tubal-Cam, 
Jachin  and  Boaz,  etc.,  were  framed.   In  the 
same  year  of  the  appearance  of  Prichard  s 
book,  a  Defence  of  Masonry,  as  a  reply  to  the 
Masonry  Dissected  was  anonymously  pub- 
lished, and  has  often  been  erroneously  attrib- 
uted to  Dr.  Anderson,  but  it  has  been  dis- 
covered that  its  author  was  Bro.  Martin 
Clare  (q.  v.).    No  copy  is  now  known  to 
exist  of  this  Defence,  but  it  will  be  found  at 
the  end  of  the  1738  edition  of  the  Constitutions. 
It  is  not,  however,  a  reply  to  Prichard,  but 
rather  an  attempt  to  interpret  the  ceremonies 
which  are  described  in  the  Masonry  Dissected 
in  their  symbolic  import,  and  this  it  is  that 
gives  to  the  Defence  a  value  which  ought  to 
have  made  it  a  more  popular  work  among  the 
Fraternity  than  it  is.    Prichard  died  ui  ob- 
scurity; but  the  Abb6  Larudan,  in  his  Franc- 
Macons  ecrases  (p.  135),  has  manufactured 
a  wild  tale  about  his  death;  stating  that  he 
was  carried  by  force  at  night  into  the  Grand 
Lodge  at  London,  put  to  death,  his  body 
burned  to  ashes,  and  all  the  Lodges  in  the 
world  informed  of  the  execution.   The  Abbe 
is  satisfied  of  the  truth  of  this  wondrous 
narrative  because  he  had  heard  it  told  in 
Holland  and  in  Germany,  all  of  which  only 
proves  that  the  French  calumniator  of  Ma- 
sonry abounded  either  in  an  inventive  faculty 
or  in  a  trusting  faith.  _ 

Price,  Henry*  He  received  a  Deputation 
as  Provincial  Grand  Master  of  New  England, 
which  was  issued  on  April  30,  1733,  by  Vis- 
count Montague,  Grand  Master  of  England. 
On  the  30th  of  the  following  July,  Price  or- 
ganized a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge;  and  be 
may  thus  be  considered  as  the  founder  of  Ma- 

sonry in  New  England.  He  was  born  in  Eng- 
Cfabout  thenar  1697,  and died  in  Mas- 
sachusetts in  1780.  A  very  able  memoir  of 
Price  bv  Bro.  William  Sewell  Gardner,  will 
bTfounS  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  of  Massachusetts  for  the  year  1871. 

Priest.   In  the  primitive  ages  of  the 
world  every  father  was  the  priest  „of  his 
family,  and  offered  prayer  and  sacrifice  for 
his  household.   So.  too,  the  patriarchs  ex- 
ercised the  same  function.   Melchwedek  is 
called  "the  priest  of  the  most  high  God  , 
and  everywhere  in  Scripture  we  find  the 
patriarchs  performing  the  duties  of  prayer 
Mid  sacrifice.   But  when  political  society 
was  organized,  a  necessity  was  found,  in 
the  religious*  wants  of  the  people,  for  a 
separate  class,  who  should  become,  as  they 
have  been  described,  the  mediators  between 
men  and  God,  and  the  interpreters  of  the  will 
of  the  gods  to  men.   Hence  arose  the  sacer- 
dotal class— the  cohen  among  the  Hebrews, 
the  hiereus  among  the  Greeks,  and  the 
sacerdos  among  the  Romans.  Thereafter 
prayer  and  sacrifice  were  entrusted  to  these, 
and  the  people  paid  them  reverence  for  the 
sake  of  the  deities  whom  they  served.  Ever 
since,  in  all  countries,  the  distinction  has 
existed  between  the  priest  and  the  layman, 
as  representatives  of  two  distinct  classes. 

But  Masonry  has  preserved  in  its  relig- 
ious ceremonies,  as  in  many  of  its  other 
usages,  the  patriarchal  spirit.  Hence  the 
Master  af  the  Lodge,  like  the  father  of  a 
primitive  family,  on  all  occasions  offers 
up  prayer  and  serves  at  the  altar.  A  chap- 
lain is  sometimes,  through  courtesy,  invited 
to  perform  the  former  duty,  but  the  Master 
is  really  the  priest  of  the  Lodge. 

Having  then  such  solemn  duties  to  dis- 
charge, and  sometimes,  as  on  funereal  occa- 
sions, in  public,  it  becomes  every  Master 
so  to  conduct  his  life  and  conversation  as 
not,  by  contrast,  to  make  his  ministration 
of  a  sacred  office  repulsive  to  those  who  see 
and  hear  him,  and  especially  to  profanes. 
It  is  not  absolutely  required  that  he  should 
be  a  religious  man,  resembling  the  clergy- 
man in  seriousness  of  deportment;  but  in 
his  behavior  he  should  be  an  example  of 
respect  for  religion.  He  who  at  one  time 
drinks  to  intoxication,  or  indulges  in  pro- 
fane swearing,  or  obscene  and  vulgar  lan- 
guage, is  unfit  at  any  other  time  to  conduct 
the  religious  services  of  a  society.  Such  a 
Master  could  inspire  the  members  of  his 
Lodge  with  no  respect  for  the  ceremonies 
he  was  conducting;  and  if  the  occasion 
was  a  public  one,  as  at  the  burial  of  a  brother, 
the  circumstance  would  subject  the  Order 
which  could  tolerate  such  an  incongruous 
exhibition  to  contempt  and  ridicule. 

Priest,  Grand  High.     See  Oram  High 

Priest,  High.   See  Hwh  Priest. 
Priesthood,  Order  of  High.  See  High 
Priesthood,  Order  of. 

Priestly   Order.    A   Rite  which  Bro. 
John  Yarker,  of  Manchester,  says  {Myst.  of 



wfe  P"  ^  formerly  practised  in 

r£%A,fa£  formed  the  8ystem  of  York 
Irrand  Lodge.  It  consisted  of  seven  de- 
gree, as  follows:  1.  2.  3.  Symbolic  degrees: 
4.  Past  Master;  5.  Eoyal  Arch;  6.  gSght 

wTP  w'"  /•  TemPlar  ^est,  or 

Holy  Wisdom.  The  last  degree  was  called 
u-Jn^h  was  governed  by  seven 
7^-",?™-  Hughan  W  o/Freem.  il 
York,  p.  32)  doubts  the  York  origin  of  the 
Priestly  Order,  as  well  as  the  claim  it  made 
to  have  been  revived  in  1786.   It  is  now  ob- 

SO  l6t  6. 

t  J?1?8!'™*0?*1*  The  Degree  of  the 
initiated  Brothers  of  Asia. 

«.PS-??J'RIeosop],l?t*  Thorysaysthatitis 
the  Sixth  Degree  of  the  Kabbalistic  Kite. 

Priestly  Vestments.  The  high  priest 
ministered  in  eight  vestments,  and  the  ordi- 
nary priest  in  four— the  tunic.  drawers,.bonnet, 
and  girdle.  To  these  the  high  priest  added 
the  breastplate,  ephod,  robe  and  golden  plate, 
and  when  occasion  required  the  Urim  and 

Primitive  Freemasonry.  The  Primitive 
Freemasonry  of  the  antediluvians  is  a  term  for 
which  we  are  indebted  to  Oliver,  although  the 
theory  was  broached  by  earlier  writers,  and 
among  them  by  the  Chevalier  Ramsay.  The 
theory  is,  that  the  principles  and  doctrines  of 
Freemasonry  existed  in  the  earliest  ages  of  the 
world,  and  were-believed  and  practised  by  a 
primitive  people,  or  priesthood,  under  the 
name  of  Pure  or  Primitive  Freemasonry;  and 
that  this  Freemasonry,  that  is  to  say,- the  re- 
ligious doctrine  inculcated  by  it,  was,  after  the 
flood,  corrupted  by  the  Pagan  philosophers  and 
priests,  and,  receiving  the  title  of  Spuridits  Free- 
masonry, was  exhibited  in  the  Ancient  Mys- 
teries. The  Noachidee,  however,  preserved  the 
principles  of  the  Primitive  Freemasonry,  and 
transmitted  them  to  succeeding  ages,  when  at 
length  they  assumed  the  name  of  Speculative 
Masonry.   The  Primitive  Freemasonry  was 
probably  without  ritual  or  symbolism,  and 
consisted  only  of  a  series  of  abstract  proposi- 
tions derived  from  antediluvian  traditions. 
Its  dogmas  were  the  unity  of  God  and  the 
immortality  of  the  soul.   Dr.  Oliver,  who 
gave  this  system  its  name,  describes  it  (Hist. 
Lartdm.,  i.,  p.  61)  in  the  following  language: 
It  included  a  code  of  simple  morals.  It 
assured  men  that  they  who  did  well  would  be 
approved  of  God:  and  if  they  followed  evil 
courses,  sin  would  be  imputed  to  them,  and 
they  would  thus  become  subject  to  punish- 
ment.  It  detailed  the  reasons  why  the  sev- 
enth day  was  consecrated  and  set  apart  as  a 
Sabbath,  or  day  of  rest;  and  showed  why  the 
bitter  consequences  of  sin  were  visited  upon 
our  first  parents,  as  a  practical  lesson  that  it 
ought  to  be  avoided.    But  the  great  object 
of  this  Primitive  Freemasonry  was  to  pre- 
serve and  cherish  the  promise  of  a  Redeemer, 
who  should  provide  a  remedy  for  the  evil  that 
their  transgression  had  introduced  into  the 
world. when  the  appointed  time  should  come." 

In  his  History  of  Initiation  he  makes  the 
supposition  that  the  ceremonies  of  this  Prim- 


itive  Freemasonry  would  be  few  and  unosten- 
tatious, and  consist,  perhaps,  hke  taat  of 
admWon  into  ChrfctfcnityT'  of  a  Ihnpfe 
ustration,  conferred  alike  on  all,  in  thThope 
that  they  would  practise  the  eoc  aJ  duties  of 
benevolence  and  good-will  to  man,  and  unso- 
phisticated devotion  to  God.  ' 

t^/fe:?       h£wever-  admit  that  the  sys- 
^kI^^^T11^011^  consisted  only 
Jwk   *enets  ^hlch  ■»  to  ^  fomd  in  the 
firstxhapters  of  Genesis,  or  that  he  intends,  in 
nis  definition  of  this  science,  to  embrace  so 
general  and  indefinite  a  scope  of  all  the  prin- 
ciples of  truth  and  light,  as  Preston  has  done 
in  hw  declaration,  that  "from  the  commence- 
ment of  the  world,  we  may  trace  the  founda- 
tion of  Masonry.''    On  the  contrary,  Oliver 
supposes  that  this  Primitive  Freemasonry  in- 
cluded a  particular  and  definite  system,  made 
up  of  legends  and  symbols,  and  confined  to 
those  who  were  initiated  into  its  myster- 
ies. The  knowledge  of  these  mysteries  was 
of  course  communicated  by  God  himself  to 
Adam,  and  from  him  traditionally  received  by 
his  descendants,  throughout  the  patriarchal 

This  view  of  Oliver  is  substantiated  by  the 
remarks  of  Rosenberg,  a  learned  French 
Mason,  in  an  article  in  the  Freemasons'  Quar- 
terly Review,  on  the  Book  of  Ranel,  an  ancient 
Kabbalistic  work,  whose  subject  is  these  Di- 
vine mysteries.  "This  book,"  says  Rosen- 
berg, informs  us  that  Adam  was  the  first  to 
receive  these  mysteries.  Afterward,  when 
driven  out  of  Paradise,  he  communicated  them 
to  his  son  Seth;  Seth  communicated  them  to 
Enoch;  Enoch  to  Methuselah;  Methuselah 
to  Lamech:  Lamech  to  Noah;  NoahtoShem; 
Shem  to  Abraham;  Abraham  to  Isaac;  Isaac 
to  Jacob;  Jacob  to  Levi:  Levi  to  Kelfioth; 
Kelhoth  to  Amram;  Amram  to  Moses; 
Moses  to  Joshua;  Joshua  to  the  Elders;  the 
Elders  to  the  Prophets;  the  Prophets  to  the 
Wise  Men;  and  then  from  one  to  another 
down  to  Solomon." 

Such,  then,  was  the  Pure  or  Primitive  Free- 
masonry, the  first  system  of  mysteries  which, 
according  to  modern  Masonic  writers  of  the 
school  of  Oliver,  has  descended,  of  course  with 
various  modifications,  from  age  to  age,  in  a 
direct  and  uninterrupted  line,  to  the  Free- 
masons of  the  present  day. 

The  theory  is  an  attractive  one,  and  may  be 
qualifiedly  adopted,  if  we  may  accept  what 
appears  to  have  been  the  doctrine  of  Ander- 
son, of  Hutchinson,  of  Preston,  and  of  Oliver, 
that  the  purer  theosophic  tenets  of  "the 
chosen  people  of  God"  were  similar  to  those 
subsequently  inculcated  in  Masonry,  and  dis- 
tinguished from  the  corrupted  teaching  bf  the 
Pagan  religions  as  developed  in  the  mysteries. 
But  if  we  attempt  to  contend  that  there  was 
among  the  Patriarchs  any  esoteric  organiza- 
tion at  all  resembling  the  modern  system  of 
Freemasonry,  we  shall  find  no  historical  data 
on  which  we  may  rely  for  support. 

Primitive  Rite.  This  Rite  was  founded 
at  Narbonne,  in  France,  on  April  19, 1780,  by 
the  pretended  "Superiors  of  the  Order  of  Free 




and  Accepted  Masons."  It  was  attached  to 
the  Lodge  of  the  PkUoddptm,  under  the  title 
of  the  "Erst  Lodgeof St.  John  united  to  the 
Primitive  Rite  for  the  country  of  France. 
Hence  it  is  sometimes  called  the  Primitive 
Rite  of  Narbonne,  and  sometimes  the  Rite  of 
the  PmTaddphes.  It  was  divided  into  three 
classes,  which  comprised  ten  degrees  of  in- 
struction. These  were  not,  in  the  usual  sense, 
degrees,  but  rather  collections  of  grades,  out 
of  which  it  was  sought  to  develop  all  the  in- 
structions of  which  they  were  capable.  These 
classes  and  degrees  were  as  follows : 

First  Class.  1.  Apprentice.  2.  Fellow- 
Craft.  3.  Master  Mason.  These  were  con- 
formable to  the  same  degrees  in  all  the  other 
Rites.  „ 

Second  Class.  Fourth  Degree,  comprising 
Perfect  Master,  Elut  and  Architect.  Fiftt 
Degree,  comprising  the  Sublime  Ecossais. 
Sixth  Degree,  comprisingthe  Knight  of  the 
Sword,  Kflight  of  the  East,  and  Prince  of 
Jerusalem.  ..», 

Third  Glass.  7.  The  First  Chapter  of  Rose 
Croix,  comprising  ritual  instructions.  3. 
The  Second  Ghapter  of  Rose  Croix.  It  is  the 
depository  of  historical  documents  of  rare 
value.  9.  The  Third  Chapter  of  Rose  Croix, 
'  comprising  physical  and  philosophical  instruc- 
tions. 18.  The  Fourth  and  last  Chapter  of 
Rose  Croix,  or  Rose  Croix  Brethren  of  the 
Grand  Rosary,  engaged  in  researches  into the 
occult  sciences,  the  object  being  the  Whabih- 
tation  and  reintegration  of  manrm  to  prim- 
itive rank  and  prerogatives.  The  Primitive 
Rite  was  united  to  the  Grand  Orient  in  1786, 
although  some  of  its  Lodges,  objecting  to 
the  anion,  maintained  their  independence.  It 
eecuredV  at  one  time,  a  high*  consideration 
among  Ffencb,  Masons,  not  only  on  account  of 
the  objects  in  which  it  was  engaged,  but  on 
account  also  of  the  talents  and  position  of 
many  of  its  members.  But  it  is  no  longer 
practised.  _ 

Primitive  Scottish  Rite.  This  Rite 
claims  to  have  been  established  in  1770,  at 
Namur,  in  Belgium,  by  a  body  called  the  Met- 
ropolitan Grand  Lodge  of  Edinburgh.  But 
the  truth,  according  to  Clavel  (Hist.  Pitt.,  p. 
220),  is  that  it  was  the  invention  of  one  Mar- 
chot,  an  advocate  of  Nivelles,  who  organised 
it  in  1818,  at  Namur,  beyond  which  city,  and 
the  Lodge  of  "Bonne  AmitieV'  it  scarcely  ever 
extended.  It  consists  of  thirty-three  degrees, 
as  follows:  1.  Apprentice;  2.  FeHow-Craft; 
3.  Master;  4.  Perfect  Master;  5.  Irish  Mas- 
ter; 6.  Elect  of  Ninej_  7.  Elect  of  the  Un- 
known; 8.  Elect  of  Fifteen;  9.  Illustrious 
Master;  10.  Perfect  Elect;  11.  Minor  Archi- 
tect; 12.  Grand  Architect;  13.  Sublime  Ar- 
chitect; 14.  Master  in  Perfect  Architecture; 
15.  Royal  Arch;  16.  Prussian  Knight;  17. 
Knight  of  the  East;  18.  Prince  of  Jerusalem; 
19.  Master  of  All  Lodges ;  20.  Knight  of  the 
West;  21.  Knight  of  Palestine:  22.  Sover- 
eign Prince  of  Rose  Croix;  23.  Subhme  Scot- 
tish Mason;  24.  Knight  of  the  Sun;  25. 
Grand  Scottish  Mason  of  St.  Andrew;  26. 
Master  of  the  Secret;  27.  Knight  of  the  Black 

Eagle:  28.  Knight  of  K  H;  29.  Grand 

Elect  of  Truth:  30.  Novice  of  the  Interior; 
31.  Knight  of  the  Interior;  32.  Prefect  of  the 
Interior;  33.  Commander  of  the  Interior. 
The  Primitive  Scottish  Rite  appears  to  have 
been  founded  upon  the  Rite  of  Perfection, 
with  an  intermixture  of  the  Strict  Observance 
of  Hund,  the  Adonhiramite,  and  some  other 
Rites.  ,  , 

Prince.  The  word  Prince  is  not  attached 
as  a  title  to  any  Masonic  office,  but  is  prefixed 
as  a  part  of  the  name  to  several  degrees,  as 
Prince  of  the  Royal  Secret,  Prince  of  Rose 
Croix,  and  Prince  of  Jerusalem.   In  all  of 
these  instances  it  seems  to  convey  some  idea 
of  sovereignty  inherent  in  the  character  of  the 
degree.   Thus  the  Prince  of  the  Royal  Secret 
was  the  ultimate,  and,  of  course,  controlling 
degree  of  the  Rite  of  Perfection,  whence,  shorn, 
however,  of  its  sovereignty,  it  has  been  trans- 
ferred to  the  Ancient  ana  Accepted  Scottish 
Rite.   The  Prince  of  Rose  Croix,  although 
holding  in  some  Rites  a  subordinate  position, 
was  onginally  an  independent  degree,  and  the 
representative  of  Rosicrucian  Masonry.   It  is 
still  at  the  head  of  the  French  Rite.  The 
Princes  of  Jerusalem,  according  to  the  Old 
Constitutions  of  the  Rite  of  Perfection,  were 
invested  with  power  of  jurisdiction  over  all 
degrees  below  the  Sixteenth,  a  prerogative 
which  they  exercised  long  after  the  promulga- 
tion of  the  Constitutions  of  1786;  and  even  now 
they  are  called,  in  the  ritual  of  the  Ancient  . 
and  Accepted  Rite,  "Chiefs  in  Masonry,"  a 
term  borrowed  from  the  Constitutions  of  1768. 
But  there  are  several  other  Prince  degrees- 
which  do  not  seem,  at  least  now,  to  claim  any 
character  of  sovereignty — such  are  the  Prince 
of  Lebanon,  Prince  of  the  Tabernacle,  and 
Prince  of  Mercy,  all  of  which  are  now  subor- 
dinate degrees  m  the  Scottish  Rite. 
Prince  Adept.   See  Adept,  Prince. 
Prince  Depositor,  Grand.    (Grand  Prince 
Dipositaire.)   A  degree  in  the  collection  of 

Prince  Edward  Island.  Previous  to 
November,  1798,  Prince  Edward  Island  was 
called  St.  John's  Island,  the  name  being 
changed  by  Imperial  Act  on  that  date. 

On  the  9th  of  October,  1797,  St.  John's 
Lodge,  now  No.  1  on  the  Registry  of  that 
Province,  was  established  by  Warrant  at 
Chariottetown  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  Eng- 
land. The  then  Lieutenant-Governor.  Gen- 
eral Edward  Fanning,  was  one  of  the  Charter 
members.  In  1857,  Victoria  Lodge  at  Char- 
iottetown was  chartered  by  Scotland.  In 
1875  there  were  seven  lodges  in  this  Province 
working  under  English  Warrants,  viz.,  St. 
John's,  King  Hiram.  St.  George,  Alexandra, 
Mount  Lebanon,  and  True  Brothers,  and  one 
under  the  Scottish  Register,  "Victoria."  _ 

On  the  23d  day  of  June,  1875,  these  eight 
Lodges  met  and  formed  the  Grand  Lodge  of 
Prince  Edward  Island.  The  Hon.  John  Yep 
was  elected  Grand  Master  and  was  installed, 
together  with  his  officers,  the  following  day 
by  M.  Wor.  Bro.  John  V.  Ellis,  Grand  Master 
of  New  Brunswick. 



o  Prln,ceMason.  A  term  applied  in  the  old 
Scottish  Rite  Constitutions  to  the  possessors  of 
the  high  degrees  above  the  Fourteenth.  It  was 
first  assumed  by  the  Council  of  the  Emperors 
of  the  East  and  West.  Rose  Croix  Masons 
in  Ireland  are  still  known  by  this  name. 

Prince  of  Jerusalem.   (Prince  de  Jerusa- 
lem.)  This  was  the  Sixteenth  Degree  of  the 
Rite  of  Perfection,  whence  it  was  transferred 
to  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite, 
where  it  occupies  the  same  numerical  position. 
Its  legend  is  founded  on  certain  incidents 
which  took  place  during  the  rebuilding  of  the 
second  Temple,  when  the  Jews  were  so  much 
incommoded  by  the  attacks  of  the  Samaritans 
and  other  neighboring  nations,  that  an  em- 
bassy was  sent  to  King  Darius  to  implore  his 
favor  and  protection,  which  was  accordingly 
obtained.   This  legend,  as  developed  intne 
degree,  is  contained  neither  in  Ezra  nor  in 
the  apocryphal  books  of  Esdras.   It  is  found 
only  in  the  Antiquities  of  Josephus  (lib.  »., 
cap.  iv.,  sec.  9),  and  thence  there  is  the  strong- 
est internal  evidence  to  show  that  it  was  de- 
rived by  the  inventor  of  the  degree.  Who  that 
mventor  was  we  can  only  conjecture.  But 
as  we  have  the  statements  of  both  Ragon  and 
KIobs  that  the  Baron  de  Tschoudy  composed 
the  degree  of  Knight  of  the  East,  and  as  that 
degree  is  the  first  section  of  the  system  of 
which  the  Prince  of  Jerusalem  is  the  second, 
we  may  reasonably  suppose  that  the  latter  was 
also  composed  by  him.   The  degree  beingone 
of  those  adopted  by  the  Emperors  of  the  East 
and  West  in  their  system,  which  Stephen 
Morin  was  authorized  to  propagate  in  Amer- 
ica, it  was  introduced  into  America  long  be- 
fore the  establishment  of  the  Supreme  Council 
of  the  Scottish  Rite.   A  Council  was  estab- 
lished by  Henry  A.  Francken,  about  1767,  at 
Albany,  in  the  State  of  New  York,  and  a 
Grand  Council  organized  by  Myers,  m  1788, 
in  Charleston,  South  Carolina.   This  body 
exercised  sovereign  powers  even  after  the 
establishment   of   the  Supreme  Council, 
May  31,  1801,  for,  in  1802,  it  granted  a 
Warrant  for  the  establishment  of  a  Mark 
Lodge  in  Charleston,  and  another  in  the  same 
year,  for  a  Lodge  of  Perfection,  in  Savannah, 
Georgia.    But  under  the  present  regulations 
of  the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Rite, 
this  prerogative  has,  been  abolished,  and 
Grand  Councils  of  Princes  of  Jerusalem  no 
longer  exist.    The  old  regulation,  that  the 
Master  of  a  Lodge  of  Perfection  must  be  at 
least  a  Prince  of  Jerusalem,  which  was  con- 
tained in  the  Constitution  of  the  Grand  Coun- 
cil, has  also  been  repealed,  together  with  most 
of  the  privileges  which  formerly  appertained 
to  the  degree.   A  decision  of  the  Supreme 
Council,  in  1870,  has  even  obliterated  Coun- 
cils of  the  Princes  of  Jerusalem  as  a  separate 
organization,  authorized  to  confer  the  pre- 
liminary degree  of  Knights  of  the  East,  and 
placed  such  Councils  within  the  bosom  of 
Rose  Croix  Chapters,  a  provision  of  which,  as 
a  manifest  innovation  on  the  ancient  system, 
the  expediency,  or  at  least  the  propriety,  may 
be  greatly  doubted. 


Bodies  of  this  degree  are  called  Councils. 
According  to  the  old  rituals,  the  officers  were 
a  Most  Equitable,  a  Senior  and  Junior  Most 
Enlightened,  a  Grand  Treasurer,  and  Grand 
Secretary.  The  more  recent  ritual  of  the 
Southern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States 
has  substituted  for  these  a  Most  Illustrious 
Tarshatha,  a  Most  Venerable  High  Priest,  a 
Most  Excellent  Scribe,  two  Most  Enlightened 
Wardens,  and  other  officers.  Yellow  is  the 
symbolic  color  of  the  degree,  and  the  apron  is 
crimson  (formerly  white),  lined  and  bordered 
with  yellow.  The  jewel  is  a  medal  of  gold,  on 
one  side  of  which  is  inscribed  a  hand  holding 
an  equally  poised  balance,  and  on  the  other  a 
double-edged,  cross-hilted  sword  erect,  be- 
tween three  stars  around  the  point,  and  the 
letters  D  and  Z  on  each  side.  , 
±,  The i  Prince  of  Jerusalem  is  also  the  Fifty- 
third  Degree  of  the  Metropolitan  Chapter  of 
France,  and  the  Forty-fifth  of  the  Rite  of  Miz- 

Prince  of  Jerusalem,  Jewel  of.  Should 
be  a  gold  incrustation  on  a  lozenge-shaped 
piece  of  mother-of-pearl.  Equipoise  scales 
held  by  hand,  sword,  five  stars,  one  larger  than 

the  other  four,  and  the  letters  D  and  Z  in  He- 
brew, one  on  either  side  of  the  scales.  Thf 
five-pointed  crown,  within  a  triangle  of  gold, 
has  also  been  used  as  a  jewel  of  this  Sixteenth 

Prince  of  Lebanon.  See  Knight  of  the 
Royal  Ax. 

Prince  of  Llbanus.  Another  title  for 
Prince  of  Lebanon. 

Prince  of  Mercy.  (Prince  du  Merci.) 
The  Twenty-sixth  Degree  of  the  Ancient  and 
Accepted  Scottish  Rite,  called  also  Scottish 
Trinitarian  or  Ecossais  Trinitaire.  It  is  one 
of  the  eight  degrees  which  were  added  on  the 
organization  of  the  Scottish  Rite  to  the  origi- 
nal twenty-five  of  the  Rite  of  Perfection. 

It  is  a  Christian  degree  in  its  construction, 
and  treats  of  the  triple  covenant  of  mercy 
which  God  made  with  man;  first  with  Abra- 
ham by  circumcision:  next,  with  the  Israel- 
ites in  the  wilderness,  by  the  intermediation  of 
Moses;  and  lastly,  with  all  mankind,  by  the 
death  and  sufferings  of  Jesus  Christ.  It  is  in 
allusion  to  these  three  acts  of  mercy,  that  the 
degree  derives  its  two  names  of  Scottish  Trin- 
itarian and  Prince  of  Mercy,  and  not,  as 




Ragon  supposes,  from  any  reference  to  the 
Fathers  of  Mercy,  a  religious  society  formerly 
engaged  in  the  ransoming  of  Christian  cap- 
tives at  Algiers.  Ghemin  Dupontes  (.Mem. 
Sur  VEcoss,  p.  373)  says  that  the  Scottish  rit- 
uals of  the  degree  are  too  full  of  the  Hermetic 
philosophy,  an  error  from  which  the  French 
Cahiers  are  exempt;  and  he  condemns  much 
of  its  doctrines  as  *'  hyperbolique  plaisantene. 
But  the  modern  rituals  as  now  practised  are 
obnoxious  to  no  such  objection.  The  sym- 
bolic development  of  the  number  three  of 
course  constitutes  a  large  part  of  its  lecture; 
but  the  real  dogma  of  the  degree  is  the  impor- 
tance of  Truth,  and  to  this  all  its  ceremonies 
are  directed.  „  .  , 

Bodies  of  the  degree  are  called  Chapters 
The  presiding  officer  is  called  Most  Excellent 
Chief  Prince,  the  Wardens  are  styled  Excel- 
lent. In  the  old  rituals  these  officers  repre- 
sented Moses,  Aaron,  and  Eleazar;  but  the 
abandonment  of  these  personations  in  the 
modern  rituals  is,  I  think,  an  improvement. 
The  apron  is  red  bordered  with  white,  and  the 
jewel  is  an  equilateral  triangle,  within  which  is 
a  heart.  This  was  formerly  inscribed  with  the 
Hebrew  letter  tau,  now  with  the  letters  I.  H.  S, ; 
and,  to  add  to  the  Christiannsation  which 
these  letters  give  to  the  degree,  the  American 
Councils  have  adopted  a  tessera  in  the  form  of 
a  small  fish  of  ivory  or  mother-of-pearl,  in 
allusion  to  the  well-known  usage  of  the  prim- 
itive Christians. 

Prince  of  Bose  Croix.  See  Rose  Croix, 
Prince  of.  ,•  ± 

Prince  of  the  Captivity.  According  to 
the  Talmudists,  the  Jews,  while  in  captivity 
at  Babylon,  kept  a  genealogical  table  of  the 
line  of  thek  kings,  and  he  who  was  the  right- 
ful heir  of  the  throne  of  Israel  was  called  the 
Head  or  Prince  of  the  Captivity.  _  At  the  tune 
of  the  restoration,  Zerubbabel,  being  the  lineal 
descendant  of  Solomon,  was  the  Prince  of  the 

°  Mnee'  of  the  East,  Grand.  (Grand 
Prince  d'Orient.)  A  degree  in  the  collection 
of  Le  Page.  f    .  _ 

Prince  of  the  Levites.  (Prince  dee  Le- 
mtes.)  A  degree  in  the  collection  of  the  Lodge 
of  Saint  Louis  des  Amis  Reunis  at  Calais. 

Prince  of  the  Royal  Secret.  See  Sub- 
lime Prince  of  the  Royal  Secret. 

Prince  of  the  Seven  Planets,  niustri- 
ons  Grand.  (lUustre  Grand  Prince  des  sept 
Planetes.)  A  degree  in  the  manuscript  collec- 
tion of  Peuvret. 

Prince  of  the  Tabernacle.  (Prince  du 
Tabernacle.)  The  Twenty-fourth  Degree  of 
the  Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  Bite.  In 
the  old  rituals  the  degree  was  intended  to 
illustrate  the  directions  given  for  the  building 
of  the  tabernacle,  the  particulars  of  which  are 
recorded  in  the  twenty-fifth  chapter  of  Exo- 
dus. The  Lodge  is  called  a  Hierarchy,  and  its 
officers  are  a  Most  Powerful  Chief  Prince,  rep- 
resenting Moses,  and  three  Wardens,  whose 
style  is  Powerful,  and  who  respectively  repre- 
sent Aaron,  Bezaleel,  and  Aholiab.  In  the 
modern  rituals  of  the  United  States,  the  three 

principal  officers  are  called  the  Leader,  the 
3Bgh  Priest,  and  the  Priest,  and  respectively 
represent  Moses,  Aaron,  and  Ithamar,  his  son. 
The  ritual  is  greatly  enlarged;  and  while  the 
main  idea  of  the  degree  is  retained,  the  cere- 
monies represent  the  initiation  into  the  mys- 
teries of  the  Mosaic  tabernacle. 

The  jewel  is  the  letter  A,  in  gold,  sus- 
pended from  a  broad  crimson  ribbon.  The 
apron  is  white,  lined  with  scarlet  and  bor- 
dered with  green.  The  flap  is  sky-blue. 
On  the  apron  is  depicted  a  representation 
of  the  tabernacle. 

This  degree  appears  to  be  peculiar  to  the 
Scottish  Rite  and  its  modifications.  I  have 
not  met  with  it  in  any  of  the  other  Rites. 

Prince  of  Wales'  Grand  Lodge.  About 
the  time  of  the  reconciliation  of  the  two 
contending  Grand  Lodges  in  England,  m 
1813,  they  were  called,  by  way  of  distinc- 
tion, after  their  Grand  Masters.  That  of 
the  "Moderns"  was  called  the  "Prince  of 
Wales'  Grand  Lodge,"  and  that  of  the 
"Ancients"  the  "Duke  of  Kent's  Grand 
Lodge."  The  titles  were  used  colloquially, 
and  not  officially. 

Princess  of  the  Crown.  (Princesse  de  la 
Couronne.)  The  Tenth  and  last  degree  of 
the  Masonry  of  Adoption  according  to  the 
French  rigime.  The  degree,  which  is  said 
to  have  been  composed  m  Saxony,  m  1770. 
represents  the  reception  of  the  Queen  of 
Sheba  by  King  Solomon.  The  Grand  Master 
and  Grand  Mistress  personate  Solomon  and 
his  wife  (which  one,  theCahier  does  not  say), 
and  the  recipiendary  plays  the  part  of  the 
Queen  of  Sheba.  The  degree,  says  Ragon 
(TuU.  Gen.,  p.  78),  is  not  initiatory,  but 
simply  honorary.    '  ■    _  , 

Principal  Officers.  The  number  three,  as 
a  sacred  number  in  the  Masonic  system,  is, 
among  many  other  ways,  developed  in  the 
fact  that  in  all  Masonic  bodies  there  are  three 
principal  officers;. 

Principals.  The  three  presiding  officers 
in  a  Chapter  of  Royal  Arch  Masons,  accord- 
ing to  the  system  practised  in  England,  are 
called  the  Three  Principals,  or  King,  Prophet, 
and  Priest,  and,  under  the  titles  of  Z,  H, 
and  J,  represent  Zerubbabel,  Haggai,  and 
Joshua.  No  person  is  eligible  to  the  First 
Principal's  chair  unless  he  has  served  twelve 
months  in  each  of  the  others;  and  he  must 
also  be  the  Master  or  Past  Master  of  a  Lodge, 
and  have  served  in  the  Chapter  the  office 
of  Scribe,  Sojourner,  or  Assistant  Sojourner. 
At  his  installation,  each  of  the  Pnncipals 
receives  an  installing  degree  like  that  of  the 
Master  of  a  Blue  Lodge.  There  is,  however, 
no  resemblance  between  any  of  these  degrees 
and  the  order  of  High  Priesthood  which  is 
conferred  in  this  country.  , 

The  presiding  officers  of  the  Grand  Chap- 
ter are  called  Grand  Principals,  and  repre- 
sent the  same  personages.  o„ 
The  official  jewel  of  Z,  is  a  crown;  of  J±,  an 
All-seeing  eye;  and  of  J,  a  book,  each  sur- 
rounded by  a  nimbus,  or  rays  of  glory,  and 
placed  within  an  equilateral  triangle. 



Principal  Sojourner.  The  Hebrew  word 
'?>  fff  >  which  we  translate  "a  sojourner." 
signifies  a  man  living  out  of  his  own  country, 
and  is  used  in  this  sense  throughout  the  Old 
Testament.  The  children  of  Israel  were, 
therefore,  during  the  captivity,  sojourners 
in  Babylon,  and  the  person  who  is  repre- 
sented by  this  officer,  performed,  as  the  in- 
cidents of  the  degree  relate,  an  important 
part  in  the  restoration  of  the  Israelites  to 
Jerusalem.  He  was  the  spokesman  and 
leader  of  a  party  of  three  sojourners,  and  is, 
therefore,  emphatically  called  the  chief,  or 
principal  sojourner. 

In  the  English  Royal  Arch  system  there 
are  three  officers  called  Sojourners.  But  in 
tiie  American  system  the  three  Historical 
Sojourners  are  represented  by  the  candi- 
dates, while  only  the  supposed  chief  of  them 
is  represented  by  an  officer  called  the  Prin- 
cipal Sojourner.  His  duties  are  those  of  a 
conductor,  and  resemble,  in  some  respects, 
those  of  a  Senior  Deacon  in  a  Symbolic 
Lodge;  which  office,  indeed,  he  occupies  when 
the  Chapter  is  open  on  any  of  the  preliminary 
degrees.  * 
Printed  Proceedings.  In  1741,  the  Grand 

^S?»°fi-?n^?nd  adopted  a  regulation, 
which  Entick  (Constitutions,  1756,  p.  236)  is 
careful  to  tell  us,  "was  unanimously  agreed 
to,    forbidding  any  brother  "to  print,  or 
cause  to  be  printed,  the  proceedings  of  any 
Lodge  or  any  part  thereof,  or  the  names  of 
the  persons  present  at  such  Lodge,  but  by 
the  direction  of  the  Grand  Master  or  ms 
deputy,  under  pain  of  being  disowned  for  a 
brother,  and  not  to  be  admitted  into  any 
Quarterly  Communication  or  Grand  Lodge, 
or  any  Lodge  whatsoever,  and  of  being 
rendered  ^capable  of  bearing  any  office  in 
the  Craft."  *Fhe  law  has  never  been  re- 
pealed, but  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England 
issues  reports  of  its  meetings,  as  also  do 
most  of  the  Grand  Lodges  of  the  world. 
Bulletins  are i  published  at  stated  intervals 
by  the  Grand  Orients  of  France,  Italy,  and 
Portugal,  and  by  nearly  an  those  of  South 
America.   In  the  United  States,  every  Grand 
Lodge  publishes  annually  the  journal  of  <its 
proceedings,  and  many  subordinate  Lodges 
print  the  account  of  any  special  meeting  held 
on  an  important  or  interesting  occasion. 

«*lor.  1.  The  superiors  of  the  different 
"f™"  provinces  into  which  the  Order 
°V&e  Templar  was  divided,  were  at  first 
called  Priors  or  Grand  Priors,  and  afterward 
Preceptors  or  Grand  Preceptors. 

2.  Each  of  the  languages  of  the  Order  of 
Malta  was  divided  into  Grand  Priories,  of 
which  there  were  twenty-six,  over  which  a 
Ocrand  Prior  presided.  Under  him  were 
several  Commanderies. 

3.  The  second  officer  in  a  Council  of  Ka- 
dosh,  under  the  Supreme  Council  for  the 
routhern  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States. 

4.  The  Grand  Prior  is  the  third  officer  in 
ilJ']11?6™6  Council  of  the  Ancient  and 
Accepted  Scottish  Rite  for  the  Southern 
Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States, 

See  Committee,  Pri- 


Prior,  Grand.  See  Crowd  Prior. 

7u         TiI^n>dic^on  of  a  Grand  Prior 
m  the  Order  of  Malta1  or  St.  John  of  Jerusalem. 
Priory,  Great.  See  Great  Priory. 

tmirikVH'1^  been  held  in 
1782,  in  the  King's  Bench  prison,  London, 
the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  passed  a  reso- 
lution declaring  that  "it  is  inconsistent  with 
the  principles  of  Masonry  for  any  Free- 
mason s  Lodge  to  be  held  for  the  purposes 
of  making,  passing,  or  raising  Masons  in 
any  prison  or  place  of  confinement."  (Con- 
Muttons,  1784,  p.  349.)  The  resolution  is 
founded  on  the  principle  that  there  must  be 
perfect  freedom  of  action  in  all  that  relates 
to  the  admission  of  candidates,  and  that 
this  freedom  is  not  consistent  with  the  neces- 
sary restraints  of  a  prison. 

Private  Committee. 

Privileged  Questions.  In  parhamentary 
law,  privileged  questions  are  defined  to  be 
ttase  to  which  precedence  is  given  over  aB 
other  questions.  They  are  of  four  kinds; 
l._  .Those  which  relate  to  the  rights  and 
privileges  of  the  assembly  or  any  of  its 
members.  2.  Motions  for  adjournment. 
6.  Motions  for  reconsideration.  4.  Special 
orders  of  the  day.  The  first,  third,  and 
fourth  only  are  applicable  to  Masonic  par- 
hamentary law.    '  v 

Privilege,  Questions  of.  In  all  parlia- 
mentary or  legislative  bodies,  there  occur 
certain  questions  which  relate  to  matters 
affecting  the  dignity  of  the  assembly  or 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  some  of  its  mem- 
bers, and  these  are  hence  called  "questions 
of  privilege":  such,  for  instance,  are  motions 
arising  out  of  or  having  relation  to  a  quarrel 
between  two  of  the  members,  an  assault  upon 
any  member,  charges  affecting  the  integrity 
of  the  assembly  or  any  of  its  members?  or 
any  other  matters  of  a  similar  character. 
Questions  referring  to  any  of  these  matters 
take  precedence  of  all  other  business,  and 
hence  are  always  in  order.   These  questions 
of  .privilege  are  not  to  be  confounded  with 
privileged  questions;  for,  although  all  ques- 
tions of  privilege  are  privileged  questions, 
all  privileged  questions  are  not  questions  of 
privilege.   Strictly  speaking,  questions  of 
privilege  relate  to  the  house  or  its  members, 
and  privileged  questions  relate  to  matters  of 
business.    (See  Dr.  Mackey's  Parliamentary 
Im,w,  as  applied  to  the  Government  of  Masonic 
Bootes,  ch.  xiav.,  xxv.) 

Probation.  The  interval  between  the 
reception  of  one  degree  and  the  succeeding 
one  is  called  the  probation  of  the  candidate, 
because  it  is  during  this  period  that  he  is 
to  prove  his  qualification  for  advancement, 
in  England  and  in  this  country  the  time  of 
probation  between  the  reception  of  degrees 
is  four  weeks,  to  which  is  generally  added 
the  further  safeguard  of  an  open  examination 
in  the  preceding  degree.  In  France  and 
Germany  the  probation  is  extended  to  one 
♦     iT5  extended  in  the 

Ancient  and  Accepted  Scottish  iUte.  "The 




tatutes  of  the  Wto^a 

between  the  receptewm* - jl extraordtoary 

ultimate  degree .of  the  Kate,  «  ™  ^ 

e*mwim,  Forty-Sleuth.  See  F<^- 

Se*S«SS*  Public  processions^  of  the 
OrdefSSougb  not  aa  popular  as  they  were 

T:ri„  Xnd  lone  usage.  The  first  procession, 
S  +^  reveal  of  which  we  have  a  record, 
after  tbe  revival,  01  wu»  Anderson 

the  Maeomc  ?*v™"J£  ™Tblic  bodies 

Grand  Master,  witn  nis  «  "i~ri 
Grand  officers  and  the  Masters and .Wardens 

Short  to  the  Hall  ht  proper  $>thing  and 
due  form."  Anderson  and  Entick  con- 
toe  tnUi  the  -r^lpr^^/w 

Grind  Lodge  and  the  Craft  on  * i  teat 

day,  withi  few  KJ^JEJ 
toenty-five  years:  but  after  this  first  pedes- 
San  proceJon  all  the  subsequent  ones  were 
made  in  carriages,  .the  record  being,  tbe 
procession  of  llareh  was  made  m  coaches 
and  cnariots."  (ConstiiMtwnj,  1766,  p.  2270 
But  ridicule  befog  thrown  by  the  enemies 
of  the  Order  upon  these  processions,  hy  a 

in  subsequent  years,  in  1747.  the  Grand 
MgHnWuW  resolved  to  dis^ntoue 
them,  nor  have  Ifcey  since  been  renewed. 

(/In public  processions  of  the  Craft 
were  some  years  ago  very  common,  nor  nave 
they  yet  been  altogether  abandoned;  al- 
thougfi  now  prwstisedwith  greater dWta 

to  special  occasions  of  importance,  sucn  as 
tw£3h#»  laying,  of  ^er-stones,  or  the 

dedication  of  pubhe  edifices.   

The  question  has  been  often  mooted, 
whether  public  processions,  with  the  open 
effition  of  itefregalia  ^fornrture,  are 
or  are  not  of  advantage  to  the  Order,  in 
1747  it  was  bought  not  to  be  so,  at  least  in 
London,  but  the  custom  wasjxmtmued,  to 
agreat  extent,  in  the  provinces.  Dr.  Oliver 
wasin  favor  of  what  he  calls  {Symb.  of 
Glory)   "the  good  old  custom,  so  strongly 

and  the  brethren  of  a 

d  ^  oLlmC  under  their  own  banner, 
rr^&Ssotemn  procession  to.  the 

&2**X  to  offer  up  U 
SX  pubUc  congregation  ^  tto  btagg 

of  the  P^^l  y^e^fffthf  pulpit  a 

^ctSns^-tnot  peculiar  to  the  Masonic 
TnSS  The  custom  comes  to  us  from 
^^Ltiouity.  In  the  initiations  at 

accompamed  each  day  ^*Ag^0Pthe 
SS  $  M *S£ ^ApXuTdescr&es  the 

of  the  Mysteries  of  Isis.   Among  the  eariy 
R^nians;  ^  was  the  custom,  m  tunes  of 
public  triumph  or  distress,  £  tovesoh*m 
processions  to  the  temples,  either  to  tnamc 
the^ods  for  their  favor  or  to  invoke  their 
protSu The  Jews  also  went  in  pro- 
Son  to  the  Temple  to  offer  up  then-  prayers. 
IT  too/ the  primitive  GkridUin  walked  m 
goWon  toP  the  tombs 
Ecclesiastical  processions  were  nrst  lnxro 
Kin  the  fourth  century.  They  are  now 
used  in  the  Catholic  Church  on  various 
occasions,  and  the  Panmsak  Rpmanum  sup- 
pUe7th7necessarv  ritual  for  their  observance. 
L  the  Middle  Ages  these  processions  were 
often  carried  to  an  absurd,  extent.  Wore 
describes  them  as  consisting  of  "ridiculous 
contrivances,  of  »  figure  with  a  great  gaping 
mouth,  and  other  pieces  of  mewiment. 
But  these  displays  were  abandoned  with  tbe 
increasing  refinement  of  the.  age.   At  «us 
day.  processions  are  common  m  all  countries, 
not  only  of  religious  confraternities,  but  of 
political  and  social  societies. 

There  are  processions  also  in  Masonry 
which  are  confined  to  the  internal  concerns 
of  the  Order,  and  are  not  therefore  of  a 
public  nature.  The  procession  "round  the 
Hall,"  at  the  instefiation  of  the  Grand 
Master,  is  first  mentioned  in  1721.  Previous 
to  that  year  there  is  no  allusion  to  any  sucn 
ceremony.  From  1717  to  1720,  we  are 
simply  told  that  the  new  Grand  Master 

77     ^J     i    .    J  II  __J  ll.l  Vn  -or  on  "hntnfU>Ml" 

*  On  the  subject  of  these  mock :  processions, 
,ee  an^Se  by  Dr.  W.  J.  Chelwode  Crawley  » 
Ars  Quatuor  Coronaiorum,  vol.  18. 

simply  tow  tnai  we  ue*»  w?ft  ■*™Tm 
"was  saluted."  and  that  he  was  "homaged,j( 
or  that  "his  health  was  drunk  in  due  form. 
But  in  1721  a  processional  ceremony  seems 
to  have  been  composed,  for  in  that  year  we 
are  informed  {Const.,  1738,  p.  113)  that 
"BroleT Payne,  the  old  Grand  Master, 
made  the  first  procession  round  tbe  uan, 
and  when  returned,  be  proclamedj^ud  the 
most  noble  prince  and  our  brother.  ibis 
procession  was  not  abolished  with  the  public 
processions  in  1747,  but  continued  for  many 
years  afterward.  In  America  it  gave  rise  to 
the  procession  at  the  installation  ofMasters, 
which,  although  provided  for  by  the.  ntual, 
Ind  pr^ctised^by  most  Lodges  until  very 
recently/has  been  too  often  neglected  by 


(Constitutions,  Anderson 

£v:zkdTs  -  Susans 

tat,  so  that  the  place  of  honor  shall  tie 
ottt'  At  the  illation  of  the 

and  m  a  Grand  Lodge  or  fiJpw' 
bv  the  Grand  MmJL"  SSiSS^Z 
also  made  on  some  other  occasions  and  on 
ftury8810118  the  Grand  M^  Perfodr^ 

♦t^T1*™**1^?  of  Vr*™-  A  ceremony  in 
ft£h£"aerJS!^  ^  ^"h-  we  learn  froS 
Scnpture  that  m  the  first  year  of  CvrW  th£ 

&^er8i^the  ^Pti4  of  the  JeTs'S 
terminated  Cyrus  from  his  conversations 
wrth  Darnel  and  the  other  Jewish  captives 
^W-l  Piety  as  well  as  hZ 'it 
th™^  ^  ??reV  books,  more  especially 
toe  propheaes  of  Isaiah,  had  become  Imbued 
with  a  knowledge  of  true  religion,  and  hence 
^dueTe^  ?ubI,iclv  announced  to  iuTsuSs 
his  belief  In  the  God  "which  th^S of 

m,Pntr?hte8  ^Wpped."  He  was  conse- 
Wm  ^LmprT^  an  ^est  desire  to 
fulfil  the  prophetic  declarations, of  which  he 
was  the  subject,  and  to  rebuild  the  Tern- 
pie  ot  Jerusalem.  Accordingly,  he  issued  a 
proclamation,  which  we  finT'in  E^rafat 
iollows:  ' 

T^n^88^  Cyrus? -Bin*  ot  Persia.  The 
Lord  God  of  heaven  hath  given  me  all  the 
earth;  andle  hath  charged 
me  to  build  him  a  house  at  Jerusalem,  which 
is  m  Judea ..  Who  is  there  among  you  of 
all  his  peop  e?  his  God  be  with  him,  Ind  let 
™h  KL-Sy  +to  JfJ^alem  which  is  in  Judea 
and  build  the  house  of  the  Lord  God  of 

thlP0d)  which  18  m  Jerusalem  » 
nf  r™,o  he  PubLcation  of  this  proclamation 
of  Cyrus  commences  what  may  be  called  the 
second  part  of  the  Royal  Arch  Degree. 

1TOCIUS.  Known  as  the  successor  of  Syri- 
an Athenian  school. 


o  "  .«»»•«>  ueau  oi  tne  Athenian  school 
R»rn  in  Constantinople,  412,  died  at  Athenl' 
485.  Proclus  was  a  Neo-Platonist,  and 
waged  war  against  the  new  religion  of  Chris- 
tianity which  caused  him  to  be  banished 

SrfrfJ^ir*'  but  Was  su°sequ!ntlHead: 
nutted.   His  works  were  chiefly  mystical 

nr  eLZ%?°tiDe  hymns  to  the  sunTCui 
"te10  ™>  and  so  far  were  hWrnless! 

„„?  Tflere  is  no  word  whose  tech- 
rtt  Foper. meaning  differs  more  than 
mis.    m  its  ordinary  use  profane  sknififw 

*fw^>,^KgioUS 'md  irrev^^ufh! 
ite  technical  adaptation  it  is  appliecf  to  one 
who  is  ignorant  of  sacred  ritei:  The  word 
»  compounded  of  the  two  Latin  words  ^ 
and  fanum,  and  literally  means  before  or 

speaK  to  those  to  whom  it  is  J»xirf..i  k„+ 
dose  the  doors  against  the  profant f%tn 
the  mystenes  were  about  to  begin,  the  gK 
SSLf6  ^emn  formula.  l2g 
Be^W,  and  the  Romans,  ''Procul,  O  nrocul 
este  profam,"  both  meaning,  "DeDart  S 
part,  ye  profane!"  Hence  the  Sal'  and 
inoffensive  signification  of  profalTk 
of  being  unhStiated;  and  it  Is  in  thk  sente 
that  it  is  used  in  Masonry,  simply  toSmate 

s^bst^dvft1^18  n0t  reco^ed  as  a» 
suDstantive  m  the  general^usaKe  of  the 
knguap,  but  it ,  has  been  adopted^  a  tech! 
meal  term  in  the  dialect  of  Freemasonry 
m  the  same  relative  sense  in  which  the  word 
feB        in  the  professions  of  Knd 

J^A?*7^  T^  necessity  that  anyone 
Z&if^iST'*  to  the  acquisition  of  a 
science  should  become  a  proficient  in  its 
elementary  instructions  before  he  can  expect 
to  grasp  and  comprehend  its  higher  branches 
*  so  afeost  self-evident  as  to  nS  no  S 
ment.   But  as  Speculative  Masonry  is  a 

SSSflSJ?  m  ^UaUJ  »ecessary  ^at  a  requisite 
quahfication  for  admission  to  a  higher  decree 
should  be  a  suitable  proficiency  In  the^ 
ceding  one.  It  is  true,  that  we  So  not  finS  £ 
express  words  in  the  Old  Constitutions  any 
regulations  requiring  proficiency  as  pre- 
liminary to  advancement,  but  their  whole 
spirit  *  evidently  to  that  effect;  and  hSTce 

ti?J^*f the  01d  Constitutions; 
that  no  Master  shall  take  an  apprentice  for 
less i  than _  seven  years,  because  it  was  expected 
that  he  should  acquire  a  competent  knowledge 
of  the  mystery  before  he  coufi  be  admitted  Is  , 
r  S *  a  Fg"?  Constitution  of  the  ' 
SdS?  SHrfF  °  *  EngL^  Provides  that  no 
£SSL  .i^f  a  M*her  ^ee  on  any 
£fT2LUT^he  haS  an  examination 

m^^Qk^A  on  the  pwwding  degrees 
ffil95}  and  many,  perWs  most,  of  the 
Grand  Lodges^of  this  country  We  adopted  a 
simikr  regulation.  The  ritual  of  all  the 
^f°hc  degrees,  and,  indeed,  of  the  higher 
degrees,  and  that  too  in  all  rites,  makes 
the  imperative  demand  of  ev4  candidate 
father  J??  has  made  suitable  proficiency  in 
the :  preceding  degree  an  affirmative  answer  to 
Which  is  requireTbelore  the  rites  of  initiation 
can  be  proceeded  with.   This  answer  is. 


according  to  the  ritual,  that  "he  has";  but 
some  Masons  have  sought  to  evade  the 
consequence  of  an  acknowledgment  of  ignor- 
ance and  want  of  proficiency  T>y  a  change  of 
the  language  of  the  ritual  into  "such  as  time 
and  circumstances  would  permit."  But 
this  is  an  innovation,  unsanctioned  by  any 
authority,  and  should  be  repudiated.  If  the 
candidate  has  not  made  proper  proficiency, 
the  ritual,  outside  of  all  statutory  regula- 
tions, refuses  him  advancement. 

Anderson,  in  the  second  edition  of  his 
Constitutions  (p.  71),  cites  what  he  calls  "an 
old  record,"  which  says  that  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  III.  of  England  it  was  ordained 
"that  Master  Masons,  or  Masters  of  work, 
shall  be  examined  whether  they  be  able  of 
cunning  to  serve  their  respective  Lords,  as 
well  the  Highest  as  the  Lowest,  to  the  Honour 
and  Worship  of  the  aforesaid  Art,  and  to  the 
Profit  of  their  Lords." 

Here,  then,  we  may  see  the  origin  of  that 
usage,  which  is  still  practised  in  every  well- 
governed  Lodge,  not  only  of  demanding  a 
proper  degree  of  proficiency  in  the  candidate, 
but  also  of  testing  that  proficiency  by  an 

This  cautious  and  honest  fear  of  the  Fra- 
ternity lest  any  brother  should  assume  the 
duties  of  a  position  which  he  could  not 
faithfully  discharge,  and  which  is,  in  our 
time,  tantamount  to  a  candidate's  advancing 
to  a  degree  for  which  he  is  not  prepared,  is 
again  exhibited  in  all  the  Old  Constitutions. 
Thus  in  the  Lansdowne  Manuscript,  whose 
date  is  referred  to  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  it  is  charged  "that  no  Mason  take 
on  him  no  Lord's  work,  nor  other  man's, 
but  if  [unless]  he  know  himself  well  able  to 
perform  the  work,  so  that  the  Craft  have  no 
slander."  The  same  regulation,  and  almost 
in  the  same  language,  is  to  be  found  in  all 
the  subsequent  manuscripts. 

In  the  Charges  of  1722,  it  is  directed  that 
"a  younger  brother  shall  be  instructed  in 
working,  to  prevent  spoiling  the  materials 
for  want  of  judgment,  and  for  encreasing  and 
continuing  of  brotherly  love."  (Constitutions, 
1723,  p.  53.)  It  was,  with  the  same  view, 
that  all  of  the  Old  Constitutions  made  it 
imperative  that  no  Master  should  take  an 
apprentice  for  less  than  seven  years,  because 
it  was  expected  that  he  should  acquire  a  com- 
petent knowledge  of  the  mystery  of  the  Craft 
before  he  could  be  admitted  as  a  Fellow. 

Notwithstanding  these  charges  had  a  more 
particular  reference  to  the  operative  part 
of  the  art,  they  clearly  show  the  great  stress 
that  was  placed  by  our  ancient  brethren 
upon  the  necessity  of  skill  and  proficiency; 
and  they  have  furnished  the  precedents  upon 
which  are  based  all  the  similar  regulations 
that  have  been  subsequently  applied  to 
Speculative  Masonry. 

Pro  Grand  Master.  An  officer  known 
only  to  the  English  system,  and  adopted  for 
the  first  time  in  1782,  when,  on  the  election 
of  the  Duke  of  Cambridge  to  the  office  of 
.Grand  Master,  a  regulation  was  adopted  by 


the  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  that  whenever 
a  prince  of  the  blood  accepted  the  office  of 
Grand  Master,  he  should  be  at  liberty  to 
nominate  any  peer  of  the  realm  to  be  the 
Acting  Grand  Master,  and  to  this  officer  is 
now  given  the  title  of  Pro  Grand  Master. 
His  collar,  jewel,  and  authority  are  the  same 
as  those  of  a  Grand  Master,  and  in  the  case 
of  a  vacancy  he  actually  assumes  the  office 
until  the  next  annual  election. 

The  following  have  been  Pro  Grand  Mas- 

1782-9,  Earl  of  Effingham. 
1790-1813,  Earl  of  Moira. 
1834-8,  Lord  Dundas. 
1839-40,  Earl  of  Durham. 
1841-3,  Earl  of  Zetland. 
1874-90,  Earl  of  Carnarvon. 
1891-8,  Earl  of  Lathom. 
1898-1908,  Earl  Amherst. 
1908,  Lord  Ampthill. 

Progressive  Masonry.  Freemasonry  is 
undoubtedly  a  progressive  science,  and  yet 
the  fundamental  principles  of  Freemasonry 
are  the  same  now  as  they  were  at  the  very 
beginning  of  the  Institution.  Its  landmarks 
are  unchangeable.  In  these  there  can  be 
no  alteration,  no  diminution,  no  addition. 
When,  therefore,  we  say  that  Freemasonry 
is  progressive  in  its  character,  we  of  course 
do  not  mean  to  allude  to  this  unalterable 
part  of  its  constitution.  But  there  is  a 
progress  which  every  science  must  undergo, 
and  which  many  of  them  have  already 
undergone,  to  which  the  science  of  Free- 
masonry is  subject.  Thus  we  say  of  chem- 
istry that  it  is  a  progressive  science.  Two 
hundred  years  ago,  all  its  principles,  so  far 
as  they  were  known,  were  directed  to  such 
futile  inquiries  as  the  philosopher's  stone 
and  the  elixir  of  immortality.  Now  these 
principles  have  become  more  thoroughly 
understood,  and  more  definitely  established, 
and  the  object  of  their  application  is  more 
noble  and  philosophic.  The  writings  of 
the  chemists  of  the  former  and  the  present 
period  sufficiently  indicate  this  progress  of 
the  science.  And  yet  the  elementary  prin- 
ciples of  chemistry  are  unchangeable.  Its 
truths  were  the  same  then  as  they  are  now. 
Some  of  them  were  at  that  time  unknown, 
because  no  mind  of  sufficient  research  had 
discovered  them;  but  they  existed  as  truths, 
from  the  very  creation  of  matter;  and  now 
they  have  only  been  developed,  not  invented. 

So  it  is  with  Freemasonry.  It  too  has 
had  its  progress.  Masons  are  now  expected 
to  be  more  learned  than  formerly  in  all  that 
relates  to  the  science  of  the  Order.  Its 
origin,  its  history,  its  objects,  are  now  con- 
sidered worthy  of  the  attentive  consideration 
of  its  disciples.  The  rational  explanation  of 
its  ceremonies  and  symbols,  and  their  connec- 
tion with  ancient  systems  of  religion  and 
philosophy,  are  now  considered  as  ne<«8sary 
topics  of  inquiry  for  all  who  desire  to  distin- 
guish themselves  as  proficients  in  Masonic 


In  all  these  things  we  see  a  great  difference 
between  the  Masons  of  the  present  and  of 
former  days.  In  Europe,  a  century  ago, 
such  inquiries  were  considered  as  legitimate 
subjects  of  Masonic  study.  Hutchinson 
published  in  1760,  in  England,  his  admirable 
work  entitled  The  Spirit  of  Freemasonry,  in 
which  the  deep  philosophy  of  the  Institution 
was  fairly  developed  with  much  learning 
and  ingenuity.  Preston's  Illustrations  of 
Masonry,  printed  at  a  not  much  later  period, 
also  exhibits  the  system  treated,  in  many 
places,  in  a  philosophical  manner.  Lawrie's 
History  of  Freemasonry,  published  in  Scotland 
in  1804,  is  a  work  containing  much]  profound 
historical  and  antiquarian  research.  And 
in  the  present  century,  the  works  of  Oliver 
alone  would  be  sufficient  to  demonstrate  to 
the  most  cursory  observer  that  Freemasonry 
has  a  claim  to  be  ranked  among  the  learned  in- 
stitutions of  the  day.  In  Germany  and  France, 
the  press  has  been  borne  down  with  the  weight 
of  abstruse  works  on  our  Order,  written /by 
men  of  the  highest  literary  pretensions. 

In  America,  notwithstanding  the  really 
excellent  work  of  Salem  Town  on  Speculative 
Masonry,  published  in  1818,  and  the  learned 
Discourses  of  Dr.  T.  M.  Harris,  published 
in  1801,  it  is  only  within  a  few  years  that 
Masonry  has  begun  to  assume  the  exalted 
position  of  a  literary  institution. 

Promise.  In  entering  into  the  covenant  of 
Masonry,  the  candidate  makes  a  promise  to 
the  Order;  for  his  covenant  is  simply  a  promise 
where  he  voluntarily  places  himself  under 
a  moral  obligation  to  act  within  certain 
conditions  in  a  particular  way.  The  law  of 
promise  is,  therefore,  strictly  applicable  to 
this  covenant,  and  by  that  law  the  validity 
and  obligation  of  the  promises  of  every  can- 
didate must  be  determined.  In  every 
promise  there  are  two  things  to  be  considered: 
the  intention  and  the  obligation.  As  to  th£ 
intention:  of  all  casuists,  the  Jesuits  alone 
have  contended  that  the  intention  may  .  be 
concealed  within  the  bosom  of  the  promiser. 
All  Christian  and  Pagan  writers  agree  on  the 
principle  that  the  words  expressed  must  con- 
vey their  ordinary  meaning  to  the  promisee. 
If  I  promise  to  do  a  certain  thing  to-morrow, 
I  cannot,  when  the  morrow  comes,  refuse  to 
do  it  on  the  ground  that  I  only  promised  to 
do  it  if  it  suited  me  when  the  time  of  per- 
formance had  arrived.  The  obligation  of 
every  promiser  is,  then,  to  fulfil  the  promise 
that  he  has  made,  not  in  any  way  that  he  may 
have  secretly  intended,  but  in  the  way  in 
which  he  supposes  that  the  one  to  whom  he 
made  it  understood  it  at  the  time  that  it  was 
made.  Hence  all  Masonic  promises  are 
accompanied  by  the  declaration  that  they 
are  given  without  equivocation  or  mental 
reservation  of  any  kind  whatsoever. 

All  voluntary  promises  are  binding,  unless 
there  be  some  paramount  consideration 
which  will  release  the  obligation  of  per- 
formance. It  is  worth  while,  then,  to  in- 
quire if  there  be,  any  such  considerations 
which  can  impair  the  validity  of  Masonic 


promises.  Dr.  Wayland  (Elem.  of  Mar. 
Science,  p.  285)  lays  down  five  conditions  in 
which  promises  are  not  binding:  1.  Where 
the  performance  is  impossible;  2.  Where  the 
promise  is  unlawful;  3.  Where  no  expectation 
is  voluntarily  excited  by  the  promiser :  4. 
Where  they  proceed  upon  a  condition  which 
the  promiser  subsequently  finds  does  not 
exist;  and,  5.  Where  either  of  the  parties  is 
not  a  moral  agent. 

It  is  evident  that  no  one  of  these  condi- 
tions will  apply  to  Masonic  promises,  for, 
1.  Every  promise  made  at  the  altar  of  Ma- 
sonry is  possible  to  be  performed;  2.  No 
promise  is  exacted  that  is  unlawful  in  its 
nature;  for  the  candidate  is  expressly  told 
that  no  promise  exacted  from  him  will  inter- 
fere with  the  duty  which  he  owes  to  God 
and  to  his  country:  3.  An  expectation  is 
voluntarily  excited  by  the  promiser,  and 
that  expectation  is  that  he  will  faithfully 
fulfil  his  part  of  the  covenant;  4.  No  false 
condition  of  things  is  placed  before  the  can- 
didate, either  as  to  the  character  of  the 
Institution  or  the  nature  of  the  duties  which 
would  be  required  of  him;  and,  5.  Both 
parties  to  the  promise,  the  candidate  who 
makes  it  and  the  Craft  to  whom  it  is  made, 
are  moral  agents,  fully  capable  of  entering 
into  a  contract  or  covenant. 

This,  then,  is  the  proper  answer  to  those 
adversaries  of  Freemasonry  who  contend  for 
the  invalidity  of  Masonic  promises  on  the 
very  grounds  of  Wayland  ana  other  moralists. 
Their  conclusions  would  be  correct,  were  it 
not  that  every  one  of  their  premises  is  false. 

Promotion.  Promotion  in  Masonry  should 
not  be  governed,  as  in  other  societies,  by 
succession  of  office.  The  fact  that  one  has 
filled  a  lower  office  gives  him  no  claim  to 
a  higher,  unless  he  is  fitted,  by  skill  and 
capacity,  to  discharge  its  duties  faithfully. 
This  alone  should  be  the  true  basis  of  pro- 
motion.   (See  Preferment.) 

Proofs.  What  the  German  Masons  call 
"proben  und  prufungen,"  trials  and  proofs. 
and  the  French,  "epreuves  Maconniques," 
or  Masonic  proofs,  are  defined  by  Bazot 
(Manuel,  p.  141)  to  be  "mysterious  methods 
of  discovering  the  character  and  disposition 
of  a  redpimdary."  They  are,  in  fact,  those 
ritualistic  ceremonies  of  initiation  which  are 
intended  to  test  the  fortitude  and  fidelity  of 
the  candidate.  They  seem  to  be  confined 
to  continental  Masonry,  for  they  are  not 
known  to  any  extent  in  the  English  or 
American  systems,  where  all  the  ceremonies 
are  purely  symbolic.  Krause  (Kunsturkund. 
i.,  152,  n.  37)  admits  that  no  trace  of  them,  ' 
at  least  in  the  perilous  and  fearful  forms 
which  they  assume  in  the  continental  rituals, 
are  to  be  found  in  the  oldest  English  cate- 
chisms; and  he  admits  that,  as  appealing  to 
the  sentiments  of  fear  and  hope,  and  adopting 
a  dramatic  form,  they  are  contrary  -to  the 
spirit  of  Masonry,  and  greatly  interfere  with 
its  symbolism  and  with  the  pure  and  peace- 
ful sentiments  which  it  is  intended  to  impress 
upon  the  mind  of  the  neophyte. 


Property  of  a  Lodge.  As  a  Lodge  owes 
its  existence,  and  all  the  rights  and  pre- 
rogatives that  it  exercises,  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  from  which  it  derives  its  Charter  or 
Warrant  of  Constitution,  it  has  been  de- 
rided, as  a  principle  of  Masonic  law,  that 
when  such  Lodge  ceases  to  exist,  either  by  a 
withdrawal  or  a  surrender  of  its  Warrant,  all 
the  property  which  it  possessed  at  the  time 
of  its  dissolution  reverts  to  the  Grand  Lodge. 
But  should  the  Lodge  be  restored  by  a  revival 
of  its  Warrant,  its  property  should  be  restored, 
because  the  Grand  Lodge  held  it  only  as  the 
general  trustee  or  guardian  of  the  Craft. 

Prophet.  Haggai,  who  in  the  American 
system  of  the  Royal  Arch  is  called  the  scribe, 
in  the  English  system  receives  the  title  of 
prophet,  and  hence  in  the  order  of  precedence 
he  is  placed  above  the  high  priest. 

Prophets,  Schools  of  the.  See  Schools  of 
{he  Prophets. 

Proponenda.  The  matters  contained  in 
the  "notices  of  motions,"  which  are  required 
by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  England  to  be  sub- 
mitted to  the  members  previous  to  the 
Quarterly  Communication  when  they  are 
to  be  discussed,  are  sometimes  called  the 
proponenda,  or  subjects  to  be  proposed. 

Proposing  Candidates.  The  only  meth- 
od recognized  in  America  of  proposing 
candidates  for  initiation  or  membership  is 
by  the  written  petition  of  the  applicant,  who 
must  at  the  same  time  be  recommended  by 
two  members  of  the  Lodge.  In  England, 
the  applicant  for  initiation  must  previously 
sign  the  declaration,  which  in  America  is 
only  made  after  his  election.  He  is  then 
proposed  by  one  brother,  and,  the  proposition 
being  seconded  by  another,  he  is  balloted  for 
at  the  next  regular  Lodge.  Applicants  for 
membership  are  also  proposed  without 
petition,  but  the  certificate  of  the  former 
Lodge  must  be  produced,  as  in  the  United 
States  the  demit  is  required.  Nor  can  any 
candidate  for  affiliation  be  balloted  for 
unless  previous  notice  of  the  application  be 
given  to  all  the  members  of  the  Lodge. 

Propylseum  (also  Propylon).  The  court 
or  vestibule  in  front  of  an  edifice. 

Proscription.  The  German  Masons  em- 
ploy this  word  in  the  same  sense  in  which 
we  do  expulsion,  as  the  highest  Masonic 
punishment  that  can  be  inflicted.  They 
also  use  the  word  verbannung,  banishment, 
for  the  same  purpose. 

Proselyte  of  Jerusalem.  (ProsSlyte  de 
Jerusalem).  The  Sixty-eighth  Degree  of  the 
Metropolitan  Chapter  of  France. 

Proselytism.  Brahmanism  is,  perhaps, 
the  only  religion  which  is  opposed  to  prose- 
lytism. The  Brahman  seeks  no  convert  to 
bis  faith,  but  is  content  with  that  extension 
of  his  worship  which  is  derived  from  the 
natural  increase  only  of  its  members.  The 
Jewish  Church,  perhaps  one  of  the  most 
exclusive,  and  which  has  always  seemed  in- 
different to  progress,  yet  provided  a  special 
form  of  baptism  for  the  initiation  of  its 
proselytes  into  the  Mosaic  rites. 


Buddhism,  tb.6  great  religion  of  the  Eastern 
world,  which,  notwithstanding  the  opposition 
of  the  leading  Brahmans,  spread  with  amazing 
rapidity  over  the  Oriental  nations,  so  that 
now  it  seems  the  most  popular  religion  of 
the  world,  owes  its  extraordinary  growth  to 
the  energetic  propagandism  of  Safcya-muni, 
its  founder,  and  to  the  same  proselyting 
spirit  which  he  inculcated  upon  his  disciples. 

The  Christian  church,  mindful  of  the 
precept  of  its  Divine  founder,  "Go  ye  into 
all  the  world,  and  preach  the  Gospel  to 
every  creature,"  has  always  considered  the 
work  of  missions  as  one  of  the  most  important 
duties  of  the  Church,  and  owes  its  rapid 
increase,  in  its  earlier  years,  to  the  proselyt- 
ing spirit  of  Paul,  and  Thomas,  and  the  other 

Mohammedanism,  springing  up  and  linger- 
ing for  a  long  time  m  a  single  family,  at 
length  acquired  rapid  growth  among  the 
Oriental  nations,  through  the  energetic 
proselytism  of  the  Prophet  and  his  adherents. 
But  the  proselytism  of  the  religipn  of  the 
New  Testament  and  that  of  the  Koran 
differed  much  in  character.  The  Christian 
made  his  converts  by  persuasive  accents  and 
eloquent  appeals;  the  Mussulman  converted 
his  penitents  by  the  sharp  power  of  the 
sword.  Christianity  was  a  religion  of  peace, 
Mohammedanism  of  war;  yet  each,  though 
pursuing  a  different  method,  was  equally 
energetic  in  securing  converts. 

In  respect  to  this  doctrine  of  proselytism, 
Freemasonry  resembles  more  the  exclusive 
faith  of  Brahma  than  the  inviting  one  of 
Moses,  of  Buddha,  of  Christ,  or  of  Mo- 

In  plain  words,  Freemasonry  is  rigor- 
ously opposed  to  all  proselytism.  While  its 
members  do  not  hesitate,  at  all  proper 
times  and  on  all  fitting  occasions,  to  defend 
the  Institution  from  all  attacks  of  its  enemies, 
it  never  seeks,  by  voluntary  laudation  of 
its  virtues,  to  make  new  accessions  of  friends, 
or  to  add  to  the  number  of  its  disciples. 

Nay,  it  boasts,  as  a  peculiar  beauty  of  its 
system,  that  it  is  a  voluntary  Institution. 
Not  only  does  it  forbid  its  members  to  use 
any  efforts  to  obtain  initiates,  but  actually 
requires  every  candidate  for  admission  into 
its  sacred  rites  to  seriously  declare,  as  a  pre- 

Earatory  step,  that  in  this  voluntary  offer  of 
imself  he  has  been  unbiased  by  the  improper 
solicitations  of  friends.  Without  this  declara- 
tion, lie  candidate  would  be  unsuccessful 
in  his  application.  Although  it  is  required 
that  he  shoud  be  prompted  to  solicit  the 
privilege  by  the  favorable  opinion  which  he 
had  conceived  of  the  Institution,  yet  no 
provision  is  made  by  which  that  opinion 
can  be  inculcated  in  the  minds  of  the  profane; 
for  were  a  Mason,  by  any  praises  of  the  Order, 
or  any  exhibitions  of  its  advantages,  to  in- 
duce anyone  under  such  representations  to 
seek  admission,  he  would  not  only  himself 
commit  a  grievous  fault,  but  woukt  subject 
the  candidate  to  serious  embarrassment  at  the 
very  entrance  of  the  Lodge. 




This  Brahmanical  spirit  of  anti-prosely- 
tism,  in  whieh  Masonry  differs  from  every 
other  association,  has  imprinted  upon  the 
Institution    certain  peculiar  features.  In 
the  first  place,  Freemasonry  thus  becomes, 
in  the  most  positive  form,  a  voluntary  asso- 
ciation.  Whoever  comes  within  its  mystic 
circle,  comes  there  of  his  "own  free  will 
and  accord,  and  unbiased  by  the  influence 
of  friends."    These  are  the  terms  on  which 
he  is  received,  and  to  all  the  legitimate 
consequences  of  this  voluntary  connection 
he  must  submit.   Hence  comes  the  axiom, 
Once  a  Mason,  always  a  Mason":  that  is 
to  say,  no  manj  having  once  been  initiated 
into  its  sacred  rites,  can,  at  his  own  pleasure 
or  caprice,  divest  himself  of  the  obligations 
and  duties  which,  as  a  Mason,  he  has  assumed. 
Coming  to  us  freely  and  willingly,  he  can 
urge  no  claim  for  retirement  on  the  plea 
that  he  was  unduly  persuaded,  or  that  the 
character  of  the  Institution  had  been  falsely 
represented.   To  do  so,  would  be  to  convict 
himself  of  fraud  and  falsehood,  in  the  declara- 
tions made   by   him  preliminary  to  his 
admission.   And  if  these  declarations  were 
indeed  false,  he  at  least  cannot,  under  the 
legal  maxim,  take  advantage  of  his  own 
wrong.   The  knot  which  binds  him  to  the 
Fraternity  has  been  tied  by  himself,  and  is 
indissoluble.   The  renouncing  Mason  may, 
indeed,  withdraw  from  his  connection  with 
a  Lodge,  but  he  cannot  release  himself  from 
his  obligations  to  the  regulation,  which 
requires  every  Mason  to  be  a  member  of  one. 
He  may  abstain  from  all  communication  with 
his  brethren,  and  cease  to  take  any  interest 
in  the  concerns  of  the  Fraternity;  but  he 
is  not  thus  absolved  from  the  performance 
of  any  of  the  duties  imposed  upon  him  by 
his  original  admission  into  the  brotherhood. 
A  proselyte,  persuaded  against  his  will, 
might  claim  his  right  to  withdraw;  but  the 
voluntary  seeker  must  take  and  hold  what 
he  finds. 

Another  result  of  this  anti-proselyting 
spirit  of  the  Institution  is,  to  relieve  its 
members  from  all  undue  anxiety  to  increase 
its  membership.  It  is  not  to  be  supposed  1Jiat 
Masons  have  not  the  very  natural  desire 
to  see  the  growth  of  their  Order.  Toward 
this  end,  they  are  ever  ready  to  defend  its 
character  when  attacked,  to  extol  its  virtues, 
and  to  maintain  its  claims  to  the  confidence 
and  approval  of  the  wise  and  good.  But  the 
growth  they  wish  is  not  that  abnormal  one, 
derived  from  «idden,  revivals  or  ephemeral 
enthusiasm,  where  passion  too  often  takes 
the  place  of  judgment;  but  that  slow  and 
steady,  and  therefore  healthy,  growth  which 
comes  from  the  adhesion  of  wise  and  virtuous 
and  thoughtful  men>  who  are  willing  to 

Ioin  the  brotherhood,  that  they  may  the 
>etter  labor  for  the  good  of  their  fellow-men. 

Thus  it  is  that  we  find  the  addresses  of 
our  Grand  Masters,  the  reports  of  our  com- 
mittees on  foreign  correspondence,  and  the 
speeches  of  our  anniversary  orators,  annually 
denouncing  the  too  rapid  increase  of  the 

Order,  as  something  calculated  to  affect  its 
stability  and  usefulness. 

And  hence,  too,  the  black  ball,  that  an- 
tagonist of  proselytism,  has  been  long  and 
familiarly  called  the  bulwark  of  Masonry. 
Its  faithful  use  is  ever  being  inculcated  by 
the  fathers  of  the  Order  upon  its  younger 
members;  and  the  unanimous  ballot  is 
universally  admitted  to  be  the  most  effectual 
means  of  preserving  the  purity  of  the  In- 

And  so,  this  spirit  of  anti-proselytism, 
impressed  upon  every  Mason  from  his 
earhest  initiation,  although  not  itself  a 
landmark,  has  Come  to  be  invested  with  all 
the  sacredness  of  such  a  law,  and  Free- 
masonry stands  out  alone,  distinct  from  every 
other  human  association,  and  proudly  pro- 
claims, "Our  portals  are  open  to  all  the 
good  and  true,  but  we  ask  no  man  to  enter." 

Protector  of  English  Freemasons.  A 
title  assumed  by  King  Edward  VII.  on  his 
accession  to  the  throne  of  England  in  1901. 

Protector  of  Innocence.  (Protecieur  de 
I  Innocence.)  A  degree  in  the  nomenclature 
of  Fustier,  cited  by  him  from  the  collection 
of  Viany. 

Protocol.  In  French,  the  formulas  or  tech- 
nical words  of  legal  instruments;  in  Ger- 
many, the  rough  draft  of  an  instrument  or 
transaction;  in  diplomacy,  the  original  copy 
pf  a  treaty.  Gatficke  says  that,  in  Masonic 
language,  the  protocol  is  the  rough  minutes 
of  a  Lodge.  The  word  is  used  in  this  sense 
m  Germany  only. 
Prototype.  The  same  as  Archetype,  which 

Provincial  Grand  Lodge.  In  each  of  the 
counties  of   England  is  a  Grand  Lodge 
composed  of  the  various  Lodges  within  that 
district,  with  the  Provincial  Grand  Master 
at  their  head,  and  this  body  is  called  a 
Provincial  Grand  Lodge.   It  derives  its 
existence,  not  from  a  Warrant,  but  from  the 
Patent  granted  to  the  Provincial  Grand 
Master  by  the  Grand  Master,  and  at  his 
death,  resignation,  or  removal,  it  becomes 
extinct,  unless  the  Provincial  Grand  Regis- 
trar keeps  up  its  existence  by  presiding  over 
the  province  until  the  appointment  of  another 
Provincial  Grand  Master,   Its  authority  is 
confined  to  the  framing  of  by-laws,  making 
regulations,  hearing  disputes,  etc.,  but  no 
absolute  sentence  can  be  promulgated  by 
its  authority  without  a  reference  tothe  Grand 
Lodge.    Hence    Oliver    (Jurisprud.,  272) 
says  that  a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge  "has  a 
shadow  of  power,  but  very  little  substance. 
It  may  talk,  but  it  cannot  act."   The  system 
does  not  exist  in  the  United  States.  In 
England  and  Ireland  the  Provincial  Grand 
Master  is  appointed  by  the  Grand  Master, 
but  in  Scotland  his  commission  emanates 
from  the  Grand  Lodge. 

Provincial  Grand  Master.  The  presiding 
officer  of  a  Provincial  Grand  Lodge.   He  is 

appointed  by  the  Grand  Master,  during  whose 
i  his  office.   An  appeal  lies 

easure  he  holds  ™,  „.          „.„  al>^ 

:  rom  his  decisions  to  the  Grand  Lodge. 




Provincial  Grand  Officers.  The  officers 
of  Vftovklcial  Grand  Lodge  correspond  m 
title  to  those  of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The 
Provincial  Grand  Treasurer  fc  electel,  but 
STtLer  officers  are  nommated  by  the 
Provincial  Grand  Master.  They  are  not 
bv  such  appointment  members  of  the  Grand 
Krnordo  .they  take  any  rank  out  of 
^  province.  They  must  all  be  residents 
KePprovmce  and  subBcribmg  members  to 
some  Lodge  therein.  Provmc^  GrancV Ward- 
s' vmA  be  Masters  or  Past  Masters  of 
a  Lodge,  and  Provincial  Grand  Deacons, 
Wardens,  or  Past  Wardens.  _ 

plSctol  Master  of  tbe  Red, Cross. 
ThYSiSh  Degree  of  the  Bite  of  Clerks  of 

^oSfandW.  CM*  -  « 

The  Seventh  Degree  of  lie  Ancient  and 
Accepted  Scottish  Rite.  The  history  of 
the  degree  relates  that  it  was  founded  by 
Solomon,  King  of  Israel,  for  the  purpose  of 
strengthening^  means  of  preserving  order 
among  the  vast  number  of  craftsmen .en- 
gaged  in  the  construction  of  the  Temple. 
Tito,  Prince  Harodhn,  Adomram,  and  Abda 
his  father,  were  first  created  Provosts  and 
Judges,  who  were  afterward  directed  by 
sXlnon  to  initiate  his  favorite  and  intimate 
secretary,  Jo&bert,  and  to  give  him  the  keys 
tfafS  building.  ?»tbe^dnW^ 
Master  of  a  Lodge  of  Provosts  and  Judges 
represents  Tito,  Prince  Harodim,  the  first 
Grand  Warden  and  inspector  of  the  three 
hundred  architects.   The  number  of  lighta 
is  six,  and  the  symbolic  color  is  red.  In  the 
more  recent  ritual  of  the  Southern  Juris- 
diction of  the  United  States  there  has  been 
a  slight  change.  The  legend  is  substantially 
preserved,  but  the  presidmg  officer  represents 
Azarias,  the  son  of  Nathan.  . 

The  jewel  is  a  golden  key,  having  the  letter 
A  within  a  triangle  engraved  on  the  ward. 
The  collar  is  red.  The  apron  is  white,  toed 
with  red,  and  is  furnished  with  a  pocket. 

This  was  one  of  Ramsay's  degrees,  and 
was  originally  called  Matire  Irlandai*,  or 
Irish  Master.  ,  ..  » 

Proxy  Installation.  The  Regulations  of 
1721  provide  that,  if  the  new  Grand  Master 
be  absent  from  the  Grand  Feast,  he  may  be 
OTodaimed  if  proper  assurance s  be  given  that 
he  Will  serve,  in  which  case  the  old  Grand 
Master  shall  act  as  his  proxy  and  receive 
the  usual  homage.  This  has  led  to  a  custom, 
once  very  common  rn  America,  but  now 
•jetting  into  disuse,  of  installing  an  absent 
TSr  by  proxy.  Such  installations  .are 
called  proxy  installations.  Their  propriety 

fa&qUMtStertlein  the.  Grand  Lodge  of 
Scotland,  a  Lodge  is  permitted  to  elect  any 
Master  Mason  who  holds  a  diploimvof  the 
Grand  Lodge,  although  he  may  not  be  a 
member  of  the  Lodge,  as  iU  Proxy  Master 
He  nominates  two  Proxy  Wardens,  ™ 
three  then  become  members  of  the  Grand 
Lodge  and  representatives t  of  the  Lodge. 
Gre|t  opposition  has  recently  been  made  to  | 

this  system,  because  by  it  a  Lodge  w  often 
represented  by  brethren  who  are  in  noway 
connoted  with  it,  who  never  were  present 
at  any  of  its  meetings,  and  who  are  per- 
sonally unknown  to  any  of  its  members.  A 
Sr-^tan  prevailed  in  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  South  Carolina,  but  was,  after  a  hard 
struggle,  abolished,  in  1860,  at  the  adoption 
of  a  new  Constitution.  _jwi 
Prudence.  This  is  one  of  the  four  cardinal 
virtues,  the  practise  of  wHch  w  inculcated 
upSthe ^Entered  Apprentice.  Preston  first 
irSodueed  it  into  the  degree  as  rrfernngto 
What  was  then,  and  long  before  had  been 
eaUed  ^e  four  principal  signs,  but  which  are 
nw  known  as  &e  perfect  points  of  entrance. 
Preston's  eulogium  on  prudence  differs  rrom 
tffiSed  inlKures  of  this  country,  which 
was  composed  by  Webb.   It  is  in  these 
words:  "Prudence  is  the  true  guide  to  human 
understanding,  and  consists  in  judgmr  and 
determining  with  propriety  what  is  to  De 
said  or  done  upon  all  our  occasions,  what 
dangers  we  should  endeavor  to  avoid,  and 
how  to  act  in  all  our  difficulties."  Webbs 
definition,  which  is  much  better,  may  be 
found  in  all  the  Monitors.  The  Masonic 
reference  of  prudence  to  the  manual  point 
reminds  us  of  the  classic  method  of  repre- 
senting her  statutes  with  a  rule  or  measure 

Prussia.  "  Frederick  William  I.  of  Prussia 
was  so  great  an  enemy  of  me  Masonic  in- 
stitution; that  until  his  death  it  was  scarcely 
known  in  his  dominions,  and  themitiation, 
in  1738,  of  his  son,  the  Crown  Prince,  was 
necessarily  kept  a  secret  from  his  fattier.  But 
in  1740  Frederick  II.  ascended  the  throne, 
and  Masonry  soon  felt  the  advantages  of 
a  royal  patron.  The  Baron  de  Bielefeld 
says  (Lettres,  i..  157)  that  m  that  year  the 
king  himself  opened  a  Lodge  at  Charlotten- 
burtc,  and  initiated  his  broker,  Prince 
Wiffiam,  the  Margrave  of  Brandenburg,  and 
the  Duke  of  Hofetein-Beck.  Bielefeld  and 
the  Counselor  Jordan,  in  1740,  established 
the  Lodge  of  the  Three  Globes  at  Berlin, 
which  soon  afterward  assumed  the  rank  of  a 
Grand  .Lodge.  There  are  now  in  Prassia 
three  Grand  Lodges,  the  seats  of  all  of  them 
being  at  Berlin.  These  are  the  Grand  Lodge 
of  the  Three  Globes,  established  in  1740,  the 
Grand  Lodge  Royal  York  of  Friendship. 
SlishedT  1760,  and  the  National  Grand 
Lodge  of  Germany,  established  in  1770. 
There  is  no  country  m  the  world  where 
Freemasonry  is  more  profoundly  rtudied as 
a  science  than  in  Prussia,  and  much  of  the 
abstruse  learning  of  the  Order/  for  which 
Germany  has  been  distinguished,  w  to  De 
S^mong  the  members  of  the  Prussian 
L^ges    Unfortunately,  they  have   for  a 
k^Time,  been  marked  witn  .an  intolerant 
spirit  toward  the  Jews,  whose  initiation  was 
strictly  forbidden  untii  very  recently,  ^ when 
that  stain  was  removed,  and  the  toterant 
principles  of  the  Order  were  recognized  by 
the  abrogation  of  the  offensive  laws. 
Prussian  Knight.  See  NoackUe, 




^w*61?*^8*  J"  se^  of  ^ans  who  main. 

j  •    ,    r  ~         "oy.u  "l  Aiiaiis  wno  main- 

Sfi*  rtf  ^  was  dlsslmilar  to  the  Father  m 
will,  that  He  was  made  from  nothing;  and 
that  in  God,  creation  and  generation  were 
synonymous  terms. 

Con?f^I?7m-+  A  false  °r  fictitious  name. 
Continental  writers  on  Freemasonry  in  the 

last  century  often  assumed  fictitious  names, 
Sft  from. affectation,  and  sometimes 
3f  the  subjects  they  treated  were  un- 
popular:  with _the  government  or  the  church, 
inus,  Carl  Rossler  wrote  under  the  pseu- 
donym of  Acerrellas,  Arthuseus  under  that 
of  Irenasus  Agnostus,  GuiUemain  de  St. 
Victor  under  .that  of  De  GaminvUle  or 
Querard,  Louis  Travenol  under  that  of 
Leonard  Gabanon,  etc. 
The  IUuminati  also  introduced  the  custom 

was  not  confined  to  the  IUuminati,  for  we 
find  many  books  published  at  Paris,  Berlin, 
etc.,  with  the  fictitious  imprint  of  Jerusa^ 
lem,  Cosmopohs,  LatomopoKs,  Philadelphia, 
Edessa,  etc.  This  practise  has  long  since 
been  abandoned. 

Publications,  Masonic.  The  fact  that, 
within  the  past  few  years,  Freemasonry  has 
taken  its  place— and  an  imposing  one,  too— 
m  the  literature  of  the  timesfthat  men  of 
genius  and  learning  have  devoted  themselves 
to  its  investigation;  that  its  principles  and 
its  system  nave  become  matters  of  study  and 
research;  and  that  the  results  of  this  labor 
of  mquu-y  have  been  given,  and  still  con- 
tinue to  be  given,  to  the  world  at  large,  in  the 
form  of  treatises  on  Masonic  science,  have 
at  length  introduced  the  new  question  among 
the  Fraternity,  whether  Masonic  books  are 
of  good  or  of  evil  tendency  to  the  Institution. 
Many  well-meaning  but  timid  members  of 
the  Fraternity  object  to  the  freedom  with 
which  Masonic  topics  are  discussed  in  printed 
works.   They  think  that  the  veil  is  too  much 
withdrawn  by  modern  Masonic  writers,  and 
that  all  doctrine  and  instruction  should  be 
confined  to  oral  teaching,  within  the  limits 
of  the  Lodge  room.   Hence,  to  them,  the 
art  of  printing  becomes  useless  for  the  diffu- 
sion of  Masonic  knowledge;  and  thus,  what- 
ever may  be  the  attainments  of  a  Masonic 
scholar  the  fruits  of  his  study  and  experience 
would  be  confined  to  the  narrow  limits  of 
his  personal  presence.    Such  objectors  draw 
no  distinction  between  the  ritual  and  the 
philosophy^  Masonry    Like  the  old  priests 
ot  igypt,  they  would  have  everything  con- 

«n™  +vU-lder,  k^yPhics,  and  would  as 
soon  think  of  opening  a  Lodge  in  public  as 

Jfcwdi°f  ^T1?8'  in  a  P™**1  book. 

Tl?r?.Clplei  daV&.  of  the  Institution! 
_  The  Grand  Lodge  of  England,  some  years 
ago,  adopted  a  regulation  which  declared  it 
penal  to  print  or  publish  any  part  of  the 
proceedings  of  a  Lodge  or  the  n^nes  of  the 
persons  present  at  such  a  Lodge,  without 

the  permission  of  the  Grand  Master.  The 
rule,  however,  evidently  referred  to  local 
P™f?lmF  onlvJ.and  had  no  relation  what- 
STiSv  of  Masonic  authors 

ZnJ^A  '  Masonic  press, 

Bmoe  the  days  of  Hutchinson,  in  the  Middle^ 

fL  +Lt  LSentUry'  nas  been  distinguished 
for  the  freedom,  as  well  as  learning,  with 
which  the  most  abstruse  principles  of  our 
uraer  have  been  discussed. 
Fourteen  years  ago  the  Committee  of 

rwf\  9orres£ondeilce,  of  a  Prominent 
Orand  Lodge  affirmed  that  Masonic  litera- 
ture was  doing  more  "harm  than  good  to 
the  Institution."   About  the  same  time  the 

rS!reA€S  an0ther  "S^y  Prominent 
C-rand  Lodge  were  not  ashamed  to  express 
their  regret  that  so  much  prominence  of 
notice  is,  "in  several  Grand  Lodge  proceed- 
ings, given  to  Masonic  publications.  Ma- 
sonry existed  and  flourished,  was  harmo- 
m°ns  and  happy,  in  their  absence." 

When  one  reads  such  diatribes  against 
Masonic  literature  and  Masonic  progress- 
such  bbnd  efforts  to  hide  under  the  bushel 
the  light  that  should  be  on  the  hill-top— 
he  is  incontinently  reminded  of  a  similar 
iconoclast,  who,  more  than  four  centuries 
ago,  made  a  like  onslaught  on  the  pernicious 
effects  of  learning. 

The  immortal  Jack  Cade,  in  Condemning 
Lord  Say  to  death  as  a  patron  of  learning 
gave  vent  to  words  of  which  the  language 
of  these  enemies  of  Masonic  literature  seems 
to  be  but  the  echo: 

"Thou  hast  most  traitorously  corrupted 
the  youth  of  the  realm,  in  erecting  a  gram- 
mar-school; and  whereas,  before,  our  fore- 
fathers had  no  other  books  but  the  score 
ana  the  tally,  thou  hast  caused  printing  to 
be  used;  and  contrary  to  the  king,  his  crown, 
and  dignity,  thou  hast  built  a  paper-mill. 
It  will  be  proved  to  thy  face  that  thou  hast 
men  about  thee  that  usually  talk  of  a  noun 
and  a  verb,  and  such  abominable  words  as 
no  Christian  ear  can  endure  to  hear." 

I  belong  to  no  such  school.   On  the  con- 
trary, I  believe  that  too  much  cannot  be 
written  and  printed  and  read  about  the  phi- 
losophy and  history,  the  science  and  sym- 
bolism of  Freemasonry;  provided  always  the 
writing  is  confided  to  those  who  rightly 
understand  their  art.     In  Masonry,  as  in 
astronomy,  in  geology,  or  in  any  other  of 
the  arts  and  sciences,  a  new  book  by  an 
expert  must  always  be  esteemed  a  valuable 
contribution.    The  production  of  silly  and 
untutored  minds  will  fall  of  themselves  into 
oblivion  without  the  aid  of  official  perse- 
cution; but  that  which  is  really  valuable— 
which  presents  new  facts,  or  furnishes  <mg-  - 
gestiye  thoughts— will,  in  spite  of  the  de- 
nunciations of  the  Jack  Cades  of  Masonry, 
live  to  instruct  the  brethren,  and  to  elevate 
thetone  and  standing  of  the  Institution. 

Dr.  Oliver,  who  has  written  more  on  Ma. 
sonry  than  any  other  author,  says  on  this 
subject:  "I  conceive  it  to  be  an  error  in 
judgment  to  discountenance  the  publication 


of  philosophical  disquisitions  on  the  sub- 
ject of  Freemasonry,  because  such  a  pro- 
ceeding would  not  only  induce  the  world 
to  think  that  our  pretensions  are  incapable 
of  enduring  the  test  of  inquiry,  but  would 
also  have  a  tendency  to  restore  the  dark 
ages  of  superstition,  when  even  the  sacred 
writings  were  prohibited,  under  an  appre- 
hension that  their  contents  might  be  mis- 
understood or  perverted  to  the  propagation 
of  unsound  doctrines  and  pernicious  prac- 
tices; and  thus  would  ignorance  be  trans- 
mitted, as  a  legacy,  from  one  generation 
to  another." 

Still  further  pursuing  this  theme,  and 
passing  from  the  unfavorable  influence  which 
must  be  exerted  upon  the  world  by  our 
silence,  to  the  injury  that  must  accrue  to 
the  Craft,  the  same  learned  writer  goes  on 
to  say,  that  "no  hypotheses  can  be  more 
untenable  than  that  which  forebodes  evil  to 
the  Masonic  Institution  from  the  publica- 
tion of  Masonic  treatises  illustrative  of  its 
philosophical  and  moral  tendency."  And 
in  view  of  the  meager  and  unsatisfactory 
nature  of  the  lectures,  in  the  form  in  which 
they  are  delivered  in  the  Lodges,  he  wisely 
suggests  that  "if  strictures  on  the  science 
and  philosophy  of  the  Order  were  placed 
within  every  brother's  reach,  a  system  of 
examination  and  research  would  soon  be 
substituted  for  the  dull  and  uninteresting 
routine  which,  in  so  many  instances,  char- 
acterizes our  private  meetings.  The  breth- 
ren would  become  excited  by  "tlie  mquiry,